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1.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 24(1): 215, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders are common in clinical settings, but physicians still lack sufficient understanding and effective management of these conditions. METHODS: This research assessed Egyptian physicians' knowledge, practices, and attitudes towards GI motility disorders. A cross-sectional survey employing a self-administered questionnaire was carried out among physicians in Egypt. The questionnaire addressed various aspects of physicians' understanding, practices, and attitudes regarding GI motility disorders. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics and presented as frequencies and percentages. RESULTS: A total of 462 physicians took part in the study. Although nearly two-thirds of them knew about GI motility studies, a notable proportion lacked adequate knowledge about GI motility disorders. Notably, 84.2% correctly identified dysphagia as a critical symptom suggestive of an upper GI motility disorder. However, 13.4% incorrectly linked hematemesis with an upper GI motility disorder, and 16.7% expressed uncertainty. In terms of practice, around half of the participants encountered a small number of patients with GI motility disorders (less than 5 per week or even fewer). Only 29.7% felt confident in managing patients with motility disorders. Most participating physicians expressed a willingness to participate in training programs focused on motility disorders. CONCLUSIONS: This study underscores a knowledge gap among Egyptian physicians concerning GI motility disorders. It suggests the necessity of tailored education and training programs to improve their competency and practice in this domain.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Gastroenteropatias , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Egito , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/psicologia , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Competência Clínica , Adulto , Médicos/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica
2.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 57: e13452, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958368

RESUMO

The misuse of anabolic androgenic steroid associated or not with physical workouts disrupts gastrointestinal (GI) function homeostasis. Our goal was to investigate the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and moderate swimming on the GI transit of solid meals, GI motor contractility, and intestinal histology in rats. Male Wistar rats were allocated to four groups that received intramuscular injections of ND (5.0 mg/kg) or vehicle (60.0 µL) and were submitted or not to swimming sessions (60 min, 5% body weight overload) for 4 weeks. Gastric emptying, intestinal transit, in vitro GI contractility, intestinal morphometry, and duodenal mucosal mast cells were evaluated in all experimental groups. ND treatment accelerated gastric emptying, slowed small intestine transit time, enhanced gastric carbachol-mediated reactivity, decreased crypt depth and villus height, reduced mucosal thickness, and increased the circular and longitudinal muscle layer thickness of the duodenum in sedentary rats. Moderate exercise accelerated intestinal transit time and reduced submucosa thickness. In vehicle-treated animals, a strong negative correlation was found between intestinal transit and mucosal mast cells, which was reversed by ND treatment. Combining ND treatment and swimming accelerated gastric emptying, increased duodenal cholinergic reactivity, inhibited the sodium nitroprusside relaxing response, increased the number of duodenal mast cells, decreased villus height, and increased the thickness of all muscle layers. ND changed the morphological and functional properties of the GI tract over time, with intense dysmotility, especially in sedentary animals, but moderate exercise seemed to have played a compensatory role in these harmful effects in the gut.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes , Duodeno , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Decanoato de Nandrolona , Nandrolona , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Ratos Wistar , Animais , Masculino , Decanoato de Nandrolona/farmacologia , Duodeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Anabolizantes/farmacologia , Nandrolona/farmacologia , Nandrolona/análogos & derivados , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Natação , Esvaziamento Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 254, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Considering the significant prevalence of ileus after abdominal surgery and the beneficial effects of Cuminum cyminum in digestive problems, this study aimed to examine whether Cuminum cyminum has any effect on the return of bowel motility after abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this triple-blind clinical trial study, 74 patients undergoing abdominal surgery were assigned to the intervention and control groups using minimization methods. The patients in the intervention group consumed 250 mg capsules containing Cuminum cyminum extract 4 h after the surgery and another dose of the drug 1 h afterward. The patients in the control group consumed a 250 mg capsule containing starch as a placebo at hours similar to those in the intervention group. The instruments used to collect the data were a demographic questionnaire and a researcher-made checklist to assess bowel habits. The data were analyzed using SPSS-22 software. RESULTS: The average time of gas passing in the intervention and control groups was 9.03 ± 3.41 and 11.72 ± 4.21 h, respectively. The defecation times in the intervention and control groups were 16.97 ± 5.02 and 26 ± 9.87 h, showing a significant difference between the two groups as indicated by the independent samples T-test (P > 0.001). Furthermore, abdominal pain, abdominal bloating, nausea, and vomiting were significantly less frequent in the intervention group compared to the control group as confirmed by Fisher's exact test (P > 0.001). CONCLUSION: According to the results, the consumption of Cuminum cyminum after abdominal surgery helps to reduce the time of gas passing, defecation, and the return of bowel motility. However, additional studies need to address the effectiveness of Cuminum cyminum by changing the time and duration of its use.


Assuntos
Cuminum , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Extratos Vegetais , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Abdome/cirurgia , Idoso , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Defecação/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(22): 2852-2865, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38947292

RESUMO

Diabetes, commonly known for its metabolic effects, also critically affects the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is essential in regulating gastrointestinal (GI) motility, secretion, and absorption. The development of diabetes-induced enteric neuropathy can lead to various GI dysfunctions, such as gastroparesis and irregular bowel habits, primarily due to disruptions in the function of neuronal and glial cells within the ENS, as well as oxidative stress and inflammation. This editorial explores the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of enteric neuropathy in diabetic patients. Additionally, it discusses the latest advances in diagnostic approaches, emphasizing the need for early detection and intervention to mitigate GI complications in diabetic individuals. The editorial also reviews current and emerging therapeutic strategies, focusing on pharmacological treatments, dietary management, and potential neuromodulatory interventions. Ultimately, this editorial highlights the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach in managing enteric neuropathy in diabetes, aiming to enhance patient quality of life and address a frequently overlooked complication of this widespread disease.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Diabéticas , Sistema Nervoso Entérico , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Neuropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/fisiopatologia , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/inervação , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Gastroparesia/terapia , Gastroparesia/fisiopatologia , Gastroparesia/diagnóstico , Gastroparesia/etiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Qualidade de Vida
5.
Stress ; 27(1): 2374768, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38975691

RESUMO

Stress has been linked to the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and various methods have been explored to model IBS in combination with other stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether stress alone can induce IBS in animals. This study aimed to investigate the impact of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) on gastrointestinal sensation and function in mice and assess the potential of CUMS as a modeling approach for IBS. To evaluate the mice's behavior, we conducted open field test, sucrose preference test and weighed the mice, revealing that CUMS indeed induced anxiety and depression in the mice and caused weight loss. Further analyses, including fecal analysis, a total gastrointestinal transport test, and a colon propulsion test, demonstrated that CUMS led to abnormal defecation and disruptions in gastrointestinal motility in the mice. Additionally, the abdominal withdrawal reflex test indicated an increase in visceral sensitivity in CUMS-exposed mice. Histological examination using hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed no significant histological alterations in the colons of CUMS-exposed mice, but it did show a minor degree of inflammatory cell infiltration. In summary, the findings suggest that CUMS can replicate IBS-like symptoms in mice, offering a novel top-down approach to modeling IBS.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Estresse Psicológico , Animais , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Masculino , Camundongos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Comportamento Animal , Defecação , Colo/fisiopatologia , Colo/patologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(12)2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38928387

RESUMO

Cannabinoids and their receptors play a significant role in the regulation of gastrointestinal (GIT) peristalsis and intestinal barrier permeability. This review critically evaluates current knowledge about the mechanisms of action and biological effects of endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids on GIT functions and the potential therapeutic applications of these compounds. The results of ex vivo and in vivo preclinical data indicate that cannabinoids can both inhibit and stimulate gut peristalsis, depending on various factors. Endocannabinoids affect peristalsis in a cannabinoid (CB) receptor-specific manner; however, there is also an important interaction between them and the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) system. Phytocannabinoids such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) impact gut motility mainly through the CB1 receptor. They were also found to improve intestinal barrier integrity, mainly through CB1 receptor stimulation but also via protein kinase A (PKA), mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK), and adenylyl cyclase signaling pathways, as well as by influencing the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins. The anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids in GIT disorders are postulated to occur by the lowering of inflammatory factors such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and regulation of cytokine levels. In conclusion, there is a prospect of utilizing cannabinoids as components of therapy for GIT disorders.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Gastroenteropatias , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Permeabilidade , Humanos , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo
7.
Food Res Int ; 190: 114642, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38945628

RESUMO

The antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) can be detected in contemporary natural aquatic environments and has been implicated in causing intestinal damage in humans exposed to OTC-contaminated food or water. The irreversible damage caused by high concentrations of OTC to the intestine suggests that treatment through dietary means could still be necessary. This study proved the effectiveness of kefir extract (KE) in reversing intestinal damage caused by oxytetracycline (OTC) exposure. Following a 24-hour KE treatment subsequent to OTC exposure from 3 to 8 days post-fertilization of zebrafish larvae, molecular-level and microbiomic assessments revealed significant improvements. These included reduced expression of proinflammatory factors (IL-8 and IL-1ß), increased antioxidant levels, and reversed unhealthy distribution of intestinal microbiota. Furthermore, KE supplementation showed potential in enhancing intestinal motility in the experiment of Nile red staining and fluorescent microbead transit. However, histological analysis showed that this short-term treatment with KE only partially reversed the intestinal morphological changes induced by OTC, suggesting that a longer treatment period might be necessary for complete restoration.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos , Kefir , Larva , Oxitetraciclina , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Oxitetraciclina/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 60 Suppl 1: S1-S19, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38924125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract, formed from the midgut and hindgut, encompasses the colon, rectum and anal canal. AIM: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the anatomy and physiology of the lower GI tract. METHODS: Literature review on anatomy and physiology of the lower GI tract, including normal motility and phases of defecation. It derives its blood supply from the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries while it is innervated by the extrinsic autonomic (the thoracolumbar and sacral nerves) and the intrinsic enteric nervous system. The colon has four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa and serosa. The anal canal ends in the internal and external anal sphincters (EASs) involved in continence and defecation. The lower GI tract is predominantly involved in digestion, absorption, defecation and protection. Defecation is a complex process that requires inter-neural (enteric and autonomic nervous systems), neurohormonal and neuromuscular coordination. It has four phases which include basal, pre-expulsive, expulsive and end phase. High-propagating contractions in the colon propel stool to the rectum leading to rectal distention and the recruitment of the recto-anal inhibitory reflex. Once able, the EAS, under full conscious control, is then relaxed allowing stool to be evacuated. Other defecation reflexes include the gastrocolic, gastroileal and coloanal reflexes. CONCLUSIONS: Recent advances provide novel techniques to investigate motility patterns including high-resolution manometry protocols with automated assessments, magnetic resonance imaging techniques for defecography, wireless motility capsules and fecobionics.


Assuntos
Defecação , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Defecação/fisiologia , Canal Anal/fisiologia , Canal Anal/inervação , Reto/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal Inferior/fisiologia , Colo/fisiologia
9.
J Clin Invest ; 134(9)2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690732

RESUMO

Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are underappreciated, yet are critical for enteric nervous system (ENS) development and maintenance. We discovered that fetal loss of the epigenetic regulator Bap1 in the ENS lineage caused severe postnatal bowel dysfunction and early death in Tyrosinase-Cre Bap1fl/fl mice. Bap1-depleted ENS appeared normal in neonates; however, by P15, Bap1-deficient enteric neurons were largely absent from the small and large intestine of Tyrosinase-Cre Bap1fl/fl mice. Bowel motility became markedly abnormal with disproportionate loss of cholinergic neurons. Single-cell RNA sequencing at P5 showed that fetal Bap1 loss in Tyrosinase-Cre Bap1fl/fl mice markedly altered the composition and relative proportions of enteric neuron subtypes. In contrast, postnatal deletion of Bap1 did not cause enteric neuron loss or impaired bowel motility. These findings suggest that BAP1 is critical for postnatal enteric neuron differentiation and for early enteric neuron survival, a finding that may be relevant to the recently described human BAP1-associated neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Sistema Nervoso Entérico , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/patologia , Camundongos , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Camundongos Knockout , Feminino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos
10.
J Dig Dis ; 25(3): 176-190, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Functional constipation (FC), a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, is usually overlapping with upper gastrointestinal symptoms (UGS). We aimed to explore the clinical characteristics of patients with FC overlapping UGS along with the related risk factors. METHODS: The differences in the severity of constipation symptoms, psychological state, quality of life (QoL), anorectal motility and perception function, autonomic function, and the effect of biofeedback therapy (BFT) among patients with FC in different groups were analyzed, along with the risk factors of overlapping UGS. RESULTS: Compared with patients with FC alone, those with FC overlapping UGS had higher scores in the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and lower scores in the Short Form-36 health survey (P < 0.05). Patients with FC overlapping UGS also had lower rectal propulsion, more negative autonomic nervous function, and worse BFT efficacy (P < 0.05). Overlapping UGS, especially overlapping functional dyspepsia, considerably affected the severity of FC. Logistic regression model showed that age, body mass index (BMI), anxiety, exercise, and sleep quality were independent factors influencing overlapping UGS in patients with FC. CONCLUSIONS: Overlapping UGS reduces the physical and mental health and the QoL of patients with FC. It also increases the difficulty in the treatment of FC. Patient's age, BMI, anxiety, physical exercise, and sleep quality might be predictors for FC overlapping UGS.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Constipação Intestinal/psicologia , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica , Ansiedade , Gastroenteropatias/psicologia , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Idoso , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(10)2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38793909

RESUMO

Constipation is a common gastrointestinal disorder that impairs quality of life. Evaluating bowel motility via traditional methods, such as MRI and radiography, is expensive and inconvenient. Bowel sound (BS) analysis has been proposed as an alternative, with BS-time-domain acoustic features (BSTDAFs) being effective for evaluating bowel motility via several food and drink consumption tests. However, the effect of BSTDAFs before drink consumption on those after drink consumption is yet to be investigated. This study used BS-based stimulus-response plots (BSSRPs) to investigate this effect on 20 participants who underwent drinking tests. A strong negative correlation was observed between the number of BSs per minute before carbonated water consumption and the ratio of that before and after carbonated water consumption. However, a similar trend was not observed when the participants drank cold water. These findings suggest that when carbonated water is drunk, bowel motility before ingestion affects motor response to ingestion. This study provides a non-invasive BS-based approach for evaluating motor response to food and drink, offering a new research window for investigators in this field.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Masculino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Água Carbonatada
13.
Comput Biol Med ; 176: 108540, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728996

RESUMO

Colonic motility plays a vital role in maintaining proper digestive function. The rhythmic contractions and relaxations facilitate various types of motor functions that generate both propulsive and non-propulsive motility modes which in turn generate shear stresses on the epithelial surface. However, the interplay between colonic mucus, shear stress, and epithelium remains poorly characterized. Here, we present a colonic computational model that describes the potential roles of mucus and shear stress in both homeostasis and ulcerative colitis (UC). Our model integrates several key features, including the properties of the mucus bilayer and faeces, intraluminal pressure, and crypt characteristics to predict the time-space mosaic of shear stress. We show that the mucus thickness which could vary based on the severity of UC, may significantly reduce the amount of shear stress applied to the colonic crypts and effect faecal velocity. Our model also reveals an important spatial shear stress variance in homeostatic colonic crypts that suggests shear stress may have a modulatory role in epithelial cell migration, differentiation, apoptosis, and immune surveillance. Together, our study uncovers the rather neglected roles of mucus and shear stress in intestinal cellular processes during homeostasis and inflammation.


Assuntos
Colo , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Homeostase , Modelos Biológicos , Muco , Humanos , Colo/fisiologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Muco/metabolismo , Muco/fisiologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Simulação por Computador , Estresse Mecânico , Colite Ulcerativa/fisiopatologia , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo
14.
J Cell Mol Med ; 28(10): e18343, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760903

RESUMO

Fermented foods play a significant role in the human diet for their natural, highly nutritious and healthy attributes. Our aim was to study the effect of yeast extract, a fermented substance extracted from natural yeast, on colonic motility to better understand its potential therapeutic role. A yeast extract was given to rats by gavage for 3 days, and myogenic and neurogenic components of colonic motility were studied using spatiotemporal maps made from video recordings of the whole colon ex vivo. A control group received saline gavages. The yeast extract caused excitation of the musculature by increasing the propagation length and duration of long-distance contractions, the major propulsive activity of the rat colon. The yeast extract also evoked rhythmic propulsive motor complexes (RPMCs) which were antegrade in the proximal and mid-colon and retrograde in the distal colon. RPMC activity was evoked by distention-induced neural activity, but it was myogenic in nature since we showed it to be generated by bethanechol in the presence of tetrodotoxin. In conclusion, ingestion of yeast extract stimulates rat colon motility by exciting neurogenic and myogenic control mechanisms.


Assuntos
Colo , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Animais , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/fisiologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Masculino , Leveduras , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tetrodotoxina/farmacologia
15.
J Smooth Muscle Res ; 60: 10-22, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777767

RESUMO

Functional bowel disorders (FBD) have a major potential to degrade the standards of public life. Juniperus oxycedrus L. (J. oxycedrus) (Cupressaceae) has been described as a plant used in traditional medicine as an antidiarrheal medication. The present study is the first to obtain information on the antispasmodic and antidiarrheic effects of J. oxycedrus aqueous extract through in vitro and in vivo studies. An aqueous extract of J. oxycedrus (AEJO) was extracted by decoctioning air-dried aerial sections of the plant. Antispasmodic activity was tested in an isolated jejunum segment of rats exposed to cumulative doses of drogue extract. The antidiarrheic activity was tested using diarrhea caused by castor oil, a transit study of the small intestine, and castor oil-induced enteropooling assays in mice. In the jejunum of rats, the AEJO (0.1, 0.3 and 1 mg/ml) diminished the maximum tone induced by low K+ (25 mM), while it exhibited a weak inhibitory effect on high K+ (75 mM) with an IC50=0.49 ± 0.01 mg/ml and IC50=2.65 ± 0.16 mg/ml, respectively. In the contractions induced by CCh (10-6 M), AEJO diminished the maximum tone, similar to that induced by low K+ (25 mM). with an IC50=0.45 ± 0.02 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect of AEJO on low K+ induced contractions was significantly diminished in the presence of glibenclamide (GB) (0.3 µM) and 4-aminopyrimidine (4-AP) (100 µM), with IC50 values of 1.84 ± 0.09 mg/ml. and 1.63 ± 0.16 mg/ml, respectively). The demonstrated inhibitory effect was similar to that produced by a non-competitive antagonist acting on cholinergic receptors and calcium channels. In castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice, AEJO (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) caused an extension of the latency time, a reduced defecation frequency, and a decrease in the amount of wet feces compared to the untreated group (distilled water). Moreover, it showed a significant anti-motility effect and reduced the amount of fluid accumulated in the intestinal lumen at all tested doses. These findings support the conventional use of Juniperus oxycedrus L. as a remedy for gastrointestinal diseases.


Assuntos
Antidiarreicos , Óleo de Rícino , Diarreia , Jejuno , Juniperus , Parassimpatolíticos , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/metabolismo , Antidiarreicos/farmacologia , Parassimpatolíticos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Juniperus/química , Camundongos , Ratos , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 332: 118395, 2024 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38801915

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary) is a popular herb with reported effectiveness against diarrhea, anxiety and constipation, albeit with limited pharmacological evidence. AIM OF THE STUDY: The current study was aimed at evaluating the therapeutic potential, possible pharmacological mechanisms of action and active constituents of hydro-ethanolic extract of rosemary (Rs.Cr), as potential anti-diarrheal, laxative and anxiolytic agent. METHOD: Rs.Cr was analyzed through reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Laxative, antidiarrheal, and anxiolytic activities were assessed using in vivo models. Spasmogenic and spasmolytic mechanisms were studied on isolated guinea pig ileum and rabbit jejunum tissues, respectively. Possible role of diosmetin, one of the active constituents of Rs.Cr was also evaluated. RESULTS: RP-HPLC analysis revealed presence of diosmetin, rutin and apigenin in Rs.Cr. Laxative effect was seen at low doses, which was partially reversed in atropinized mice. The spasmogenic mechanism was mediated by cholinergic and histaminergic receptors stimulation. At higher doses, antidiarrheal activity was evident, with reduction in gastrointestinal motility and secretions using charcoal meal and enteropooling assays, respectively. Rs.Cr also showed dose-dependent anxiolytic effect. The antispasmodic mechanisms were mediated by anti-muscarinic and K+ channel opening-like effect (predominant KATP-dependent). Diosmetin exhibited antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities, but spasmogenic effect was not seen. CONCLUSION: Rosemary leaves have dual antidiarrheal and laxative effects, and as well as anxiolytic activity. In addition, the possible modulation of muscarinic and histaminergic receptors, and KATP channels show it as potential herb to be explored for irritable bowel syndrome. Diosmetin is possibly one of its constituents that contributes to its antidiarrheal activity.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Íleo , Extratos Vegetais , Rosmarinus , Animais , Cobaias , Rosmarinus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Camundongos , Masculino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Ansiolíticos/isolamento & purificação , Ansiolíticos/química , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/metabolismo , Íleo/fisiologia , Antidiarreicos/farmacologia , Antidiarreicos/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Parassimpatolíticos/farmacologia , Parassimpatolíticos/isolamento & purificação , Laxantes/farmacologia , Laxantes/isolamento & purificação , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/metabolismo , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino
17.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 327(1): G93-G104, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772901

RESUMO

Few biomarkers support the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBI), although gastroduodenal junction (GDJ) electromechanical coupling is a target for novel interventions. Rhythmic "slow waves," generated by interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and myogenic "spikes" are bioelectrical mechanisms underpinning motility. In this study, simultaneous in vivo high-resolution electrophysiological and impedance planimetry measurements were paired with immunohistochemistry to elucidate GDJ electromechanical coupling. Following ethical approval, the GDJ of anaesthetized pigs (n = 12) was exposed. Anatomically specific, high-resolution electrode arrays (256 electrodes) were applied to the serosa. EndoFLIP catheters (16 electrodes; Medtronic, MN) were positioned luminally to estimate diameter. Postmortem tissue samples were stained with Masson's trichrome and Ano1 to quantify musculature and ICC. Electrical mapping captured slow waves (n = 512) and spikes (n = 1,071). Contractions paralleled electrical patterns. Localized slow waves and spikes preceded rhythmic contractions of the antrum and nonrhythmic contractions of the duodenum. Slow-wave and spike amplitudes were correlated in the antrum (r = 0.74, P < 0.001) and duodenum (r = 0.42, P < 0.001). Slow-wave and contractile amplitudes were correlated in the antrum (r = 0.48, P < 0.001) and duodenum (r = 0.35, P < 0.001). Distinct longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the antrum and duodenum had a total thickness of (2.8 ± 0.9) mm and (0.4 ± 0.1) mm, respectively. At the pylorus, muscle layers merged and thickened to (3.5 ± 1.6) mm. Pyloric myenteric ICC covered less area (1.5 ± 1.1%) compared with the antrum (4.2 ± 3.0%) and duodenum (5.3 ± 2.8%). Further characterization of electromechanical coupling and ICC biopsies may generate DGBI biomarkers.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study applies electrical mapping, impedance planimetry, and histological techniques to the gastroduodenal junction to elucidate electromechanical coupling in vivo. Contractions of the terminal antrum and pyloric sphincter were associated with gastric slow waves. In the duodenum, bursts of spike activity triggered oscillating contractions. The relative sparsity of myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal in the pylorus, compared with the adjacent antrum and duodenum, is hypothesized to prevent coupling between antral and duodenal slow waves.


Assuntos
Duodeno , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Células Intersticiais de Cajal , Animais , Duodeno/fisiologia , Duodeno/inervação , Células Intersticiais de Cajal/fisiologia , Suínos , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Estômago/fisiologia , Estômago/inervação , Feminino , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Impedância Elétrica , Músculo Liso/fisiologia
18.
Radiographics ; 44(6): e230127, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38814800

RESUMO

Various radiologic examinations and other diagnostic tools exist for evaluating gastrointestinal diseases. When symptoms of gastrointestinal disease persist and no underlying anatomic or structural abnormality is identified, the diagnosis of functional gastrointestinal disorder is frequently applied. Given its physiologic and quantitative nature, scintigraphy often plays a central role in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with suspected functional gastrointestinal disorder. Most frequently, after functional gallbladder disease is excluded, gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) is considered the next step in evaluating patients with suspected gastric motility disorder who present with upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as dyspepsia or bloating. GES is the standard modality for detecting delayed gastric emptying (gastroparesis) and the less commonly encountered clinical entity, gastric dumping syndrome. Additionally, GES can be used to assess abnormalities of intragastric distribution, suggesting specific disorders such as impaired fundal accommodation or antral dysfunction, as well as to evaluate gastric emptying of liquid. More recently, scintigraphic examinations for evaluating small bowel and large bowel transit have been developed and validated for routine diagnostic use. These can be performed individually or as part of a comprehensive whole-gut transit evaluation. Such scintigraphic examinations are of particular importance because clinical assessment of suspected functional gastrointestinal disorder frequently fails to accurately localize the site of disease, and those patients may have motility disorders involving multiple portions of the gastrointestinal tract. The authors comprehensively review the current practice of gastrointestinal transit scintigraphy, with diseases and best imaging practices illustrated by means of case review. ©RSNA, 2024 See the invited commentary by Maurer and Parkman in this issue.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias , Trânsito Gastrointestinal , Cintilografia , Humanos , Cintilografia/métodos , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Adulto , Esvaziamento Gástrico/fisiologia
19.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 38: 1-7, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763547

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Functional gastrointestinal disorders encompass a range of conditions resulting from complicated gut-brain interactions, which can negatively impact sufferers' lives. They are prevalent in clinical practice and the community, with a lifetime prevalence of almost 40 % worldwide. The challenge in diagnosing these disorders lies in the non-specificity of symptoms and the absence of reliable biomarkers. The existing literature suggests a multidisciplinary approach, including cognitive-behavioral therapy, dietary changes, psychotropic drug therapy, and improving gastrointestinal motility. Manual therapy applied to the abdomen and adjacent areas can potentially enhance gastrointestinal motility. OBJECTIVES: This review aims to examine the types of manual interventions, their mechanisms, efficiency, and safety in managing functional disorders of the digestive system. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Google Scholar in English from May 2022 to February 2023 with no date restriction. We prioritized systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical trials and did not exclude any data sources. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: s: Initial evidence suggests that manual interventions on the abdomen and adjacent areas are effective in managing functional gastrointestinal disorders, with no reported adverse events and relatively low costs. However, further studies with rigorous scientific methodology are needed to understand better the unknown dimensions influencing the outcomes observed with abdominal massage and its positive impact on patients. Manual abdominal techniques are a promising therapy option for functional gastrointestinal disorders, and their efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness should be further explored.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas , Humanos , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas/métodos , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia
20.
Brain Behav Immun ; 119: 867-877, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750700

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal tract is one of the main organs affected during systemic inflammation and disrupted gastrointestinal motility is a major clinical manifestation. Many studies have investigated the involvement of neuroimmune interactions in regulating colonic motility during localized colonic inflammation, i.e., colitis. However, little is known about how the enteric nervous system and intestinal macrophages contribute to dysregulated motility during systemic inflammation. Given that systemic inflammation commonly results from the innate immune response against bacterial infection, we mimicked bacterial infection by administering lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to rats and assessed colonic motility using ex vivo video imaging techniques. We utilized the Cx3cr1-Dtr rat model of transient depletion of macrophages to investigate the role of intestinal macrophages in regulating colonic motility during LPS infection. To investigate the role of inhibitory enteric neurotransmission on colonic motility following LPS, we applied the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA). Our results confirmed an increase in colonic contraction frequency during LPS-induced systemic inflammation. However, neither the depletion of intestinal macrophages, nor the suppression of inhibitory enteric nervous system activity impacted colonic motility disruption during inflammation. This implies that the interplay between the enteric nervous system and intestinal macrophages is nuanced, and complex, and further investigation is needed to clarify their joint roles in colonic motility.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Entérico , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Inflamação , Lipopolissacarídeos , Macrófagos , Animais , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ratos , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/metabolismo , Masculino , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino/fisiologia , Colo/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Colite/fisiopatologia , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo
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