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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1750, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741942

RESUMO

Malaria elimination requires tools that interrupt parasite transmission. Here, we characterize B cell receptor responses among Malian adults vaccinated against the first domain of the cysteine-rich 230 kDa gamete surface protein Pfs230, a key protein in sexual stage development of P. falciparum parasites. Among nine Pfs230 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that we generated, one potently blocks transmission to mosquitoes in a complement-dependent manner and reacts to the gamete surface; the other eight show only low or no blocking activity. The structure of the transmission-blocking mAb in complex with vaccine antigen reveals a large discontinuous conformational epitope, specific to domain 1 of Pfs230 and comprising six structural elements in the protein. The epitope is conserved, suggesting the transmission-blocking mAb is broadly functional. This study provides a rational basis to improve malaria vaccines and develop therapeutic antibodies for malaria elimination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Células Germinativas/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/química , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Sítios de Ligação , Células Cultivadas , Epitopos/química , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Humanos , Vacinas Antimaláricas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Antimaláricas/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 909, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568678

RESUMO

Malaria control may be enhanced by targeting reservoirs of Plasmodium falciparum transmission. One putative reservoir is asymptomatic malaria infections and the scale of their contribution to transmission in natural settings is not known. We assess the contribution of asymptomatic malaria to onward transmission using a 14-month longitudinal cohort of 239 participants in a high transmission site in Western Kenya. We identify P. falciparum in asymptomatically- and symptomatically-infected participants and naturally-fed mosquitoes from their households, genotype all parasites using deep sequencing of the parasite genes pfama1 and pfcsp, and use haplotypes to infer participant-to-mosquito transmission through a probabilistic model. In 1,242 infections (1,039 in people and 203 in mosquitoes), we observe 229 (pfcsp) and 348 (pfama1) unique parasite haplotypes. Using these to link human and mosquito infections, compared with symptomatic infections, asymptomatic infections more than double the odds of transmission to a mosquito among people with both infection types (Odds Ratio: 2.56; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.36-4.81) and among all participants (OR 2.66; 95% CI: 2.05-3.47). Overall, 94.6% (95% CI: 93.1-95.8%) of mosquito infections likely resulted from asymptomatic infections. In high transmission areas, asymptomatic infections are the major contributor to mosquito infections and may be targeted as a component of transmission reduction.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Adulto , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/classificação , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação
3.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200513, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different strategies for improvement of malaria control and elimination are based on the blockage of malaria parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. These strategies include the drugs that target the plasmodial sexual stages in humans and the early developmental stages inside mosquitoes. OBJECTIVES: Here we tested Malaria Box compounds in order to evaluate their activity against male and female gametocytes in Plasmodium berghei, mosquito infection in P. vivax and ookinete formation in both species. METHODS/FINDINGS: The membrane feeding assay and the development of ookinetes by a 24 h ex vivo culture and the ookinete yield per 1000 erythrocytes were used to test transmission-blocking potential of the Malaria Box compounds in P. vivax. For P. berghei we used flow cytometry to evaluate male and female gametocyte time course and fluorescence microscopy to check the ookinete development. The two species used in this study showed similar results concerning the compounds' activity against gametocytes and ookinetes, which were different from those in P. falciparum. In addition, from the eight Malaria Box compounds tested in both species, compounds MMV665830, MMV665878 and MMV665941 were selected as a hit compounds due the high inhibition observed. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that P. berghei is suitable as an initial screening system to test compounds against P. vivax.


Assuntos
Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium vivax/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Vivax/transmissão
4.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 693-703, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452590

RESUMO

Avian blood parasites have been shown to have significant health effects on avifauna worldwide. Sri Lanka, a tropical island rich with resident and migratory birds, has not been properly evaluated for avian blood parasites or their vectors. We investigated the presence of avian haemoparasites in Sri Lankan birds and the potential mosquito vectors of those pathogens. Blood samples were collected from local/migratory birds captured by standard mist nets from Anawilundawa bird sanctuary, Hanthana mountain range, and the University of Peradeniya park. Mosquitoes were collected from Halgolla forest reserve and the forest patches in Kurunegala and Gampola areas in addition to the above mist-netting localities. Part of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene was amplified and sequenced to detect the presence of haemoparasites from avian blood samples (86) and mosquito samples (480). Blood parasites of the two genera, i.e., Haemoproteus (4 species; Haemoproteus sp. 1-4) and Plasmodium (5 species; Plasmodium sp. 1-5) were identified from seven bird species (four resident and three migratory). Among these, three bird species (Red-vented bulbul (3/16), Asian Brown flycatcher (1/1), and India pitta (1/1)) were positive for Plasmodium spp., while four (Yellow-browed bulbul (1/4), oriental white-eye (1/4), brown-headed Barbet (1/4), and Indian blue robin (1/1)) were positive for Haemoproteus spp. Two mosquito species were also positive for Plasmodium (3) and Haemoproteus (1) species. Phylogenetic analysis and haplotype networks created using positive sequences of haemoparasites showed that a Plasmodium clade was shared by Cx nigropunctatus mosquitoes and the migratory bird, Indian pitta. The majority (85%) of the Plasmodium and Haemoproteus sequences of this study were not linked to the well-characterized species suggesting the distinct nature of the lineages. Associations between mosquito species and blood parasites of birds suggest the possible vector status of these mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Aves/parasitologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão , Animais , Aves/sangue , Aves/classificação , Sangue/parasitologia , Citocromos b/genética , Haemosporida/classificação , Haemosporida/genética , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Filogenia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
5.
Exp Parasitol ; 222: 108064, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421382

RESUMO

Experimental studies for understanding the relationship between Plasmodium vivax and its vector hosts are difficult, because of to the lack of a long-term, in vitro continuous culture system unavailability of infected blood samples, seasonality of the disease, and the concentration of most cases in remote areas. This study evaluates the duration of the infectivity of P. vivax to Anopheles aquasalis after collecting blood from malaria-infected patients. Blood was collected from patients and stored at 4 °C and 37 °C. Every day, for 4 days, the blood was fed to An. aquasalis adult females, and a Giemsa-stained thick blood smear was mounted to account for sexual (gametocytes) and asexual (trophozoites and schizonts) stages and calculate parasitemia. Oocysts in the midgut of the mosquitoes were counted on the seventh day after feeding. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the mean number of oocysts (MO) and the parasite density (PD) in each storage condition and post-infection time-points. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the number of oocysts for each day between temperatures. The results show that P. vivax stored at 4 °C and at 37 °C has its infectivity to An. aquasalis preserved for 2 days and 3 days, respectively. Infection rate (IR), PD and MO were higher on the day of blood collection and decreased gradually over time. The parasite density (number of parasites/µL) diminished faster at 4 °C than at 37 °C. In this study, a preservation protocol is shown for long-lasting infectivity of P. vivax in a blood sample taken from malaria-infected patients. These results show that infectivity of P. vivax stored at 4 °C and at 37 °C to An. aquasalis persist until 3 days after blood collection, but parasite density, infection rate, and mean of oocysts decreased 24h after blood collection. Since the malaria cases are increasingly far from the urban areas these results indicate that is possible, losing some infectivity, to realize experimental infections several dozen hours after the blood collection. However, it is necessary to improve the procedures for preserving P. vivax gametocytes for mosquito infection in the laboratory.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Vivax/sangue , Malária Vivax/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium vivax/patogenicidade , População Rural , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382730

RESUMO

The specific immune response to the Anopheles salivary peptide could be a pertinent and complementary tool to assess the risk of malaria transmission and the effectiveness of vector control strategies. This study aimed to obtain first reliable data on the current state of the Anopheles gSG6-P1 biomarker for assess the level of exposure to Anopheles bites in high malaria endemic areas in Cameroon. Blood smears were collected from people living in the neighborhoods of Youpwe (suburban area, continental) and Manoka (rural area, Island), both areas in the coastal region of Cameroon. Malaria infection was determined using thick blood smear microscopy, whereas the level of specific IgG response to gSG-P1 peptide was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from the dried blood spots. Of 266 (153 from Youpwe, 113 from Manoka) malaria endemic residents (mean age: 22.8±19.8 years, age range: 6 months-94 years, male/female sex ratio: 1/1.2, with Manoka mean age: 23.71±20.53, male/female sex ratio:1/1.13 and Youpwe mean age: 22.12±19.22, male/female sex ratio 1/0.67) randomly included in the study, Plasmodium infection prevalence was significantly higher in Manoka than in Youpwe (64.6% vs 12,4%, p = 0.0001). The anti-gSG6-P1 IgG response showed a high inter-individual heterogeneity and was significantly higher among individuals from Manoka than those from Youpwe (p = 0.023). Malaria infected individuals presented a higher anti-gSG6-P1 IgG antibody response than non-infected (p = 0.0004). No significant difference in the level of specific IgG response to gSG-P1 was observed according to long lasting insecticidal nets use. Taken together, the data revealed that human IgG antibody response to Anopheles gSG-P1 salivary peptide could be also used to assess human exposure to malaria vectors in Central African region. This finding strengthens the relevance of this candidate biomarker to be used for measuring human exposure to malaria vectors worldwide.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/biossíntese , Lactente , Proteínas de Insetos/sangue , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , População Rural , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/sangue , População Urbana
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(12): e1009131, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382824

RESUMO

Many mosquito species, including the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, naturally undergo multiple reproductive cycles of blood feeding, egg development and egg laying in their lifespan. Such complex mosquito behavior is regularly overlooked when mosquitoes are experimentally infected with malaria parasites, limiting our ability to accurately describe potential effects on transmission. Here, we examine how Plasmodium falciparum development and transmission potential is impacted when infected mosquitoes feed an additional time. We measured P. falciparum oocyst size and performed sporozoite time course analyses to determine the parasite's extrinsic incubation period (EIP), i.e. the time required by parasites to reach infectious sporozoite stages, in An. gambiae females blood fed either once or twice. An additional blood feed at 3 days post infection drastically accelerates oocyst growth rates, causing earlier sporozoite accumulation in the salivary glands, thereby shortening the EIP (reduction of 2.3 ± 0.4 days). Moreover, parasite growth is further accelerated in transgenic mosquitoes with reduced reproductive capacity, which mimic genetic modifications currently proposed in population suppression gene drives. We incorporate our shortened EIP values into a measure of transmission potential, the basic reproduction number R0, and find the average R0 is higher (range: 10.1%-12.1% increase) across sub-Saharan Africa than when using traditional EIP measurements. These data suggest that malaria elimination may be substantially more challenging and that younger mosquitoes or those with reduced reproductive ability may provide a larger contribution to infection than currently believed. Our findings have profound implications for current and future mosquito control interventions.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244479, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370376

RESUMO

Malaria is a vector-borne disease transmitted by Anopheline mosquitoes. In Korea, Plasmodium vivax malaria is an endemic disease and the main vector is Anopheles sinensis. Plasmodium vivax malaria is common in the northwestern part of South Korea, including in the city of Goyang in regions near the demilitarized zone. This study aimed to identify the best time-series model for predicting mosquito average abundance in Goyang, Korea. Mosquito data were obtained from the Mosquito Surveillance Program of the Goyang Ilsanseogu Public Health Center for the period 2008-2012. Black light traps were set up periodically in a park, a senior community center, and a village community center, public health center, drainage pumping station, cactus research center, restaurant near forest, in which many activities occur at night. In total, 9,512 female mosquitoes were collected at 12 permanent trapping sites during the mosquito season in the study period. Weekly An. sinensis average abundance was positively correlated with minimum grass temperature (r = 0.694, p < 0.001), precipitation (r = 0.326, p = 0.001). The results showed that seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) (1,0,0)(0,0,1)21 with minimum grass temperature variable at time lag0 weeks and the precipitation variable at time lag1 weeks provided that best model of mosquito average abundance. The multivariate model accounted for about 54.1% of the mosquito average abundance variation. Time-series analysis of mosquito average abundance and climate factors provided basic information for predicting the occurrence of malaria mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/transmissão , Controle de Mosquitos , Análise Multivariada , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Estações do Ano
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008617, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886679

RESUMO

The zoonotic malaria parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi, is now a substantial public health problem in Malaysian Borneo. Current understanding of P. knowlesi vector bionomics and ecology in Sabah comes from a few studies near the epicentre of human cases in one district, Kudat. These have incriminated Anopheles balabacensis as the primary vector, and suggest that human exposure to vector biting is peri-domestic as well as in forest environments. To address the limited understanding of vector ecology and human exposure risk outside of Kudat, we performed wider scale surveillance across four districts in Sabah with confirmed transmission to investigate spatial heterogeneity in vector abundance, diversity and infection rate. Entomological surveillance was carried out six months after a cross-sectional survey of P. knowlesi prevalence in humans throughout the study area; providing an opportunity to investigate associations between entomological indicators and infection. Human-landing catches were performed in peri-domestic, farm and forest sites in 11 villages (3-4 per district) and paired with estimates of human P. knowlesi exposure based on sero-prevalence. Anopheles balabacensis was present in all districts but only 6/11 villages. The mean density of An. balabacensis was relatively low, but significantly higher in farm (0.094/night) and forest (0.082/night) than peri-domestic areas (0.007/night). Only one An. balabacensis (n = 32) was infected with P. knowlesi. Plasmodium knowlesi sero-positivity in people was not associated with An. balabacensis density at the village-level however post hoc analyses indicated the study had limited power to detect a statistical association due low vector density. Wider scale sampling revealed substantial heterogeneity in vector density and distribution between villages and districts. Vector-habitat associations predicted from this larger-scale surveillance differed from those inferred from smaller-scale studies in Kudat; highlighting the importance of local ecological context. Findings highlight potential trade-offs between maximizing temporal versus spatial breadth when designing entomological surveillance; and provide baseline entomological and epidemiological data to inform future studies of entomological risk factors for human P. knowlesi infection.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium knowlesi/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bornéu/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fazendas , Florestas , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Soroconversão
10.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 389-392, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the population distribution, density, seasonal fluctuation and nocturnal activity of malaria vectors in Anhui Province from 2016 to 2018, so as to provide a data support for formulating the control strategy for imported malaria during the malaria post-elimination stage. METHODS: The malaria vectors were monitored in 105 counties (cities or districts) of Anhui Province from 2016 to 2018, and the population density, seasonal fluctuation and nocturnal activity of the mosquitoes were observed using the lamp trapping and human bait trapping methods. The density of Anopheles mosquitoes was compared among different years, regions and mosquito-capturing sites. RESULTS: Anopheles mosquitoes were captured in 103 counties (cities or districts) of Anhui Province during the period from 2016 to 2018, and a total of 32 494 mosquitoes were captured using the lamp trapping method and 36 228 captured using the human bait trapping method. All captured mosquitoes were morphologically identified as Anopheles sinensis, and no An. anthropophagus was found. The density of An. sinensis peaked from June to August, and the peak nocturnal activity was found during the period between 19∶00 and 23∶00. Among all mosquito-capturing sites, the highest mosquito density was seen in the livestock and poultry sheds (H = 18.835, P < 0.05). The density of An. sinensis varied significantly in regions in 2016 and 2017 (H = 16.655 and 11.566, P < 0.01), and a low density was found in north of the Huai River. CONCLUSIONS: An. sinensis is widely distributed in Anhui Province, which is the currently predominant malaria vector in the province. During the malaria post-elimination stage, the malaria vector monitoring should be intensified and vector control interventions should be timely adopted in epidemic foci of Anhui Province to prevent the local re-transmission of overseas imported malaria.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Mosquitos Vetores , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , China , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0230984, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946446

RESUMO

Insecticide resistance genes are often associated with pleiotropic effects on various mosquito life-history traits. However, very little information is available on the impact of insecticide resistance on blood feeding process in mosquitoes. Here, using two recently detected DNA-based metabolic markers in the major malaria vector, An. funestus, we investigated how metabolic resistance genes could affect the blood meal intake. After allowing both the field F1 and lab F8 Anopheles funestus strains to feed on the human arm for 30 minutes, we assessed the association between key parameters of blood meal process including, probing time, feeding duration, blood feeding success, blood meal size, and markers of glutathione S-transferase (L119F-GSTe2) and cytochrome P450 (CYP6P9a_R)-mediated metabolic resistance. None of the parameters of blood meal process was associated with L119F-GSTe2 genotypes. By contrast, for CYP6P9a_R, homozygous resistant mosquitoes were significantly more able to blood-feed than homozygous susceptible (OR = 3.3; CI 95%: 1.4-7.7; P = 0.01) mosquitoes. Moreover, the volume of blood meal ingested by CYP6P9a-SS mosquitoes was lower than that of CYP6P9a-RS (P<0.004) and of CYP6P9a-RR (P<0.006). This suggests that CYP6P9a gene is inked with the feeding success and blood meal size of An. funestus. However, no correlation was found in the expression of CYP6P9a and that of genes encoding for salivary proteins involved in blood meal process. This study suggests that P450-based metabolic resistance may influence the blood feeding process of Anopheles funestus mosquito and consequently its ability to transmit malaria parasites.


Assuntos
Anopheles/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Mosquitos Vetores/metabolismo , Animais , Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Anopheles/genética , Anopheles/parasitologia , Sangue/metabolismo , Camarões , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium/patogenicidade , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008605, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797109

RESUMO

In human communities inhabiting areas-such as West Bengal- India-where perpetuate the pre-imago & adult developmental stages of mosquitoes; many infectious diseases are still diagnosed such as Dengue, Malaria and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome. The control of the aquatic developmental stages is one of the easiest way to prevent the emergence of adults-the blood feeding adult females being thus prevented to sample their blood meal and to lay their eggs in the aquatic milieu where develop the aquatic pre-imaginal developmental stages. Moreover, reducing the adult population size also the probability of for the blood feeding adult female mosquitoes to act as hosts and vectors of the arboviruses such as dengue virus & Japanese encephalitis virus as well as of Plasmodium. Several environmental factors including water quality parameters are responsible for the selection of oviposition sites by the female mosquitoes. In our study, larval densities of three important mosquitoes (Aedes/A. albopictus, Anopheles/An. stephensi and Culex/C. vishnui) were measured and water qualities of their habitat i.e. pH, Specific Conductance, Dissolved Oxygen, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total alkalinity (Talk), Hardness, Nitrate nitrogen and Ammonia nitrogen were analyzed in 2017 and 2018 in many districts of West Bengal where humans beings are suffering from arboviruses and /or malaria. Whereas we have found positive correlation of density of C. vishnui and A. albopictus with the water factors except Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Talk, for An. stephensi all these factors except pH, COD and Talk have positive correlation. Hardness of the water shows positive correlation with the density of An. stephensi and C. vishnui but negative correlation with density of A. albopictus. Contour plot analysis demonstrates that occurrence of each mosquito species lies in between specific range of water factors. Inter- correlation analysis revealed that mosquitoes were negatively correlated with each other. A positive correlation of the water quality parameters and larval density, over two successive years, was also noticed. In conclusion, the increasing level of pollution due to industrial and other irresponsible waste management system which changes the water quality parameters may also influence mosquito population.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Arbovirus , Culex/fisiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Encefalite Japonesa/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Índia , Larva , Modelos Logísticos , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Análise Multivariada , Densidade Demográfica , Água
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Twenty-seven villages were selected in southwest Burkina Faso to implement new vector control strategies in addition to long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) through a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT). We conducted entomological surveys in the villages during the dry cold season (January 2017), dry hot season (March 2017) and rainy season (June 2017) to describe malaria vectors bionomics, insecticide resistance and transmission prior to this trial. METHODS: We carried out hourly catches (from 17:00 to 09:00) inside and outside 4 houses in each village using the Human Landing Catch technique. Mosquitoes were identified using morphological taxonomic keys. Specimens belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex and Anopheles funestus group were identified using molecular techniques as well as detection of Plasmodium falciparum infection and insecticide resistance target-site mutations. RESULTS: Eight Anopheles species were detected in the area. Anopheles funestus s.s was the main vector during the dry cold season. It was replaced by Anopheles coluzzii during the dry hot season whereas An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. were the dominant species during the rainy season. Species composition of the Anopheles population varied significantly among seasons. All insecticide resistance mechanisms (kdr-w, kdr-e and ace-1 target site mutations) investigated were found in each members of the An. gambiae complex but at different frequencies. We observed early and late biting phenotypes in the main malaria vector species. Entomological inoculation rates were 2.61, 2.67 and 11.25 infected bites per human per month during dry cold season, dry hot season and rainy season, respectively. CONCLUSION: The entomological indicators of malaria transmission were high despite the universal coverage with LLINs. We detected early and late biting phenotypes in the main malaria vector species as well as physiological insecticide resistance mechanisms. These data will be used to evaluate the impact of complementary tools to LLINs in an upcoming RCT.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , Anopheles/genética , Anopheles/parasitologia , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Culex/classificação , Culex/genética , Culex/parasitologia , Culicidae/classificação , Culicidae/genética , Culicidae/parasitologia , Ecologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Controle de Mosquitos/organização & administração , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano
15.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200043, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The number of malaria cases in Roraima nearly tripled from 2016 to 2018. The capital, Boa Vista, considered a low-risk area for malaria transmission, reported an increasing number of autochthonous and imported cases. OBJECTIVES This study describes a spatial analysis on malaria cases in an urban region of Boa Vista, which sought to identify the autochthonous and imported cases and associated them with Anopheles habitats and the potential risk of local transmission. METHODS In a cross-sectional study at the Polyclinic Cosme e Silva, 520 individuals were interviewed and diagnosed with malaria by microscopic examination. Using a global positional system, the locations of malaria cases by type and origin and the breeding sites of anopheline vectors were mapped and the risk of malaria transmission was evaluated by spatial point pattern analysis. FINDINGS Malaria was detected in 57.5% of the individuals and there was a disproportionate number of imported cases (90.6%) linked to Brazilian coming from gold mining sites in Venezuela and Guyana. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The increase in imported malaria cases circulating in the west region of Boa Vista, where there are positive breeding sites for the main vectors, may represent a potential condition for increased autochthonous malaria transmission in this space.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/transmissão , Mineradores/estatística & dados numéricos , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Viagem , Adulto , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Ouro , Guiana , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium/classificação , Análise Espacial , População Urbana , Venezuela
16.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200070, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Nyssorhynchus deaneorum is a potential malaria vector because it has been shown to be competent to transmit Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, and because it exhibits antropophilic and endophilic behaviors in some regions of the Amazon. This profile makes Ny. deaneorum a useful mosquito for experiments that model Plasmodium-vector interactions in the Amazon. OBJECTIVE Herein we describe how a free-mating colony of Ny. deaneorum has been established using an automated light stimulation system. METHODS Mosquitoes were captured in São Francisco do Guaporé, Rondônia. The F1 generation was reared until adult emergence at which point copulation was induced using an automatic copulation induction system (ACIS). FINDINGS After four generations, natural mating and oviposition began to occur without light stimulation. The number of pupae and adult mosquitoes increased from the F5 to F10 generations. The new Ny. deaneorum colony exhibited susceptibility to P. vivax. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Automated light stimulation is an effective method for establishing an Ny. deaneorum colony under laboratory conditions as it produces enough adults to create a stenogamic colony. The establishment of a stable, P. vivax-susceptible colony of Ny. deaneorum makes it possible to model parasite-vector interactions and to test novel drug therapies that target parasite development in mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Copulação/fisiologia , Malária , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Oviposição , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Brasil , Feminino , Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax
17.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(8): 705-716, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620501

RESUMO

Plasmodium parasites experience significant bottlenecks as they transit through the mosquito and are transmitted to their mammalian host. Oocyst prevalence on mosquito midguts and sporozoite prevalence in salivary glands are nevertheless commonly used to confirm successful malaria transmission, assuming that these are reliable indicators of the mosquito's capacity to give rise to secondary infections. Here we discuss recent insights in sporogonic development and transmission bottlenecks for Plasmodium. We highlight critical gaps in our knowledge and frame their importance in understanding the human and mosquito reservoirs of infection. A better understanding of the events that lead to successful inoculation of infectious sporozoites by mosquitoes is critical to designing effective interventions to shrink the malaria map.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium/patogenicidade , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Malária/prevenção & controle , Glândulas Salivares/parasitologia
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1525-1533, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700666

RESUMO

Tororo, a district in Uganda with historically high malaria transmission intensity, has recently scaled up control interventions, including universal long-lasting insecticidal net distribution in 2013 and 2017, and sustained indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide since December 2014. We describe the burden of malaria in Tororo 5 years following the initiation of IRS. We followed a cohort of 531 participants from 80 randomly selected households in Nagongera subcounty, Tororo district, from October 2017 to October 2019. Mosquitoes were collected every 2 weeks using CDC light traps in all rooms where participants slept, symptomatic malaria was identified by passive surveillance, and microscopic and submicroscopic parasitemia were measured every 4 weeks using active surveillance. Over the 2 years of follow-up, 15,780 female anopheline mosquitos were collected, the majority (98.0%) of which were Anopheles arabiensis. The daily human biting rate was 2.07, and the annual entomological inoculation rate was 0.43 infective bites/person/year. Only 38 episodes of malaria were diagnosed (incidence 0.04 episodes/person/year), and there were no cases of severe malaria or malarial deaths. The prevalence of microscopic parasitemia was 1.9%, and the combined prevalence of microscopic and submicroscopic parasitemia was 10.4%, each highest in children aged 5-15 years (3.3% and 14.0%, respectively). After 5 years of intensive vector control measures in Tororo, the burden of malaria was reduced to very low transmission levels. However, a significant proportion of the population remained parasitemic, primarily school-aged children with submicroscopic parasitemia, providing a potential reservoir for malaria transmission.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Malária/epidemiologia , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/transmissão , Masculino , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Parasitemia/transmissão , Prevalência , Uganda/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS Biol ; 18(6): e3000633, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584814

RESUMO

Mitigating the threat of insecticide resistance in African malaria vector populations requires comprehensive information about where resistance occurs, to what degree, and how this has changed over time. Estimating these trends is complicated by the sparse, heterogeneous distribution of observations of resistance phenotypes in field populations. We use 6,423 observations of the prevalence of resistance to the most important vector control insecticides to inform a Bayesian geostatistical ensemble modelling approach, generating fine-scale predictive maps of resistance phenotypes in mosquitoes from the Anopheles gambiae complex across Africa. Our models are informed by a suite of 111 predictor variables describing potential drivers of selection for resistance. Our maps show alarming increases in the prevalence of resistance to pyrethroids and DDT across sub-Saharan Africa from 2005 to 2017, with mean mortality following insecticide exposure declining from almost 100% to less than 30% in some areas, as well as substantial spatial variation in resistance trends.


Assuntos
Resistência a Inseticidas , Malária/parasitologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , África , DDT/toxicidade , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Análise Espaço-Temporal
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10183, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576924

RESUMO

Malaria, a vector-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp., remains a major global cause of mortality. Optimization of disease control strategies requires a thorough understanding of the processes underlying parasite transmission. While the number of transmissible stages (gametocytes) of Plasmodium in blood is frequently used as an indicator of host-to-mosquito transmission potential, this relationship is not always clear. Significant effort has been made in developing molecular tools that improve gametocyte density estimation and therefore prediction of mosquito infection rates. However a significant level of uncertainty around estimates remains. The weakness in the relationship between gametocyte burden, measured from a blood sample, and the mosquito infection rate could be explained by a non-homogeneous distribution of gametocytes in the bloodstream. The estimated gametocyte density would then only be a single snapshot that does not reflect the host infectivity. This aspect of Plasmodium infection, however, remains largely neglected. In both humans and birds, we found here that the gametocyte densities differed depending on which side of the body the sample was taken, suggesting that gametocytes are not homogeneously distributed within the vertebrate host. We observed a fluctuating asymmetry, in other words, the extremity of the body with the highest density of parasites is not always the same from one individual to another. An estimation of gametocyte density from only one blood sample, as is commonly measured, could, therefore, over- or underestimated the infectivity of gametocyte carriers. This might have important consequences on the epidemiology of the disease since we show that this variation influences host-to-mosquito transmission. Vectors fed on the least infected body part had a lower parasite burden than those fed on the most infected part. The heterogeneous distribution of gametocytes in bloodstream should be considered to improve diagnosis and test new malaria control strategies.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Vertebrados/parasitologia , Animais , Canários/parasitologia , Portador Sadio/parasitologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Culex/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium/patogenicidade
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