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1.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190504, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267458

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The study of the landscape ecology, biological microhabitat, and epidemiological implications for the distribution of the main vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus contribute to the prevention and control actions regarding the diseases they transmit. METHODS: This study sought to assess data on positive properties of the vector control program activities from 1998 to 2010. An entomological survey was also carried out on a sample of buildings collecting larvae and pupae from containers between October and April (spring / summer) from 2002 to 2005. We assessed the physico-chemical data of the water in 20% of positive containers. The vegetation and urbanization were assessed with the aid of satellite images and microenvironments were classified as urbanized, woods, and shrubs. The data were analyzed using statistical and geoprocessing software. RESULTS: Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus colonized all types of microhabitats and microenvironments, predominantly in the urbanized area, in isolation and in coexistence. The microhabitat of Ae. aegypti showed a temperature gradient greater than that of Ae. albopictus, and there was an association with urbanized areas for the first species and wooded areas for the last species. CONCLUSIONS: Landscape ecology and intra-urban differences favor different microclimates, which contribute to the coexistence of species in the urban environment in an area close to the forest, raising the risk of other arbovirus infections in urban areas. The ecological niche should be considered for Ae. albopictus. Entomological and virologic monitoring are suggested as arbovirus surveillance actions in urban infested centers near preserved forests.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Aedes/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Brasil , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano , Análise Espacial , População Urbana
2.
Lancet ; 395(10232): 1292-1303, 2020 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the primary malaria prevention tool, but their effectiveness is threatened by pyrethroid resistance. We embedded a pragmatic cluster-randomised trial into Uganda's national LLIN campaign to compare conventional LLINs with those containing piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a synergist that can partially restore pyrethroid susceptibility in mosquito vectors. METHODS: 104 health sub-districts, from 48 districts in Uganda, were randomly assigned to LLINs with PBO (PermaNet 3.0 and Olyset Plus) and conventional LLINs (PermaNet 2.0 and Olyset Net) by proportionate randomisation using an iterative process. At baseline 6, 12, and 18 months after LLIN distribution, cross-sectional surveys were done in 50 randomly selected households per cluster (5200 per survey); a subset of ten households per cluster (1040 per survey) were randomly selected for entomological surveys. The primary outcome was parasite prevalence by microscopy in children aged 2-10 years, assessed in the as-treated population at 6, 12, and 18 months. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN17516395. FINDINGS: LLINs were delivered to households from March 25, 2017, to March 18, 2018, 32 clusters were randomly assigned to PermaNet 3.0, 20 to Olyset Plus, 37 to PermaNet 2.0, and 15 to Olyset Net. In the as-treated analysis, three clusters were excluded because no dominant LLIN was received, and four clusters were reassigned, resulting in 49 PBO LLIN clusters (31 received PermaNet 3.0 and 18 received Olyset Plus) and 52 non-PBO LLIN clusters (39 received PermaNet 2.0 and 13 received Olyset Net). At 6 months, parasite prevalence was 11% (386/3614) in the PBO group compared with 15% (556/3844) in the non-PBO group (prevalence ratio [PR] adjusted for baseline values 0·74, 95% CI 0·62-0·87; p=0·0003). Parasite prevalence was similar at month 12 (11% vs 13%; PR 0·73, 95% CI 0·63-0·85; p=0·0001) and month 18 (12% vs 14%; PR 0·84, 95% CI 0·72-0·98; p=0·029). INTERPRETATION: In Uganda, where pyrethroid resistance is high, PBO LLINs reduced parasite prevalence more effectively than did conventional LLINs for up to 18 months. This study provides evidence needed to support WHO's final recommendation on use of PBO LLINs. FUNDING: The Against Malaria Foundation, UK Department for International Development, Innovative Vector Control Consortium, and Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Sinergistas de Praguicidas/farmacologia , Butóxido de Piperonila/farmacologia , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Anopheles/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Malária/sangue , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Uganda
3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190185, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187334

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus are vector species responsible for the transmission of important arboviruses. METHODS: Adult mosquitoes were collected in the urban areas of four municipalities in Mato Grosso within 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 19,110 mosquitoes were collected. Among them, 16,578 (86,8%) were C. quinquefasciatus (44% female and 56% male); 2,483 (13%), A. (Stegomyia) aegypti (54% female and 46% male); and 49 (0,30%), from the genus Psorophora, Anopheles, Coquilettidia, and Sabethes. A significant correlation was observed between the number of mosquitoes from all species and dew point (female mosquitoes, p = 0.001; male mosquitoes, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study may be used as environmental indicators of mosquito populations.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Clima , Culex/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , População Urbana
5.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0224718, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the interactions between increased insecticide resistance and resting behaviour patterns of malaria mosquitoes is important for planning of adequate vector control. This study was designed to investigate the resting behavior, host preference and rates of Plasmodium falciparum infection in relation to insecticide resistance of malaria vectors in different ecologies of western Kenya. METHODS: Anopheles mosquito collections were carried out during the dry and rainy seasons in Kisian (lowland site) and Bungoma (highland site), both in western Kenya using pyrethrum spray catches (PSC), mechanical aspiration (Prokopack) for indoor collections, clay pots, pit shelter and Prokopack for outdoor collections. WHO tube bioassay was used to determine levels of phenotypic resistance of indoor and outdoor collected mosquitoes to deltamethrin. PCR-based molecular diagnostics were used for mosquito speciation, genotype for knockdown resistance mutations (1014S and 1014F) and to determine specific host blood meal origins. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to determine mosquito sporozoite infections. RESULTS: Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the most predominant species (75%, n = 2706) followed by An. funestus s.l. (25%, n = 860). An. gambiae s.s hereafter (An. gambiae) accounted for 91% (95% CI: 89-93) and An. arabiensis 8% (95% CI: 6-9) in Bungoma, while in Kisian, An. arabiensis composition was 60% (95% CI: 55-66) and An. gambiae 39% (95% CI: 34-44). The resting densities of An. gambiae s.l and An. funestus were higher indoors than outdoor in both sites (An. gambiae s.l; F1, 655 = 41.928, p < 0.0001, An. funestus; F1, 655 = 36.555, p < 0.0001). The mortality rate for indoor and outdoor resting An. gambiae s.l F1 progeny was 37% (95% CI: 34-39) vs 67% (95% CI: 62-69) respectively in Bungoma. In Kisian, the mortality rate was 67% (95% CI: 61-73) vs 76% (95% CI: 71-80) respectively. The mortality rate for F1 progeny of An. funestus resting indoors in Bungoma was 32% (95% CI: 28-35). The 1014S mutation was only detected in indoor resitng An. arabiensis. Similarly, the 1014F mutation was present only in indoor resting An. gambiae. The sporozoite rates were highest in An. funestus followed by An. gambiae, and An. arabiensis resting indoors at 11% (34/311), 8% (47/618) and 4% (1/27) respectively in Bungoma. Overall, in Bungoma, the sporozoite rate for indoor resting mosquitoes was 9% (82/956) and 4% (8/190) for outdoors. In Kisian, the sporozoite rate was 1% (1/112) for indoor resting An. gambiae. None of the outdoor collected mosquitoes in Kisian tested positive for sporozoite infections (n = 73). CONCLUSION: The study reports high indoor resting densities of An. gambiae and An. funestus, insecticide resistance, and persistence of malaria transmission indoors regardless of the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). These findings underline the difficulties of controlling malaria vectors resting and biting indoors using the current interventions. Supplemental vector control tools and implementation of sustainable insecticide resistance management strategies are needed in western Kenya.


Assuntos
Anopheles/genética , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , Anopheles/parasitologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Genótipo , Comportamento de Busca por Hospedeiro/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Esporozoítos/imunologia
6.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190390, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049099

RESUMO

The mosquito Culex pipiens s.s. L. occurs as two bioforms that differ in physiology and behaviour affecting virus transmission cycles. To assess the occurrence of Cx. pipiens bioforms in the southernmost limit of its distribution, specimens were collected aboveground in southern Buenos Aires Province and east Patagonia, Argentina. Ten larvae and 25 adults were individually processed and identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of Ace-2 and CQ11 loci. Culex quinquefasciatus Say (one larva, two adults), Cx. pipiens f. molestus (one larva, one adult) and one adult of hybrid origin were identified in Buenos Aires Province; only Cx. pipiens f. molestus was recorded in Patagonia (eight larvae, 21 adults). The potential absence of bioform pipiens and its implications in arbovirus enzootic cycles is discussed.


Assuntos
Culex/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Argentina , Culex/genética , Culex/virologia , Encefalite de St. Louis/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estações do Ano
7.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 9, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irrigated agriculture is key to increase agricultural productivity and ensure food security in Africa. However, unintended negative public health impacts (e.g. malaria) of such environmental modification have been a challenge. This study assessed the diversity and distribution of breeding habitats of malaria vector mosquitoes around Arjo-Dedessa irrigation development site in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Anopheline mosquito larvae were surveyed from two agroecosystems, 'irrigated' and 'non-irrigated' areas during the dry (December 2017-February 2018) and wet (June 2018-August 2018) seasons. Mosquito habitat diversity and larval abundance were compared between the irrigated and non-irrigated areas. The association between anopheline mosquito larvae occurrence and environmental parameters was analysed using Pearson chi-square. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine primary parameters that influence the occurrence of anopheline larvae. RESULTS: Overall, 319 aquatic habitats were surveyed during the study period. Around 60% (n = 152) of the habitats were positive for anopheline mosquito larvae, of which 63.8% (n = 97) and 36.2% (n = 55) were from irrigated and non-irrigated areas, respectively. The number of anopheline positive habitats was two-fold higher in irrigated than non-irrigated areas. Anopheline larval abundance in the irrigated area was 16.6% higher than the non-irrigated area. Pearson's chi-square analysis showed that season (χ2 = 63.122, df = 1, P < 0.001), agroecosystem (being irrigated or non-irrigated) (χ2 = 6.448, df = 1, P = 0.011), and turbidity (χ2 = 7.296, df = 2, P = 0.025) had a significant association with larval anopheline occurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed a higher anopheline mosquito breeding habitat diversity, larval occurrence and abundance in the irrigated than non-irrigated areas in both dry and wet seasons. This indicates that irrigation development activities contribute to proliferation of suitable mosquito breeding habitats that could increase the risk of malaria transmission. Incorporating larval source management into routine malaria vector control strategies could help reduce mosquito population density and malaria transmission around irrigation schemes.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Distribuição Animal , Anopheles/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Animais , Anopheles/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Etiópia , Larva/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano
9.
J Insect Sci ; 20(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916580

RESUMO

The western tree hole mosquito, Aedes sierrensis (Ludlow), is a common nuisance mosquito and vector of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy), the etiologic agent of dog heartworm, in western North America. Here, we compare weekly mosquito collections made with Mosquito Magnet (MM) traps, Biogents Sentinel (BGS) traps, and Biogents Bowl (BGS Bowl) traps set in Salt Lake City, UT, from the start of June to mid-August 2017. We found the number of mosquitoes decreased with rainfall and temperature independently of trap type. The highest number of mosquitoes were caught by BGS traps baited with carbon dioxide (CO2) and BG lure, which collected 62% (n = 422) of all mosquitoes, followed by the MM at 31% (n = 213), and both the BGS and BG Bowl with BG lure had 3.5% (n = 24) each. Aedes sierrensis females were caught weekly at similar densities (mean ±â€…SD) in BGS with CO2 and lure (1.17 ±â€…2.93) and the MM (1.17 ±â€…2.66) traps during the study period. Given that BGS with CO2 and lure traps have several operational advantages over MM traps, including a quicker setup, smaller size, and lower cost, we consider BGS with CO2 and lure traps as the best suited surveillance tool to detect and remove Ae. sierrensis in the western United States and similar settings throughout North America.


Assuntos
Aedes , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Vigilância da População/métodos , Animais , Dirofilaria immitis , Feminino , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Utah
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 67-77, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894724

RESUMO

Rapid and significant range expansion of both Zika virus (ZIKV) and its Aedes vector species has resulted in ZIKV being declared a global health threat. Mean temperatures are projected to increase globally, likely resulting in alterations of the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens. To understand the effect of diurnal temperature range on the vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for ZIKV, longevity, blood-feeding and vector competence were assessed at two temperature regimes following feeding on infectious blood meals. Higher temperatures resulted in decreased longevity of Ae. aegypti [Log-rank test, χ2, df 35.66, 5, P < 0.001] and a decrease in blood-feeding rates of Ae. albopictus [Fisher's exact test, P < 0.001]. Temperature had a population and species-specific impact on ZIKV infection rates. Overall, Ae. albopictus reared at the lowest temperature regime demonstrated the highest vectorial capacity (0.53) and the highest transmission efficiency (57%). Increased temperature decreased vectorial capacity across groups yet more significant effects were measured with Ae. aegypti relative to Ae. albopictus. The results of this study suggest that future increases in temperature in the Americas could significantly impact vector competence, blood-feeding and longevity, and potentially decrease the overall vectorial capacity of Aedes mosquitoes in the Americas.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Mudança Climática , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Aedes/classificação , Animais , Sangue , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Florida , México , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , New York , Temperatura
11.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227407, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951601

RESUMO

Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of major pathogens worldwide. Modelling their population dynamics and mapping their distribution can contribute effectively to disease surveillance and control systems. Two main approaches are classically used to understand and predict mosquito abundance in space and time, namely empirical (or statistical) and process-based models. In this work, we used both approaches to model the population dynamics in Reunion Island of the 'Tiger mosquito', Aedes albopictus, a vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses, using rainfall and temperature data. We aimed to i) evaluate and compare the two types of models, and ii) develop an operational tool that could be used by public health authorities and vector control services. Our results showed that Ae. albopictus dynamics in Reunion Island are driven by both rainfall and temperature with a non-linear relationship. The predictions of the two approaches were consistent with the observed abundances of Ae. albopictus aquatic stages. An operational tool with a user-friendly interface was developed, allowing the creation of maps of Ae. albopictus densities over the whole territory using meteorological data collected from a network of weather stations. It is now routinely used by the services in charge of vector control in Reunion Island.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Animais , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , Chuva
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(1): 708-716, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871198

RESUMO

Mosquitoes are important vectors of disease and require sources of carbohydrates for reproduction and survival. Unlike host-related behaviors of mosquitoes, comparatively less is understood about the mechanisms involved in nectar-feeding decisions, or how this sensory information is processed in the mosquito brain. Here we show that Aedes spp. mosquitoes, including Aedes aegypti, are effective pollinators of the Platanthera obtusata orchid, and demonstrate this mutualism is mediated by the orchid's scent and the balance of excitation and inhibition in the mosquito's antennal lobe (AL). The P. obtusata orchid emits an attractive, nonanal-rich scent, whereas related Platanthera species-not visited by mosquitoes-emit scents dominated by lilac aldehyde. Calcium imaging experiments in the mosquito AL revealed that nonanal and lilac aldehyde each respectively activate the LC2 and AM2 glomerulus, and remarkably, the AM2 glomerulus is also sensitive to N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), a mosquito repellent. Lateral inhibition between these 2 glomeruli reflects the level of attraction to the orchid scents. Whereas the enriched nonanal scent of P. obtusata activates the LC2 and suppresses AM2, the high level of lilac aldehyde in the other orchid scents inverts this pattern of glomerular activity, and behavioral attraction is lost. These results demonstrate the ecological importance of mosquitoes beyond operating as disease vectors and open the door toward understanding the neural basis of mosquito nectar-seeking behaviors.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Comportamento Apetitivo/fisiologia , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Orchidaceae/fisiologia , Polinização/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Apetitivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antenas de Artrópodes/citologia , Antenas de Artrópodes/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , DEET/farmacologia , Feminino , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Odorantes , Percepção Olfatória/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/fisiologia , Polinização/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861276

RESUMO

: Numerous urban villages (UVs) with substandard living conditions that cause people to live there with vulnerability to health impacts, including vector-borne diseases such as dengue fever (DF), are major environmental and public health concerns in highly urbanized regions, especially in developing countries. It is necessary to explore the relationship between UVs and vector for effectively dealing with these problems. In this study, land-use types, including UVs, normal construction land (NCL), unused land (UL), vegetation, and water, were retrieved from the high-resolution remotely sensed imagery in the central area of Guangzhou in 2017. The vector density from May to October in 2017, including Aedes. albopictus (Ae. albopictus)'s Breteau index (BI), standard space index (SSI), and adult density index (ADI) were obtained from the vector surveillance system implemented by the Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Furthermore, the spatial and temporal patterns of vector monitoring sites and vector density were analyzed on a fine scale, and then the Geodetector tool was further employed to explore the relationships between vector density and land-use types. The monitoring sites were mainly located in NCL (55.70%-56.44%) and UV (13.14%-13.92%). Among the total monitoring sites of BI (79), SSI (312), and ADI (326), the random sites accounted for about 88.61%, 97.12%, and 98.47%, respectively. The density of Ae. albopictus was temporally related to rainfall and temperature and was obviously differentiated among different land-use types. Meanwhile, the grids with higher density, which were mostly concentrated in the Pearl River fork zone that collects a large number of UVs, showed that the density of Ae. albopictus was spatially associated with the UVs. Next, the results of the Geodetector illustrated that UVs posed great impact on the density of Ae. albopictus across the central region of Guangzhou. We suggest that the number of monitoring sites in the UVs should be appropriately increased to strengthen the current vector surveillance system in Guangzhou. This study will provide targeted guidance for local authorities, making more effective control and prevention measures on the DF epidemics.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal , Dengue/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Densidade Demográfica , Urbanização
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 597, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus has emerged as a species of major medical concern following its global expansion and involvement in many arbovirus outbreaks. On Réunion Island, Ae. albopictus was responsible for a large chikungunya outbreak in 2005-2006 and more recently an epidemic of dengue which began at the end of 2017 and is still ongoing at the time of writing. This dengue epidemic has seen a high number of human cases in south and west coastal regions, while few cases have been reported in the north and east of the island. To better understand the role of mosquito populations in such spatial patterns of dengue virus transmission in Réunion Island, we examined the genetic diversity and population structure of Ae. albopictus sampled across the island. RESULTS: Between November 2016 and March 2017, a total of 564 mosquitoes were collected from 19 locations in three main climatic regions (West, East and Center) of Réunion Island and were genotyped using 16 microsatellite loci. A high genetic diversity was observed with 2-15 alleles per locus and the average number of alleles per population varying between 4.70-5.90. Almost all FIS values were significantly positive and correlated to individual relatedness within populations using a hierarchical clustering approach based on principal components analyses (HCPC). However, the largest part of genetic variance was among individuals within populations (97%) while only 3% of genetic variance was observed among populations within regions. Therefore, no distinguishable population structure or isolation by distance was evidenced, suggesting high rates of gene flow at the island scale. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show high genetic diversity but no genetic structure of Ae. albopictus populations in Réunion Island thus reflecting frequent movements of mosquitoes between populations probably due to human activity. These data should help in the understanding of Ae. albopictus vector capacity and the design of effective mosquito control strategies.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Variação Genética , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Aedes/classificação , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Dengue/transmissão , Genótipo , Humanos , Ilhas , Repetições de Microssatélites , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Reunião
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 584, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood meal host selection by mosquito vectors is an important component in understanding disease dynamics of pathogens that threaten endemic fauna in isolated islands such as Galápagos. Research on the feeding behavior of mosquitoes can provide clues to the hosts and vectors involved in disease transmission. This information is particularly critical for endemic wildlife fauna in island systems that have evolved without resistance to novel diseases such as avian malaria. The aims of this study were to determine the blood-feeding patterns of two species of mosquitoes found in Galápagos and discuss how their feeding behavior may influence the transmission of pathogens such as avian malaria. METHODS: In the summer of 2015, we sampled two mosquito species (Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus) across 18 different sites on Isla Santa Cruz, which is the second largest island in Galápagos and has the largest human population. We trapped mosquitoes using CDC light traps and CDC gravid traps and identified sources of blood meals for engorged mosquitoes by sequencing a portion of the vertebrate mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. RESULTS: Out of 947 female mosquitoes captured, 320 were blood-fed, and PCR amplifications were successful for 301 of the blood meals. Results revealed that both Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus feed from a variety of vertebrate taxa, numerically dominated by humans on Isla Santa Cruz. CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of mammalian blood meals could represent locally available and abundant hosts on Santa Cruz. However, host surveys and estimates of relative abundances of vertebrate species will need to accompany mosquito trapping studies on non-inhabited and inhabited islands in Galápagos to further validate this.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Culex/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Animais , Citocromos b/genética , Equador , Entomologia/métodos , Enzimas/sangue , Enzimas/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Humanos , Mamíferos
16.
Malar J ; 18(1): 441, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A clear understanding of mosquito biology is fundamental to the control efforts of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria. Mosquito mark-release-recapture (MMRR) experiments are a popular method of measuring the survival and dispersal of disease vectors; however, examples with African malaria vectors are limited. Ethical and technical difficulties involved in carrying out MMRR studies may have held back research in this area and, therefore, a device that marks mosquitoes as they emerge from breeding sites was developed and evaluated to overcome the problems of MMRR. METHODS: A modified self-marking unit that marks mosquitoes with fluorescent pigment as they emerge from their breeding site was developed based on a previous design for Culex mosquitoes. The self-marking unit was first evaluated under semi-field conditions with laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis to determine the marking success and impact on mosquito survival. Subsequently, a field evaluation of MMRR was conducted in Yombo village, Tanzania, to examine the feasibility of the system. RESULTS: During the semi-field evaluation the self-marking units successfully marked 86% of emerging mosquitoes and there was no effect of fluorescent marker on mosquito survival. The unit successfully marked wild male and female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) in sufficiently large numbers to justify its use in MMRR studies. The estimated daily survival probability of An. gambiae s.l. was 0.87 (95% CI 0.69-1.10) and mean dispersal distance was 579 m (95% CI 521-636 m). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the successful use of a self-marking device in an MMRR study with African malaria vectors. This method may be useful in investigating population structure and dispersal of mosquitoes for deployment and evaluation of future vector control tools, such as gene drive, and to better parameterize mathematical models.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Anopheles/fisiologia , Entomologia/métodos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Longevidade , Malária , Masculino , Tanzânia
17.
PLoS Genet ; 15(12): e1008440, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856182

RESUMO

Small laboratory cage trials of non-drive and gene-drive strains of the Asian malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, were used to investigate release ratios and other strain properties for their impact on transgene spread during simulated population modification. We evaluated the effects of transgenes on survival, male contributions to next-generation populations, female reproductive success and the impact of accumulation of gene drive-resistant genomic target sites resulting from nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) mutagenesis during Cas9, guide RNA-mediated cleavage. Experiments with a non-drive, autosomally-linked malaria-resistance gene cassette showed 'full introduction' (100% of the insects have at least one copy of the transgene) within 8 weeks (≤ 3 generations) following weekly releases of 10:1 transgenic:wild-type males in an overlapping generation trial design. Male release ratios of 1:1 resulted in cages where mosquitoes with at least one copy of the transgene fluctuated around 50%. In comparison, two of three cages in which the malaria-resistance genes were linked to a gene-drive system in an overlapping generation, single 1:1 release reached full introduction in 6-8 generations with a third cage at ~80% within the same time. Release ratios of 0.1:1 failed to establish the transgenes. A non-overlapping generation, single-release trial of the same gene-drive strain resulted in two of three cages reaching 100% introduction within 6-12 generations following a 1:1 transgenic:wild-type male release. Two of three cages with 0.33:1 transgenic:wild-type male single releases achieved full introduction in 13-16 generations. All populations exhibiting full introduction went extinct within three generations due to a significant load on females having disruptions of both copies of the target gene, kynurenine hydroxylase. While repeated releases of high-ratio (10:1) non-drive constructs could achieve full introduction, results from the 1:1 release ratios across all experimental designs favor the use of gene drive, both for efficiency and anticipated cost of the control programs.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Transgenes , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Anopheles/genética , Feminino , Genética Populacional , Abrigo para Animais , Malária/genética , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Comportamento Sexual Animal
18.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226191, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In view of widespread pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors in Africa, two long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) incorporated with a synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO), DawaPlus 3.0 (deltamethrin + PBO in the roof panel; deltamethrin alone in the side panels) and DawaPlus 4.0 (deltamethrin + PBO in all panels), were evaluated in an experimental hut trial in a rice growing irrigated area in Burkina Faso. Efficacy of nets was tested against free-flying malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l., with high pyrethroid resistance involving L1014F kdr and CYP6P3P450 resistance mechanisms. METHODOLOGY: The efficacy of unwashed and 20-times washed DawaPlus 3.0 (polyethylene roof panel with 120 mg/m2 deltamethrin and 440 mg/m2 PBO; polyester side panels with deltamethrin 100 mg/m2) and DawaPlus 4.0 (same composition as roof of DawaPlus 3.0) was evaluated against DawaPlus 2.0 (80 mg/m2 deltamethrin; positive control). Volunteer sleepers and treatments were rotated in huts using a Latin square design on 63 consecutive nights during August-October 2016. Mortality, human blood-feeding inhibition, deterrence and exit rates of An. gambiae s.l. were monitored. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Significantly higher rates of mortality and blood-feeding inhibition were observed with unwashed DawaPlus 4.0 (36%; 47.5%) than unwashed DawaPlus 3.0 (11.8%; 33.3%), DawaPlus 2.0 (4.3%; 6.4%) or untreated net (P < 0.05). Washing reduced personal protective efficacy yet PBO-LLINs were more protective and both met the WHO criteria. CONCLUSIONS: The PBO-containing DawaPlus 4.0 significantly protected against An. gambiae s.l. in the study area. Unwashed DawaPlus 3.0 gave low to moderate protection against the positive control. PBO inhibits oxidase action; hence in areas with active malaria transmission having oxidase mechanisms, PBO nets could confer additional personal protection.


Assuntos
Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Butóxido de Piperonila/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Agricultura , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Burkina Faso , Desenho de Equipamento , Voo Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossypium , Humanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Oryza
19.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190277, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859951

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess the occurrence of gonotrophic discordance in females of Culex quinquefasciatus in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Resting females were collected monthly for 8 months. Females of Cx. quinquefasciatus were identified, and their midgut and ovaries were dissected. RESULTS: Two hundred females were dissected, out of which, 27.5% were nulliparous and 57% were parous. Most females had no blood in the midgut, but gonotrophic discordance was found in 21% females. CONCLUSIONS: Females of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed a high parity rate and gonotrophic discordance, which could favor the vector capacity of this species.


Assuntos
Culex/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Culex/classificação , Dirofilariose/transmissão , Filariose Linfática/transmissão , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Longevidade/fisiologia , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Oviparidade/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia
20.
Malar J ; 18(1): 445, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) are widely recommended for the prevention of malaria in endemic regions. Data from human landing catches provide information on the impact of vector control on vector populations. Here, malaria transmission indoors and outdoors, before and after mass deployment of LLINs and IRS in Uganda was compared. METHODS: The study took place in Tororo district, a historically high transmission area where universal LLIN distribution was conducted in November 2013 and May 2017 and 6 rounds of IRS implemented from December 2014 to July 2018. Human landing catches were performed in 8 houses monthly from October 2011 to September 2012 (pre-intervention period) and every 4 weeks from November 2017 to October 2018 (post-intervention period). Mosquitoes were collected outdoors from 18:00 to 22:00 h and indoors from 18:00 to 06:00 h. Female Anopheles were tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites and species identification performed using gross dissection and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: The interventions were associated with a decline in human biting rate from 19.6 to 2.3 female Anopheles mosquitoes per house per night (p < 0.001) and annual entomological inoculation rate from 129 to 0 infective bites per person per year (p < 0.001). The proportion of mosquitoes collected outdoors increased from 11.6 to 49.4% (p < 0.001). Prior to the interventions the predominant species was Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.), which comprised an estimated 76.7% of mosquitoes. Following the interventions, the predominant species was Anopheles arabiensis, which comprised 99.5% of mosquitoes, with almost complete elimination of An. gambiae s.s. (0.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Mass distribution of LLINs and 6 rounds of IRS dramatically decreased vector density and sporozoite rate resulting in a marked reduction in malaria transmission intensity in a historically high transmission site in Uganda. These changes were accompanied by a shift in vector species from An. gambiae s.s. to An. arabiensis and a relative increase in outdoor biting.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/etiologia , Malária/transmissão , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Uganda
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