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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(51): e2208447119, 2022 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508662

RESUMO

Coevolutionary interactions are responsible for much of the Earth's biodiversity, with key innovations driving speciation bursts on both sides of the interaction. One persistent question is whether macroevolutionary traits identified as key innovations accurately predict functional performance and selection dynamics within species, as this necessitates characterizing their function, investigating their fitness consequences, and exploring the selection dynamics acting upon them. Here, we used CRISPR-Cas9 mediating nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) in the butterfly species Pieris brassicae to knock out and directly assess the function and fitness impacts of nitrile specifier protein (NSP) and major allergen (MA). These are two closely related genes that facilitate glucosinolate (GSL) detoxification capacity, which is a key innovation in mustard feeding Pierinae butterflies. We find NSP and MA are both required for survival on plants containing GSLs, with expression differences arising in response to variable GSL profiles, concordant with detoxification performance. Importantly, this concordance was only observed when using natural host plants, likely reflecting the complexity of how these enzymes interact with natural plant variation in GSLs and myrosinases. Finally, signatures of positive selection for NSP and MA were detected across Pieris species, consistent with these genes' importance in recent coevolutionary interactions. Thus, the war between these butterflies and their host plants involves more than the mere presence of chemical defenses and detoxification mechanisms, as their regulation and activation represent key components of complex interactions. We find that inclusion of these dynamics, in ecologically relevant assays, is necessary for coevolutionary insights in this system and likely others.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Borboletas/fisiologia , Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais
2.
J Biotechnol ; 359: 95-107, 2022 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155079

RESUMO

During this decade, selenium nanoparticles have been found to play a crucial role in helping plants endure several stress conditions, which thereby helps enhance the production of crops in such harsh environments. Globally, high salinity is considered a long-term stress in the crop fields which affects the growth and production of many crops, including mustard-one of the most important oil crops. Here, the activities of spherical-shaped selenium nanoparticles with an average particle size of 55.81 nm, synthesized and functionalized by phytochemicals of fresh grape aqueous extract, were evaluated in the salinity stress (200 mM NaCl) tolerance of mustard plants grown hydroponically in modified Hoagland's solution. These bioactive nanoparticles (30 mg L-1) have exhibited significant activity in alleviating the salt stress complications in mustard, enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD 41.20 %, CAT 64.10 %, APX 63.06 %, and POX 70.43 %), phenolic content (98.88 %), flavonoid content (86.90 %), and free radical scavenging activity (61.89 %). The seed germination percentage, root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight per plant, water content percentage, chlorophyll content, carbohydrate content, and protein content were significantly improved by 39.66 %, 75 %, 60.64 %, 41.2 %, 22.11 %, 1.02 %, 81.92 %, 24.65 % and 79.14 % respectively by the nano selenium application during NaCl stress compared to the control group growing under salt stress without nanoparticles. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry chromatogram analysis inferred the interaction between the nano-selenium and mustard plants under salt stress. Besides, the in-silico analysis revealed the active molecular interactions between selenium and 20 different proteins of mustard, including glutathione peroxidase, an important antioxidant enzyme.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa , Nanopartículas , Selênio , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Salino , Clorofila/metabolismo , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Flavonoides , Água , Carboidratos , Radicais Livres
3.
Plant Sci ; 324: 111425, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007630

RESUMO

Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) faces significant yield loss due to the 'Black Spot Disease,' caused by a fungus Alternaria brassicicola. In plants, NAC transcription factors (NAC TFs) are known for their roles in development and stress tolerance. One such NAC TF, NAC 62, was induced during A. brassicicola challenge in Sinapis alba, a non-host resistant plant against this fungus. Sequence analyses of BjuNAC62 from B. juncea showed that it belonged to the membrane-bound class of transcription factors. Gene expression study revealed differential protein processing of NAC62 between B. juncea and S. alba on pathogen challenge. Furthermore, NAC62 processing to 25 kDa protein was found to be unique to the resistant plant during pathogenesis. Conditional expression of BjuNAC62ΔC, which lacks its transmembrane domain, in B. juncea showed improved tolerance to A. brassicicola. BjuNAC62ΔC processing to 25 kDa product was also observed in tolerant transgenic plants. Additionally, transgenic plants showed induced expression of genes associated with defense-related phytohormone signaling pathways on pathogen challenge. Again, altered phenotypes suggest a possible developmental effect of BjuNAC62∆C in transgenic plants. The overall results suggest that the processing of BjuNAC62 might be playing a crucial role in resistance response against Black Spot disease by modulating defense-associated genes.


Assuntos
Mostardeira , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Alternaria , Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
Biosci Rep ; 42(7)2022 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737296

RESUMO

Heterotrimeric G-proteins interact with various upstream and downstream effectors to regulate various aspects of plant growth and development. G-protein effectors have been recently reported in Arabidopsis thaliana; however, less information is available from polyploid crop species having complex networks of G-protein components. Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) is a well-characterized GTPase accelerating protein, which plays an important role in the regulation of the G-protein cycle in plants. In the present study, four homologs encoding RGS proteins were isolated from the allotetraploid Brassica juncea, a globally important oilseed, vegetable, and condiment crop. The B. juncea RGS proteins were grouped into distinct BjuRGS1 and BjuRGS2 orthologous clades, and the expression of BjuRGS1 homologs was predominantly higher than BjuRGS2 homologs across the tested tissue types of B. juncea. Utilizing B. juncea Y2H library screening, a total of 30 nonredundant interacting proteins with the RGS-domain of the highly expressed BjuA.RGS1 was identified. Gene ontology analysis indicated that these effectors exerted various molecular, cellular, and physiological functions. Many of them were known to regulate cell wall metabolism (BjuEXP6, Bju-α-MAN, BjuPGU4, BjuRMS3) and phosphorylation-mediated cell signaling (BjuMEK4, BjuDGK3, and BjuKinase). Furthermore, transcript analysis indicated that the identified interacting proteins have a coexpression pattern with the BjuRGS homologs. These findings increase our knowledge about the novel targets of G-protein components from a globally cultivated Brassica crop and provide an important resource for developing a plant G-protein interactome network.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Proteínas RGS , Arabidopsis/genética , Parede Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP , Humanos , Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas RGS/genética , Proteínas RGS/metabolismo
5.
Plant Cell Environ ; 45(9): 2841-2855, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35611630

RESUMO

Plants developing into the flowering stage undergo major physiological changes. Because flowers are reproductive tissues and resource sinks, strategies to defend them may differ from those for leaves. Thus, this study investigates the defences of flowering plants by assessing processes that sustain resistance (constitutive and induced) and tolerance to attack. We exposed the annual plant Brassica nigra to three distinct floral attackers (caterpillar, aphid and bacterial pathogen) and measured whole-plant responses at 4, 8 and 12 days after the attack. We simultaneously analysed profiles of primary and secondary metabolites in leaves and inflorescences and measured dry biomass of roots, leaves and inflorescences as proxies of resource allocation and regrowth. Regardless of treatments, inflorescences contained 1.2 to 4 times higher concentrations of primary metabolites than leaves, and up to 7 times higher concentrations of glucosinolates, which highlights the plant's high investment of resources into inflorescences. No induction of glucosinolates was detected in inflorescences, but the attack transiently affected the total concentration of soluble sugars in both leaves and inflorescences. We conclude that B. nigra evolved high constitutive rather than inducible resistance to protect their flowers; plants additionally compensated for damage by attackers via the regrowth of reproductive parts. This strategy may be typical of annual plants.


Assuntos
Flores , Glucosinolatos , Flores/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Inflorescência , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo
6.
Chemosphere ; 303(Pt 1): 135046, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35618056

RESUMO

As magnetic fields constantly act on living and biochemical processes, it is reasonable to hypothesize that magnetic field treatment of plant seeds would enhance the uptake capacity of non-essential elements. To verify this hypothesis, seeds of Brassica juncea were treated with 50, 100, 150, 200, and 400 mT fields, and the dry weight, Cd uptake capacity, ferritin content, antioxidant enzyme activity, and phytoremediation effects of the plant were compared at the end of the experiment. Relative to the control, low- and moderate-intensity fields (50-200 mT) enhanced the dry weight of plant leaves by 15.1%, 24.5%, 35.8%, and 49.1%, respectively, whereas the high-intensity field (400 mT) decreased the biomass yield by 18.9%. The content of Cd in the above-ground tissues of B. juncea enhanced with the increasing field intensity, accompanied by an increase in oxidative damage. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increased with exposure to low (50 and 100 mT) and moderate (150 and 200 mT) intensities, followed by a reduction at a high intensity (400 mT). Catalase activity (CAT) and ferritin content exhibited an increasing trend with increasing intensity. The Cd decontamination index of B. juncea increased with the increasing magnetic field intensity until it reached a peak at 150 mT, after which the values remained constant. Considering the phytoremediation effect and energy consumption, 150 mT was the optimal scheme for magnetic-field-assisted phytoremediation using B. juncea. This study suggests that a suitable magnetic field can be regarded as an ecologically friendly physical trigger to improve the phytoextraction effect of B. juncea.


Assuntos
Mostardeira , Poluentes do Solo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Ferritinas/farmacologia , Campos Magnéticos , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 174, 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brassica juncea behaves as a moderate-level accumulator of various heavy metal ions and is frequently used for remediation. To investigate the roles of metal ion transporters in B. juncea, a cation-efflux family gene, BjCET1, was cloned and functionally characterized. RESULTS: BjCET1 contains 382 amino acid residues, including a signature motif of the cation diffusion facilitator protein family, six classic trans-membrane-spanning structures and a cation-efflux domain. A phylogenetic analysis showed that BjCET1 has a high similarity level with metal tolerance proteins from other Brassica plants, indicating that this protein family is highly conserved in Brassica. BjCET1 expression significantly increased at very early stages during both cadmium and zinc treatments. Green fluorescence detection in transgenic tobacco leaves revealed that BjCET1 is a plasma membrane-localized protein. The heterologous expression of BjCET1 in a yeast mutant increased the heavy-metal tolerance and decreased the cadmium or zinc accumulations in yeast cells, suggesting that BjCET1 is a metal ion transporter. The constitutive expression of BjCET1 rescued the heavy-metal tolerance capability of transgenic tobacco plants. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that BjCET1 is a membrane-localized efflux transporter that plays essential roles in heavy metal ion homeostasis and hyper-accumulation.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Mostardeira , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cátions/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Filogenia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 182, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a vital osmoticum, proline has an important role in enhancing the tolerance of plants to environmental stress. It is unclear whether the application of exogenous proline can improve the tolerance of Brassica juncea to cadmium (Cd). RESULTS: This study investigated the effects of different concentrations of proline (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/L) under Cd stress at different times (0 d, 2 d, and 7 d) on the growth and physiology of B. juncea. Treatment with exogenous proline not only increased the content of proline in B. juncea but also alleviated Cd-induced seedling growth inhibition via the maintenance of higher photosynthetic pigment content and cell viability and a decrease in the content of Cd. Moreover, it increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio to reduce the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Compared with other concentrations, 60 mg/L of exogenous proline was the most effective at mitigating Cd toxicity in B. juncea. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous proline treatment enhanced the tolerance to Cd via a decrease in Cd accumulation and reestablishment of the redox homeostasis in B. juncea.


Assuntos
Mostardeira , Poluentes do Solo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/análise , Homeostase , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Prolina/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
9.
Physiol Plant ; 174(2): e13669, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293615

RESUMO

Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS), the key enzyme in the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine biosynthesis pathway, has gained intensive investigation because it is the target of five different AHAS herbicides widely used to control weeds in farmland. In the present study, the AHAS gene family in Brassica juncea and B. carinata and their progenitor species was characterized in combination with bioinformatics, gene-specific PCR and qRT-PCR analyses. The results indicated that B. juncea contains four AHAS genes, of them, BjuAHAS3 and BjuAHAS4 originated from the A genome donor of B. rapa, whereas BjuAHAS6 and BjuAHAS7 from the B genome donor of B. nigra. BjuAHAS3 and BjuAHAS6 are predicted to be functional and constitutively expressed in all vegetative and reproductive tissues in the tested B. juncea accessions. B. carinata contains five AHAS genes, of them, BcaAHAS1, BcaAHAS2, and BcaAHAS5 originated from the C genome donor of B. oleracea, whereas BcaAHAS6 and BcaAHAS7 came from the B genome donor of B. nigra. BcaAHAS1, BcaAHAS2, and BcaAHAS6 are predicted to be functional. BcaAHAS1 and BcaAHAS6 are constitutively expressed in all vegetative and reproductive tissues in the tested B. carinata accessions, however, BcaAHAS2 is mainly expressed in siliques. In addition, translocation events for the AHAS1, AHAS2, and AHAS7 genes occurred when the three amphidiploids species B. napus, B. juncea, and B. carinata were formed by hybridization of their respective diploid species. The findings in this study will provide important basic information for the breeding of herbicide-resistant varieties in B. juncea and B. carinata.


Assuntos
Acetolactato Sintase , Herbicidas , Acetolactato Sintase/genética , Diploide , Família Multigênica , Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/metabolismo
10.
Physiol Plant ; 174(1): e13618, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35199363

RESUMO

We previously generated Brassica juncea lines overexpressing either glyoxalase I (gly I) or γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) involved in the glyoxalase system and tocopherol biosynthesis, respectively. These transgenic plants showed tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. As tolerance is a complex trait that can be improved by pyramiding of several characteristics in a single genotype, we generated in this study B. juncea plants coexpressing gly I and γ-TMT by crossing the previously generated stable transgenic lines. The performance of the newly generated B. juncea lines coexpressing gly I and γ-TMT was compared with that of wild-type and the single transgenic lines under non-stressed and NaCl and mannitol stress conditions. Our results show a more robust antioxidant response of B. juncea plants coexpressing gly I and γ-TMT compared to the other lines in terms of higher chlorophyll retention, relative water content, antioxidant enzyme and proline levels, and photosynthetic efficiency and lower oxidative damage. The differences in response to the stress of the different lines were reflected in their yield parameters. Overall, we demonstrate that the pyramiding of multiple genes involved in antioxidant pathways could be a viable and useful approach for achieving higher abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants.


Assuntos
Lactoilglutationa Liase , Secas , Lactoilglutationa Liase/genética , Lactoilglutationa Liase/metabolismo , Metiltransferases , Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Salinidade , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transgenes
11.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 297(1): 75-85, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786636

RESUMO

Brassica juncea is one of a unique vegetable in China, its tumorous stem can be processed into pickle or as fresh vegetable. For a long time, early-bolting as a main factor affects yield and quality of B. juncea, which happens about 15% all year round. As plant specific blue light receptors, FKF1/LKP2 involved in photoperiod flowering. To analyze the expression levels of BjuFKF1/BjuLKP2 and screen their interaction proteins in B. juncea, qRT-PCR and yeast two hybrid assays were recruited. qRT-PCR assays found that the expression levels of BjuFKF1 and BjuLKP2 were up-regulated expressed under both white and blue light. When under different light, BjuFKF1 was significantly increased at vegetative growth stage, but decreased in flowers under blue light. For BjuLKP2, its expression levels did not show significant changes under different light treatment. To investigate interaction proteins, BjuFKF1 and BjuLKP2 were used as bait proteins, and nine potential proteins were screened from yeast library. Yeast two hybrid assays was recruited to further verify their interaction, the results showed that both BjuFKF1 and BjuLKP2 interacted with BjuCOL, BjuCOL3, BjuCOL5, BjuAP2, BjuAP2-1 and BjuSKP1f, only BjuLKP2 interacted with BjuSVP-1 and BjuCDF1 in vivo. In this study, BjuFKF1 and BjuLKP2 were up-regulated expressed under both white and blue light. Yeast two hybrid results verified that BjuFKF1 and BjuLKP2 interacted with six and eight of those nine proteins in vivo, respectively. All of those results will provided reference genes to study BjuFKF1/BjuLKP2 regulated flowering pathway in B. juncea.


Assuntos
Proteínas CLOCK , Flores/genética , Mostardeira , Proteínas CLOCK/genética , Proteínas CLOCK/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
New Phytol ; 233(6): 2548-2560, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34953172

RESUMO

The phenotypic plasticity of flowering plants in response to herbivore damage to vegetative tissues can affect plant interactions with flower-feeding organisms. Such induced systemic responses are probably regulated by defence-related phytohormones that signal flowers to alter secondary chemistry that affects resistance to florivores. Current knowledge on the effects of damage to vegetative tissues on plant interactions with florivores and the underlying mechanisms is limited. We compared the preference and performance of two florivores on flowering Brassica nigra plants damaged by one of three herbivores feeding from roots or leaves. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we quantified expression patterns of marker genes for defence-related phytohormonal pathways, and concentrations of phytohormones and glucosinolates in buds and flowers. Florivores displayed contrasting preferences for plants damaged by herbivores feeding on roots and leaves. Chewing florivores performed better on plants damaged by folivores, but worse on plants damaged by the root herbivore. Chewing root and foliar herbivory led to specific induced changes in the phytohormone profile of buds and flowers. This resulted in increased glucosinolate concentrations for leaf-damaged plants, and decreased glucosinolate concentrations for root-damaged plants. The outcome of herbivore-herbivore interactions spanning from vegetative tissues to floral tissues is unique for the inducing root/leaf herbivore and receiving florivore combination.


Assuntos
Flores , Herbivoria , Flores/fisiologia , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
13.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(11)2021 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828391

RESUMO

Sclerotinia stem rot is one of the utmost important disease of mustard, causing considerable losses in seed yield and oil quality. The study of the genetic and proteomic basis of resistance to this disease is imperative for its effective utilization in developing resistant cultivars. Therefore, the genetic pattern of Sclerotinia stem rot resistance in Indian mustard was studied using six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1P1, and BC1P2) developed from the crossing of one resistant (RH 1222-28) and two susceptible (EC 766300 and EC 766123) genotypes. Genetic analysis revealed that resistance was governed by duplicate epistasis. Comparative proteome analysis of resistant and susceptible genotypes indicated that peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (A0A078IDN6 PPIase) showed high expression in resistant genotype at the early infection stage while its expression was delayed in susceptible genotypes. This study provides important insight to mustard breeders for designing effective breeding programs to develop resistant cultivars against this devastating disease.


Assuntos
Mostardeira/genética , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteoma/genética , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Mostardeira/microbiologia , Peptidilprolil Isomerase/genética , Peptidilprolil Isomerase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22345, 2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785730

RESUMO

Plant metal hyperaccumulators, to which Brassica juncea belongs, must have very efficient defence mechanisms that enable growth and development in an environment polluted with various heavy metals. B. juncea (Indiana mustard) v. Malopolska was exposed to the activity of trace elements such as cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in combinations: CuPb, CuCd, CuZn, PbCd, PbZn, and ZnCd in a concentration of 25 µM each for 96 h during control cultivation. We observed a clear tendency for metal uptake and accumulation in above-ground parts which is characteristic of hyperaccumulators. The combinations of CuCd, CuZn, and PbCd inhibited the development of the seedlings the most. The used metal combinations increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (O2.-) and oxidized proteins in B. juncea organs, generating oxidative stress conditions in the cells. We determined the level of transcription of the respective defence proteins of the detoxification and antioxidant systems. We have shown that in the first 24 h of stress condiction, activation of glutamylcysteine-γ synthetase (yECS) and glutathione reductase (GR1) enzymes related to the detoxification of heavy metals is important for B. juncea plants. In addition, the data provide important information on how plants respond to the presence of heavy metals in the first days of stress conditions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Metais Pesados , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/farmacologia , Superóxidos/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684752

RESUMO

Biogenic amines (BAs) and nitrites are both considered harmful compounds for customer health, and are closely correlated with the microorganisms in fermented mustard (FM). In this study, BAs and nitrite contents in fifteen FM samples from different brands were analyzed. The concentrations of cadaverine in one sample and of histamine in one sample were above the toxic level. Moreover, five FM samples contained a high level of nitrite, exceeding the maximum residue limit (20 mg/kg) suggested by the National Food Safety Standard. Then, this study investigated bacterial and fungal communities by high-throughput sequencing analysis. Firmicutes and Basidiomycota were identified as the major bacteria and fungi phylum, respectively. The correlations among microorganisms, BAs and nitrite were analyzed. Typtamine showed a positive correlation with Lactobacillus and Pseudomonas. Cadaverine and nitrite is positively correlated with Leuconostoc. Furthermore, thirteen strains were selected from the samples to evaluate the accumulation and degradation properties of their BAs and nitrite. The results indicated that the Lactobacillus isolates, including L. plantarum GZ-2 and L. brevis SC-2, can significantly reduce BAs and nitrite in FM model experiments. This study not only assessed the contents of BAs and nitrite in FM samples, but also provided potential starter cultures for BAs and nitrite control in the FM products industry.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Mostardeira/microbiologia , Nitritos/análise , Bactérias/metabolismo , Aminas Biogênicas/química , Reatores Biológicos , Cadaverina/toxicidade , China , Fermentação , Alimentos Fermentados/análise , Fungos/metabolismo , Histamina/toxicidade , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Microbiota/fisiologia , Mostardeira/química , Nitritos/química
16.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 22(10): 1180-1194, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374201

RESUMO

Heterotrimeric G-proteins are one of the highly conserved signal transducers across phyla. Despite the obvious importance of G-proteins in controlling various plant growth and environmental responses, there is no information describing the regulatory complexity of G-protein networks during pathogen response in a polyploid crop. Here, we investigated the role of extra-large G-proteins (XLGs) in the oilseed crop Brassica juncea, which has inherent susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The allotetraploid B. juncea genome contains multiple homologs of three XLG genes (two BjuXLG1, five BjuXLG2, and three BjuXLG3), sharing a high level of sequence identity, gene structure organization, and phylogenetic relationship with the progenitors' orthologs. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis revealed that BjuXLGs have retained distinct expression patterns across plant developmental stages and on S. sclerotiorum infection. To determine the role of BjuXLG genes in the B. juncea defence response against S. sclerotiorum, RNAi-based suppression was performed. Disease progression analysis showed more rapid lesion expansion and fungal accumulation in BjuXLG-RNAi lines compared to the vector control plants, wherein suppression of BjuXLG3 homologs displayed more compromised defence response at the later time point. Knocking down BjuXLGs caused impairment of the host resistance mechanism to S. sclerotiorum, as indicated by reduced expression of defence marker genes PDF1.2 and WRKY33 on pathogen infection. Furthermore, BjuXLG-RNAi lines showed reduced accumulation of leaf glucosinolates on S. sclerotiorum infection, wherein aliphatic glucosinolates were significantly compromised. Overall, our data suggest that B. juncea XLG genes are important signalling nodes modulating the host defence pathways in response to this necrotrophic pathogen.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos , Mostardeira , Doenças das Plantas , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Mostardeira/microbiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445145

RESUMO

The main goal of growing plants under various photoperiods is to optimize photosynthesis for using the effect of day length that often acts on plants in combination with biotic and/or abiotic stresses. In this study, Brassica juncea plants were grown under four different day-length regimes, namely., 8 h day/16 h night, 12 h day/12 h night, 16 h day/8 h night, and continuous light, and were infected with a necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. The development of necroses on B. juncea leaves was strongly influenced by leaf position and day length. The largest necroses were formed on plants grown under a 16 h day/8 h night photoperiod at 72 h post-inoculation (hpi). The implemented day-length regimes had a great impact on leaf morphology in response to A. brassicicola infection. They also influenced the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and photosynthesis efficiency. Both the 1st (the oldest) and 3rd infected leaves showed significantly higher minimal fluorescence (F0) compared to the control leaves. Significantly lower values of other investigated chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, e.g., maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), were observed in both infected leaves compared to the control, especially at 72 hpi. The oldest infected leaf, of approximately 30% of the B. juncea plants, grown under long-day and continuous light conditions showed a 'green island' phenotype in the form of a green ring surrounding an area of necrosis at 48 hpi. This phenomenon was also reflected in changes in the chloroplast's ultrastructure and accelerated senescence (yellowing) in the form of expanding chlorosis. Further research should investigate the mechanism and physiological aspects of 'green islands' formation in this pathosystem.


Assuntos
Alternaria/patogenicidade , Mostardeira/microbiologia , Mostardeira/fisiologia , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/patologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Necrose/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
18.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(10): 3167-3181, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269830

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Disomic alien chromosome addition Brassica carinata lines with super-high erucic acid content were developed through interspecific hybridization with B. juncea and characterized using molecular, cytological and biochemical techniques. Brassica carinata [A.] Braun (BBCC, 2n = 34) is a climate-resilient oilseed. Its seed oil is high in erucic acid (> 40%), rendering it well suited for the production of biofuel and other bio-based applications. To enhance the competitiveness of B. carinata with high erucic B. napus (HEAR), lines with super-high erucic acid content were developed through interspecific hybridization. To this end, a fad2B null allele from Brassica juncea (AABB, 2n = 36) was introgressed into B. carinata, resulting in a B. carinata fad2B mutant with erucic acid levels of over 50%. Subsequently, the FAE allele from B. rapa spp. yellow sarson (AA, 2n = 20) was transferred to the fad2B B. carinata line, yielding lines with erucic acid contents of up to 57.9%. Molecular analysis using the Brassica 90 K Illumina Infinium™ SNP genotyping array identified these lines as disomic alien chromosome addition lines, with two extra A08 chromosomes containing the BrFAE gene. The alien chromosomes from B. rapa were clearly distinguished by molecular cytogenetics in one of the addition lines. Analysis of microspore-derived offspring and hybrids from crosses with a CMS B. carinata line showed that the transfer rate of the A08 chromosome into male gametes was over 98%, resulting in almost completely stable transmission of an A08 chromosome copy into the progeny. The increase in erucic acid levels was accompanied by changes in the proportions of other fatty acids depending on the genetic changes that were introduced in the interspecific hybrids, providing valuable insights into erucic acid metabolism in Brassica.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Ácidos Erúcicos/metabolismo , Hibridização Genética , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Ácidos Erúcicos/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281271

RESUMO

The allotetraploid species Brassica juncea (mustard) is grown worldwide as oilseed and vegetable crops; the yellow seed-color trait is particularly important for oilseed crops. Here, to examine the factors affecting seed coat color, we performed a metabolic and transcriptomic analysis of yellow- and dark-seeded B. juncea seeds. In this study, we identified 236 compounds, including 31 phenolic acids, 47 flavonoids, 17 glucosinolates, 38 lipids, 69 other hydroxycinnamic acid compounds, and 34 novel unknown compounds. Of these, 36 compounds (especially epicatechin and its derivatives) accumulated significantly different levels during the development of yellow- and dark-seeded B. juncea. In addition, the transcript levels of BjuDFR, BjuANS,BjuBAN, BjuTT8, and BjuTT19 were closely associated with changes to epicatechin and its derivatives during seed development, implicating this pathway in the seed coat color determinant in B. juncea. Furthermore, we found numerous variations of sequences in the TT8A genes that may be associated with the stability of seed coat color in B. rapa, B. napus, and B. juncea, which might have undergone functional differentiation during polyploidization in the Brassica species. The results provide valuable information for understanding the accumulation of metabolites in the seed coat color of B. juncea and lay a foundation for exploring the underlying mechanism.


Assuntos
Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Mostardeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Pigmentação/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209216

RESUMO

Dead organs enclosing embryos, such as seed coats and pericarps, are emerging as important maternally-derived components of the dispersal unit that affect seed performance and fate. In the face of climate change and increased incidents of heatwaves, we sought to investigate the effect of salinity (S), short episodes of high temperature (HS), and combination of S + HS (SHS), at the reproductive phase, on the properties of dead pericarps of Brassica juncea. Proteome and metabolome analyses revealed multiple proteins and metabolites stored in dead pericarps whose levels and composition were altered under single and combined stress conditions. The protein profile of SHS showed a higher correlation with salt than with HS indicating the dominant effect of salt over heat stress. On the other hand, the analysis of metabolites showed that the profile of SHS has better correlation with HS than with salt. The integration of metabolic and proteomic data showed that changes in TCA cycle intermediates and certain amino acids (e.g., proline) under salt treatments (S and SHS) are highly correlated with changes in proteins involved in their biosynthetic pathways. Thus, accumulation of proteins and metabolites in dead pericarps is differently affected by single and combination of salt and heat stresses. Salinity appears to dominate plant response to combined stresses at the protein level, while heat appears to be the major factor affecting metabolite accumulation in dead pericarps.


Assuntos
Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Pressão Osmótica , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese
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