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1.
Malar J ; 21(1): 161, 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35658961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is often assumed that the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus, its role in malaria transmission and the way it responds to interventions are similar to the more elaborately characterized Anopheles gambiae. However, An. funestus has several unique ecological features that could generate distinct transmission dynamics and responsiveness to interventions. The objectives of this work were to develop a model which will: (1) reconstruct the population dynamics, survival, and fecundity of wild An. funestus populations in southern Tanzania, (2) quantify impacts of density dependence on the dynamics, and (3) assess seasonal fluctuations in An. funestus demography. Through quantifying the population dynamics of An. funestus, this model will enable analysis of how their stability and response to interventions may differ from that of An. gambiae sensu lato. METHODS: A Bayesian State Space Model (SSM) based on mosquito life history was fit to time series data on the abundance of female An. funestus sensu stricto collected over 2 years in southern Tanzania. Prior values of fitness and demography were incorporated from empirical data on larval development, adult survival and fecundity from laboratory-reared first generation progeny of wild caught An. funestus. The model was structured to allow larval and adult fitness traits to vary seasonally in response to environmental covariates (i.e. temperature and rainfall), and for density dependency in larvae. The effects of density dependence and seasonality were measured through counterfactual examination of model fit with or without these covariates. RESULTS: The model accurately reconstructed the seasonal population dynamics of An. funestus and generated biologically-plausible values of their survival larval, development and fecundity in the wild. This model suggests that An. funestus survival and fecundity annual pattern was highly variable across the year, but did not show consistent seasonal trends either rainfall or temperature. While the model fit was somewhat improved by inclusion of density dependence, this was a relatively minor effect and suggests that this process is not as important for An. funestus as it is for An. gambiae populations. CONCLUSION: The model's ability to accurately reconstruct the dynamics and demography of An. funestus could potentially be useful in simulating the response of these populations to vector control techniques deployed separately or in combination. The observed and simulated dynamics also suggests that An. funestus could be playing a role in year-round malaria transmission, with any apparent seasonality attributed to other vector species.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Tanzânia
2.
Malar J ; 21(1): 156, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641958

RESUMO

There are increasing reports of the Asian malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi invading and spreading in Eastern Africa. We discuss the importance of these invasions in the context of broader challenges facing malaria control in Africa and argue against addressing it as an isolated problem. Anopheles stephensi is only one of multiple biological threats facing malaria control in the region-and is itself an indication of wide-ranging weaknesses in vector surveillance and control programs. Expanded investigations are needed in both urban and rural areas, especially in countries serviced by the Indian Ocean trade routes, to establish the full extent and future trajectories of the problem. More importantly, instead of tackling this vector species as a stand-alone threat, affected countries should adopt more integrated and multi-sectorial initiatives that can sustainably drive and keep out malaria.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , África , África Oriental , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia
3.
Malar J ; 21(1): 180, 2022 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrient acquisition and allocation integrate foraging and life-history traits in insects. To compensate for the lack of a particular nutrient at different life stages, insects may acquire these through supplementary feeding, for example, on vertebrate secretions, in a process known as puddling. The mosquito Anopheles arabiensis emerges undernourished, and as such, requires nutrients for both metabolism and reproduction. The purpose of this study was to assess whether An. arabiensis engage in puddling on cattle urine to obtain nutrients to improve life history traits. METHODS: To determine whether An. arabiensis are attracted to the odour of fresh, 24 h, 72 h and 168 h aged cattle urine, host-seeking and blood-fed (48 h post-blood meal) females were assayed in a Y-tube olfactometer, and gravid females assessed in an oviposition assay. Combined chemical and electrophysiological analyses were subsequently used to identify the bioactive compounds in all four age classes of cattle urine. Synthetic blends of bioactive compounds were evaluated in both Y-tube and field assays. To investigate the cattle urine, and its main nitrogenous compound, urea, as a potential supplementary diet for malaria vectors, feeding parameters and life history traits were measured. The proportion of female mosquitoes and the amount of cattle urine and urea imbibed, were assessed. Following feeding, females were evaluated for survival, tethered flight and reproduction. RESULTS: Host-seeking and blood-fed An. arabiensis were attracted to the natural and synthetic odour of fresh and aged cattle urine in both laboratory and field studies. Gravid females were indifferent in their response to cattle urine presence at oviposition sites. Host-seeking and blood-fed females actively imbibed cattle urine and urea, and allocated these resources according to life history trade-offs to flight, survival or reproduction, as a function of physiological state. CONCLUSIONS: Anopheles arabiensis acquire and allocate cattle urine to improve life history traits. Supplementary feeding on cattle urine affects vectorial capacity directly by increasing daily survival and vector density, as well as indirectly by altering flight activity, and thus should be considered in future models.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Traços de História de Vida , Malária , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Bovinos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Ureia
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(23): e2112385119, 2022 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648836

RESUMO

Anopheline mosquitoes rely on their highly sensitive chemosensory apparatus to detect diverse chemical stimuli that drive the host-seeking and blood-feeding behaviors required to vector pathogens for malaria and other diseases. This process incorporates a variety of chemosensory receptors and transduction pathways. We used advanced in vivo gene-editing and -labeling approaches to localize and functionally characterize the ionotropic coreceptor AcIr76b in the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii, where it impacts both olfactory and gustatory systems. AcIr76b has a broad expression pattern in female adult antennal grooved pegs, coeloconic sensilla, and T1 and T2 sensilla on the labellum, stylets, and tarsi, as well as the larval sensory peg. AcIr76b is colocalized with the Orco odorant receptor (OR) coreceptor in a subset of cells across the female antennae and labella. In contrast to Orco and Ir8a, chemosensory coreceptors that appear essential for the activity of their respective sets of chemosensory neurons in mosquitoes, AcIr76b−/− mutants maintain wild-type peripheral responses to volatile amines on the adult palps, labellum, and larval sensory cone. Interestingly, AcIr76b−/− mutants display significantly increased responses to amines in antennal grooved peg sensilla, while coeloconic sensilla reveal significant deficits in responses to several acids and amines. Behaviorally, AcIr76b mutants manifest significantly female-specific insemination deficits, and although AcIr76b−/− mutant females can locate, alight on, and probe artificial blood hosts, they are incapable of blood feeding successfully. Taken together, our findings reveal a multidimensional functionality of Ir76b in anopheline olfactory and gustatory pathways that directly impacts the vectorial capacity of these mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Comportamento Alimentar , Malária , Mosquitos Vetores , Receptores Ionotrópicos de Glutamato , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Anopheles/fisiologia , Sangue , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Receptores Ionotrópicos de Glutamato/genética , Receptores Ionotrópicos de Glutamato/fisiologia , Sensilas/fisiologia , Olfato
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0010478, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vector surveillance is an essential public health tool to aid in the prediction and prevention of mosquito borne diseases. This study compared spatial and temporal trends of vector surveillance indices for Aedes vectors in the southern Philippines, and assessed potential links between vector indices and climate factors. METHODS: We analysed routinely collected larval and pupal surveillance data from residential areas of 14 cities and 51 municipalities during 2013-2018 (House, Container, Breteau and Pupal Indices), and used linear regression to explore potential relationships between vector indices and climate variables (minimum temperature, maximum temperature and precipitation). RESULTS: We found substantial spatial and temporal variation in monthly Aedes vector indices between cities during the study period, and no seasonal trend apparent. The House (HI), Container (CI) and Breteau (BI) Indices remained at comparable levels across most surveys (mean HI = 15, mean CI = 16, mean BI = 24), while the Pupal Productivity Index (PPI) was relatively lower in most months (usually below 5) except for two main peak periods (mean = 49 overall). A small proportion of locations recorded high values across all entomological indices in multiple surveys. Each of the vector indices were significantly correlated with one or more climate variables when matched to data from the same month or the previous 1 or 2 months, although the effect sizes were small. Significant associations were identified between minimum temperature and HI, CI and BI in the same month (R2 = 0.038, p = 0.007; R2 = 0.029, p = 0.018; and R2 = 0.034, p = 0.011, respectively), maximum temperature and PPI with a 2-month lag (R2 = 0.031, p = 0.032), and precipitation and HI in the same month (R2 = 0.023, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that larval and pupal surveillance indices were highly variable, were regularly above the threshold for triggering vector control responses, and that vector indices based on household surveys were weakly yet significantly correlated with city-level climate variables. We suggest that more detailed spatial and temporal analyses of entomological, climate, socio-environmental and Aedes-borne disease incidence data are necessary to ascertain the most effective use of entomological indices in guiding vector control responses, and reduction of human disease risk.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Larva , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Filipinas/epidemiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8646, 2022 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35606505

RESUMO

Widespread insecticide resistance in African malaria vectors raises concerns over the potential to compromise malaria vector control interventions. Understanding the evolution of resistance mechanisms, and whether the selective disadvantages are large enough to be useful in resistance management or designing suitable control strategies is crucial. This study assessed whether insecticide resistance to pyrethroids has an effect on the gonotrophic cycle and reproductive potential of malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Comparative tests were performed with pyrethroid-resistant and susceptible colonies of Anopheles gambiae colonized from the same geographical area, and the reference Kisumu strain was used as a control. Adult females aged 3 days old were given a blood meal and kept separately for individual egg-laying. The number of days taken to lay eggs post-blood-feeding was recorded to determine the length of the gonotrophic cycle. To measure adult longevity and reproduction potential, newly emerged males and females of equal numbers were aspirated into a cage and females allowed to blood feed daily. The number of eggs laid and the surviving mosquitoes were recorded daily to determine fecundity, net reproduction rate, intrinsic growth rate and adult longevity. Overall, the resistant females had a significantly longer (1.8 days) gonotrophic cycle than susceptible females (F2, 13 = 9. 836, P < 0.01). The proportion of resistant females that laid eggs was lower 31.30% (94/300) compared to 54% (162/300) in the susceptible colony and 65.7% (197/300) in the Kisumu strain. The mean number of eggs laid per female was significantly lower in the resistant colony (88.02 ± 20) compared to the susceptible colony (104.9 ± .28.8) and the Kisumu strain (97.6 ± 34.8). The adult longevity was significantly higher for resistant (39.7 ± 1.6 days) compared to susceptible (29.9 ± 1.7 days) and the Kisumu strain was (29.6 ± 1.1 days) (F2,8 = 45.05, P < 0.0001). Resistant colony exhibited a lower fecundity (4.3 eggs/females/day) and net reproductive rate (2.6 offsprings/female/generation) compared to the susceptible colony (8.6 eggs/female/day; 4.7 offsprings/female/generation respectively) and Kisumu strain (9.7 eggs/female/day; 4.1 offsprings/female/generation respectively). The study suggests high fitness cost on reproductive parameters of pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes particularly on the duration of gonotrophic cycle, fecundity and net reproductive rate. These fitness costs are likely associated with maintaining both target site and metabolic mechanisms of resistance to pyrethroids. Despite these costs, resistant mosquitoes had longer longevity. These results give insights to understanding the fitness cost of insecticide resistance and thus are critical when predicting the epidemiological impact of insecticide resistance.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Aptidão Genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas , Longevidade , Malária , Animais , Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Anopheles/fisiologia , Feminino , Aptidão Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Aptidão Genética/fisiologia , Resistência a Inseticidas/fisiologia , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Longevidade/fisiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia
7.
J Exp Biol ; 225(11)2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502753

RESUMO

Sleep is an evolutionarily conserved process that has been described in different animal systems. For insects, sleep characterization has been primarily achieved using behavioral and electrophysiological correlates in a few systems. Sleep in mosquitoes, which are important vectors of disease-causing pathogens, has not been directly examined. This is surprising as circadian rhythms, which have been well studied in mosquitoes, influence sleep in other systems. In this study, we characterized sleep in mosquitoes using body posture analysis and behavioral correlates, and quantified the effect of sleep deprivation on sleep rebound, host landing and blood-feeding propensity. Body and appendage position metrics revealed a clear distinction between the posture of mosquitoes in their putative sleep and awake states for multiple species, which correlated with a reduction in responsiveness to host cues. Sleep assessment informed by these posture analyses indicated significantly more sleep during periods of low activity. Night-time and daytime sleep deprivation resulting from the delivery of vibration stimuli induced sleep rebound in the subsequent phase in day and night active mosquitoes, respectively. Lastly, sleep deprivation suppressed host landing in both laboratory and field settings, and impaired blood feeding of a human host when mosquitoes would normally be active. These results suggest that quantifiable sleep states occur in mosquitoes and highlight the potential epidemiological importance of mosquito sleep.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Animais , Culicidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Sono , Privação do Sono
8.
Nature ; 605(7911): 706-712, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508661

RESUMO

A globally invasive form of the mosquito Aedes aegypti specializes in biting humans, making it an efficient disease vector1. Host-seeking female mosquitoes strongly prefer human odour over the odour of animals2,3, but exactly how they distinguish between the two is not known. Vertebrate odours are complex blends of volatile chemicals with many shared components4-7, making discrimination an interesting sensory coding challenge. Here we show that human and animal odours evoke activity in distinct combinations of olfactory glomeruli within the Ae. aegypti antennal lobe. One glomerulus in particular is strongly activated by human odour but responds weakly, or not at all, to animal odour. This human-sensitive glomerulus is selectively tuned to the long-chain aldehydes decanal and undecanal, which we show are consistently enriched in human odour and which probably originate from unique human skin lipids. Using synthetic blends, we further demonstrate that signalling in the human-sensitive glomerulus significantly enhances long-range host-seeking behaviour in a wind tunnel, recapitulating preference for human over animal odours. Our research suggests that animal brains may distil complex odour stimuli of innate biological relevance into simple neural codes and reveals targets for the design of next-generation mosquito-control strategies.


Assuntos
Aedes , Encéfalo , Comportamento de Busca por Hospedeiro , Odorantes , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia
9.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 51: 100920, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421621

RESUMO

The increasing incidence of arboviral diseases in tropical endemic areas and their emergence in new temperate countries is one of the most important challenges that Public Health agencies are currently facing. Because mosquitoes are poikilotherms, shifts in temperature influence physiological functions besides egg viability. These traits impact not only vector density, but also their interaction with their hosts and arboviruses. As such the relationship among mosquitoes, arboviral diseases and temperature is complex. Here, we summarize current knowledge on the thermal biology of Aedes invasive mosquitoes, highlighting differences among species. We also emphasize the need to expand knowledge on the variability in thermal sensitivity across populations within a species, especially in light of climate change that encompasses increase not only in mean environmental temperature but also in the frequency of hot and cold snaps. Finally, we suggest a novel experimental approach to investigate the molecular architecture of thermal adaptation in mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Aedes , Infecções por Arbovirus , Arbovírus , Animais , Biologia , Mudança Climática , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266420, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal nets are an effective tool in reducing malaria transmission. However, with increasing insecticide resistance little is known about how physiologically resistant malaria vectors behave around a human-occupied bed net, despite their importance in malaria transmission. We used the Mbita bednet trap to assess the host-seeking behavior of insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes under semi-field conditions. The trap incorporates a mosquito netting panel which acts as a mechanical barrier that prevents host-seeking mosquitoes from reaching the human host baiting the trap. METHODS: Susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant colonies of female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes aged 3-5 days old were used in this study. The laboratory-bred mosquitoes were color-marked with fluorescent powders and released inside a semi-field environment where a human subject slept inside a bednet trap erected in a traditional African hut. The netting panel inside the trap was either untreated (control) or deltamethrin-impregnated. The mosquitoes were released outside the hut. Only female mosquitoes were used. A window exit trap was installed on the hut to catch mosquitoes exiting the hut. A prokopack aspirator was used to collect indoor and outdoor resting mosquitoes. In addition, clay pots were placed outside the hut to collect outdoor resting mosquitoes. The F1 progeny of wild-caught mosquitoes were also used in these experiments. RESULTS: The mean number of resistant mosquitoes trapped in the deltamethrin-impregnated bed net trap was higher (mean = 50.21± 3.7) compared to susceptible counterparts (mean + 22.4 ± 1.31) (OR = 1.445; P<0.001). More susceptible mosquitoes were trapped in an untreated (mean = 51.9 ± 3.6) compared to a deltamethrin-treated bed net trap (mean = 22.4 ± 1.3) (OR = 2.65; P<0.001). Resistant mosquitoes were less likely to exit the house when a treated bed net was present compared to the susceptible mosquitoes. The number of susceptible mosquitoes caught resting outdoors (mean + 28.6 ± 2.22) when a treated bed net was hanged was higher than when untreated bednet was present inside the hut (mean = 4.6 ± 0.74). The susceptible females were 2.3 times more likely to stay outdoors away from the treated bed net (OR = 2.25; 95% CI = [1.7-2.9]; P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The results show that deltamethrin-treatment of netting panels inside the bednet trap did not alter the host-seeking behavior of insecticide-resistant female An. gambiae mosquitoes. On the contrary, susceptible females exited the hut and remained outdoors when a treated net was used. However, further investigations of the behavior of resistant mosquitoes under natural conditions should be undertaken to confirm these observations and improve the current intervention which are threatened by insecticide resistance and altered vector behavior.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas , Malária , Piretrinas , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 128, 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The insect endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia is being deployed in field populations of the mosquito Aedes aegypti for biological control. This microbe prevents the replication of human disease-causing viruses inside the vector, including dengue, Zika and chikungunya. Relative Wolbachia densities may in part predict the strength of this 'viral blocking' effect. Additionally, Wolbachia densities may affect the strength of the reproductive manipulations it induces, including cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), maternal inheritance rates or induced fitness effects in the insect host. High rates of CI and maternal inheritance and low rates of fitness effects are also key to the successful spreading of Wolbachia through vector populations and its successful use in biocontrol. The factors that control Wolbachia densities are not completely understood. METHODS: We used quantitative PCR-based methods to estimate relative density of the Wolbachia wAlbB strain in both the somatic and reproductive tissues of adult male and female mosquitoes, as well as in eggs. Using correlation analyses, we assessed whether densities in one tissue predict those in others within the same individual, but also across generations. RESULTS: We found little relationship among the relative Wolbachia densities of different tissues in the same host. The results also show that there was very little relationship between Wolbachia densities in parents and those in offspring, both in the same and different tissues. The one exception was with ovary-egg relationships, where there was a strong positive association. Relative Wolbachia densities in reproductive tissues were always greater than those in the somatic tissues. Additionally, the densities were consistent in females over their lifetime regardless of tissue, whereas they were generally higher and more variable in males, particularly in the testes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that either stochastic processes or local tissue-based physiologies are more likely factors dictating Wolbachia densities in Ae. aegypti individuals, rather than shared embryonic environments or heritable genetic effects of the mosquito genome. These findings have implications for understanding how relative Wolbachia densities may evolve and/or be maintained over the long term in Ae. aegypti.


Assuntos
Aedes , Wolbachia , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Gravidade Específica , Wolbachia/fisiologia
12.
J Therm Biol ; 105: 103205, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393046

RESUMO

Mosquito-borne diseases impose a high burden on human and animal health. Temperature strongly influences the physiology and life cycle of mosquitoes, but also the development and/or propagation of the pathogens they transmit. Thus, the vector capacity of mosquitoes depends strongly on temperature and their behavioural thermoregulation through microhabitat selection. Expanding on a previous study of static thermal preferences, the locomotory dynamics of temperate Aedes japonicus (reared from eggs collected in the field) and tropical Ae. aegypti (from a laboratory colony) was investigated at constant temperatures (10 °C, 25 °C, 40 °C) and in temperature gradients (10-20 °C, 20-30 °C, 30-40 °C). Blood-fed or non-blood-fed female mosquitoes were released in groups of 15 individuals into a Plexiglas box positioned on two thermoregulators connected by an aluminium plate to automatically monitor by video analysis mosquito flying, walking and resting duration, covered distances and velocity. Mosquitoes were predominantly resting, followed by walking and flying. At constant 10 °C, flights were rare and brief, and walking was slow. Most activity was observed at 25 °C for Ae. japonicus and 40 °C for Ae. aegypti. In the 30-40 °C gradient, activity of Ae. aegypti increased towards the cold end, suggesting active avoidance of very high temperatures. In the 20-30 °C gradient, edge effects were prominent, nevertheless revealing a greater proportion of mosquitoes gathered at the cooler end. Video analysis showed that this effect was not caused by a cold trap but represents true thermal preference. In the coolest gradient (10-20 °C), mosquitoes were active in all sectors without displaying a preference for either side. Overall, both the tropical and temperate mosquito species preferred cooler temperatures and actively avoided the hottest temperatures. Further studies with infected mosquitoes should provide important insights for developing models of vector-borne disease outbreaks.


Assuntos
Aedes , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Feminino , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Temperatura
13.
Curr Biol ; 32(6): 1232-1246.e5, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134328

RESUMO

Flying insects have evolved the ability to evade looming objects, such as predators and swatting hands. This is particularly relevant for blood-feeding insects, such as mosquitoes that routinely need to evade the defensive actions of their blood hosts. To minimize the chance of being swatted, a mosquito can use two distinct strategies-continuously exhibiting an unpredictable flight path or maximizing its escape maneuverability. We studied how baseline flight unpredictability and escape maneuverability affect the escape performance of day-active and night-active mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Anopheles coluzzii, respectively). We used a multi-camera high-speed videography system to track how freely flying mosquitoes respond to an event-triggered rapidly approaching mechanical swatter, in four different light conditions ranging from pitch darkness to overcast daylight. Results show that both species exhibit enhanced escape performance in their natural blood-feeding light condition (daylight for Aedes and dark for Anopheles). To achieve this, they show strikingly different behaviors. The enhanced escape performance of Anopheles at night is explained by their increased baseline unpredictable erratic flight behavior, whereas the increased escape performance of Aedes in overcast daylight is due to their enhanced escape maneuvers. This shows that both day and night-active mosquitoes modify their flight behavior in response to light intensity such that their escape performance is maximum in their natural blood-feeding light conditions, when these defensive actions by their blood hosts occur most. Because Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes are major vectors of several deadly human diseases, this knowledge can be used to optimize vector control methods for these specific species.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anopheles , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Escuridão , Humanos , Luz , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia
14.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215949

RESUMO

Mosquito-borne viruses (MBVs), also known as moboviruses, are associated mainly with mosquitoes and are able to infect humans and other vertebrates [...].


Assuntos
Ecologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Aedes/fisiologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Arbovírus/fisiologia , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 43, 2022 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35101118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is a competent vector of several viral arboviruses including yellow fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Several vital mosquito behaviors (e.g., feeding, host-seeking, mating, and oviposition) are primarily dependent on the olfactory system for semiochemicals detection and discrimination. However, the limited number of studies hampers our understanding of the relationships between the Ae. albopictus olfactory system and the complex chemical world. METHODS: We performed RT-qPCR assay on antennae of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes of different sexes, ages and physiological states, and found odorant receptor 11 (AalbOr11) enriched in non-blood-fed female mosquitoes. Then, we examined the odorant preference with a panel of physiologically and behaviorally relevant odorants in Xenopus oocytes. RESULTS: The results indicated that AalbOr11 could be activated by ten aromatics, seven terpenes, six heterocyclics, and three alcohols. Furthermore, using post-RNA interference (RNAi) hand-in-cage assay, we found that reducing the transcript level of AalbOr11 affected the repellency activity mediated by (+)-fenchone at a lower concentration (0.01% v/v). CONCLUSIONS: Using in vitro functional characterization, we found that AalbOr11 was a broadly tuned receptor. Moreover, we found that AalbOr11 shared a conserved odorant reception profile with homologous Anopheles gambiae Or11. In addition, RNAi and bioassay suggested that AablOr11 might be one of the receptors mediating (+)-fenchone repellency activity. Our study attempted to link odor-induced behaviors to odorant reception and may lay the foundation for identifying active semiochemicals for monitoring or controlling mosquito populations.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Receptores Odorantes/fisiologia , Aedes/classificação , Aedes/genética , Animais , Canfanos/farmacologia , Feminino , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Norbornanos/farmacologia , Interferência de RNA/fisiologia , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Transcrição Genética
16.
J Insect Physiol ; 137: 104363, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121007

RESUMO

Mosquitoes readily lose water when exposed to any humidity less than that of near saturated air unless mitigated, leading to shifts in behavior, survival, distribution, and reproduction. In this study, we conducted a series of physiological experiments on two prominent species in the Culicinae subfamily: Culex pipiens, a vector of West Nile virus, and Aedes aegypti, a vector of yellow fever and Zika to examine the effects of dehydration. We exposed C. pipiens and A. aegypti to non-dehydrating conditions (saturated air), dehydrating conditions (air at a 0.89 kPa saturation vapor pressure deficit), several recovery conditions, as well as to bloodfeeding opportunities. We show that dehydrated mosquitoes increase bloodfeeding propensity, improve retention, and decrease excretion of a post-dehydration bloodmeal. In addition, mosquitoes that take a bloodmeal prior to dehydration exposure show increased survival over non-bloodfed counterparts. Dehydration-induced alterations in survival, reproduction, and bloodfeeding propensity of C. pipiens and A. aegypti resulted in marked changes to vectorial capacity. Ultimately, these results become increasingly important as drought intensifies in association with climate change and mosquitoes become more likely to experience arid periods.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culex , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Culex/fisiologia , Desidratação , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2206, 2022 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35177630

RESUMO

Vector-borne diseases are worldwide public health issues. Despite research focused on vectorial capacity determinants in pathogen transmitting mosquitoes, their behavioural plasticity remains poorly understood. Memory and associative learning have been linked to behavioural changes in several insect species, but their relevance in behavioural responses to pesticide vector control has been largely overlooked. In this study, female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciastus were exposed to sub-lethal doses of 5 pesticide compounds using modified World Health Organization (WHO) tube bioassays. Conditioned females, subsequently exposed to the same pesticides in WHO tunnel assays, exhibited behavioural avoidance by forgoing blood-feeding to ensure survival. Standardized resting site choice tests showed that pre-exposed females avoided the pesticides smell and choose to rest in a pesticide-free compartment. These results showed that, following a single exposure, mosquitoes can associate the olfactory stimulus of pesticides with their detrimental effects and subsequently avoid pesticide contact. Findings highlight the importance of mosquito cognition as determinants of pesticide resistance in mosquito populations targeted by chemical control.


Assuntos
Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/patogenicidade , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Bioensaio , Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Culex/patogenicidade , Culicidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Culicidae/patogenicidade , Humanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(2): e0010206, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139066

RESUMO

The tiger mosquito was introduced to the Eastern region of the Mediterranean basin more than twenty years ago. In Lebanon, it was first observed in 2002 in a limited number of locations mainly from the coastal area of the country. In the absence of national entomological control program, this invasive mosquito became an established species and is now considered in many localities, a source of nuisance because of its human biting behavior. Several entomological surveys were conducted to monitor the geographic spread and the seasonal dynamics of Aedes albopictus by collecting adult stages and by monitoring oviposition activity. Moreover, its susceptibility to the common groups of insecticides was assessed using WHO standard bioassays. Previous vector competence studies revealed that local strains were able to transmit Chikungunya and Dengue viruses. Due to the increased risk of Zika virus introduction in the country, we determined the competence of local populations to transmit this virus. Mapping results showed that Ae. albopictus is mainly spread in the relatively humid western versant of the Mount Lebanon chain reaching 1000m altitude, while it is absent from arid and semi-arid inland areas. Besides, this mosquito is active during 32 weeks from spring till the end of autumn. Local strains of the tiger mosquito are susceptible to pyrethroids and carbamates but resistant to organophosphates and organochlorines. They showed ability to transmit Zika virus; however, only 9% of females were capable to excrete the virus in their saliva at day 28 post infection. Current and previous observations highlight the need to establish a surveillance system in order to control this mosquito and monitor the potential introduction of related diseases.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/virologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Líbano , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Saliva/virologia , Estações do Ano , Zika virus/genética , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(2): e0010186, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35176020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Greece vector borne diseases (VBD) and foremost West Nile virus (WNV) pose an important threat to public health and the tourist industry, the primary sector of contribution to the national economy. The island of Crete, is one of Greece's major tourist destinations receiving annually over 5 million tourists making regional VBD control both a public health and economic priority. METHODOLOGY: Under the auspices of the Region of Crete, a systematic integrative surveillance network targeting mosquitoes and associated pathogens was established in Crete for the years 2018-2020. Using conventional and molecular diagnostic tools we investigated the mosquito species composition and population dynamics, pathogen infection occurrences in vector populations and in sentinel chickens, and the insecticide resistance status of the major vector species. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Important disease vectors were recorded across the island including Culex pipiens, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles superpictus. Over 75% of the sampled specimens were collected in the western prefectures potentially attributed to the local precipitation patterns, with Cx. pipiens being the most dominant species. Although no pathogens (flaviviruses) were detected in the analysed mosquito specimens, chicken blood serum analyses recorded a 1.7% WNV antibody detection rate in the 2018 samples. Notably detection of the first WNV positive chicken preceded human WNV occurrence in the same region by approximately two weeks. The chitin synthase mutation I1043F (associated with high diflubenzuron resistance) was recorded at an 8% allelic frequency in Lasithi prefecture Cx. pipiens mosquitoes (sampled in 2020) for the first time in Greece. Markedly, Cx. pipiens populations in all four prefectures were found harboring the kdr mutations L1014F/C/S (associated with pyrethroid resistance) at a close to fixation rate, with mutation L1014C being the most commonly found allele (≥74% representation). Voltage gated sodium channel analyses in Ae. albopictus revealed the presence of the kdr mutations F1534C and I1532T (associated with putative mild pyrethroid resistance phenotypes) yet absence of V1016G. Allele F1534C was recorded in all prefectures (at an allelic frequency range of 25-46.6%) while I1532T was detected in populations from Chania, Rethymnon and Heraklion (at frequencies below 7.1%). Finally, no kdr mutations were detected in the Anopheles specimens included in the analyses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of our study are of major concern for VBD control in Crete, highlighting (i) the necessity for establishing seasonal integrated entomological/pathogen surveillance programs, supporting the design of targeted vector control responses and; ii) the need for establishing appropriate insecticide resistance management programs ensuring the efficacy and sustainable use of DFB and pyrethroid based products in vector control.


Assuntos
Culicidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/virologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Animais , Galinhas , Culicidae/classificação , Culicidae/fisiologia , Culicidae/virologia , Diflubenzuron/farmacologia , Grécia , Humanos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Mutação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/transmissão , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/transmissão , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/fisiologia
20.
Malar J ; 21(1): 13, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria control requires local action. Assessing the vector diversity and abundance provides information on the local malariogenic potential or risk of transmission. This study aimed to determine the Anopheles species composition, habitats, seasonal occurrence, and distribution in areas with autochthonous and imported malaria cases in Roraima State. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted from January 2017 to October 2018, sampling larvae and adult mosquitoes in three municipalities of Roraima State: Boa Vista, Pacaraima and São João da Baliza. These areas have different risks of malaria importation. Four to six mosquito larval habitats were selected for larval sampling at each municipality, along with two additional sites for adult mosquito collection. All larval habitats were surveyed every two months using a standardized larval sampling methodology and MosqTent for adult mosquitoes. RESULTS: A total of 544 Anopheles larvae and 1488 adult mosquitoes were collected from the three municipalities studied. Although the species abundance differed between municipalities, the larvae of Anopheles albitarsis s.l., Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. and Anopheles triannulatus s.l. were collected from all larval habitats studied while Anopheles darlingi were collected only from Boa Vista and São João da Baliza. Adults of 11 species of the genus Anopheles were collected, and the predominant species in Boa Vista was An. albitarsis (88.2%) followed by An. darlingi (6.9%), while in São João da Baliza, An. darlingi (85.6%) was the most predominant species followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (9.2%). In contrast, the most abundant species in Pacaraima was Anopheles braziliensis (62%), followed by Anopheles peryassui (18%). Overall, the majority of anophelines exhibited greater extradomicile than peridomicile-biting preference. Anopheles darlingi was the only species found indoors. Variability in biting times was observed among species and municipalities. CONCLUSION: This study revealed the composition of anopheline species and habitats in Boa Vista, Pacaraima and São João da Baliza. The species sampled differed in their behaviour with only An. darlingi being found indoors. Anopheles darlingi appeared to be the most important vector in São João da Baliza, an area of autochthonous malaria, and An. albitarsis s.l. and An. braziliensis in areas of low transmission, although there were increasing reports of imported malaria. Understanding the diversity of vector species and their ecology is essential for designing effective vector control strategies for these municipalities.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Geografia , Larva/fisiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Malária/epidemiologia
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