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1.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 321(1): E1-E10, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029163

RESUMO

Bitter tastants are recently introduced as potential hunger-suppressive compounds, the so-called "Bitter pill." However, the literature about bitter administration lacks consistency in methods and findings. We want to test whether hunger ratings and hormone plasma levels are affected by: 1) the site of administration: intragastrically (IG) or intraduodenally (ID), 2) the bitter tastant itself, quinine hydrochloride (QHCl) or denatonium benzoate (DB), and 3) the timing of infusion. Therefore, 14 healthy, female volunteers participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled six-visit crossover study. After an overnight fast, DB (1 µmol/kg), QHCl (10 µmol/kg), or placebo were given IG or ID via a nasogastric feeding tube. Blood samples were taken 10 min before administration and every 10 min after administration for a period of 2 h. Hunger was rated at the same time points on a visual analogue scale. ID bitter administration did not affect hunger sensations, motilin, or acyl-ghrelin release compared with its placebo infusion. IG QHCl infusion tended to suppress hunger increase, especially between 50 and 70 min after infusion, simultaneously with reduced motilin values. Here, acyl-ghrelin was not affected. IG DB did not affect hunger or motilin, however acyl-ghrelin levels were reduced 50-70 minutes after infusion. Plasma values of glucagon-like peptide 1 and cholecystokinin were too low to be properly detected or to have any physiological relevance. In conclusion, bitter tastants should be infused into the stomach to reduce hunger sensations and orexigenic gut peptides. QHCl has the best potential to reduce hunger sensations, and it should be infused 60 min before food intake.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Bitter tastants are a potential new weight-loss treatment. This is a noninvasive, easy approach, which should be received with considerable enthusiasm by the public. However, literature about bitter administration lacks consistency in methods and findings. We summarize how the compound should be given based on: the site of administration, the best bitter compound to use, and at what timing in respect to the meal. This paper is therefore a fundamental step to continue research toward the further development of the "bitter pill."


Assuntos
Duodeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Fome/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Peptídicos/sangue , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/administração & dosagem , Quinina/administração & dosagem , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Colecistocinina , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Humanos , Intubação Gastrointestinal , Motilina/sangue , Placebos , Método Simples-Cego , Paladar , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(45): e23014, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common functional gastrointestinal disease. Acupuncture, including electroacupuncture (EA) is widely used as a complementary and alternative treatment for patients with FD. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of EA for the treatment of FD. METHODS: We searched Embase, PubMed, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library) for randomized controlled trials of FD treated by EA from inception to February 3, 2020. Two reviewers will independently screen studies for data extraction and assess the quality and risk of bias. The Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool, RevMan 5.3 software were used for meta-analysis. Data were pooled to calculate relative risk and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of substantial improvement after treatment for dichotomous data and mean differences (SMDs) and 95% CIs for continuous data. RESULTS: Seven randomized clinical trials included 853 patients. This meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of EA alone in the treatment of FD relative to sham-EA or pharmacologic medication (PM). The results showed that EA could significantly improve clinical symptoms. Compared with sham-EA, EA was more effective in reducing symptom scores (SMD -3.44, 95% CI -4.21 to -2.67) and increasing normal slow waves of electrogastrogram (SMD 0.93, 95% CI -0.30 to1.55). When EA was combined with PM, there was no significant difference in reducing symptom scores (SMD -0.18, 95% CI -0.51 to 0.16), increasing the effective rate of clinical symptoms (risk ratio 1.04, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.13), enhancing the level of plasma motilin (SMD 0.93, 95% CI -0.30 to1.55), and reducing gastric half-emptying time (SMD 0.02, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.20). The results also showed that there were very few adverse events reported. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that EA is better than the placebo (sham-EA) in treating FD, and the therapeutic effect of EA on FD is equivalent to that of PM on FD. Compared with PM, EA for FD is safer and has fewer adverse reactions. Despite limitations due to the quality and number of the included studies, EA might be used as an effective and safe treatment for FD.


Assuntos
Dispepsia/fisiopatologia , Dispepsia/terapia , Eletroacupuntura/métodos , Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletroacupuntura/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Motilina/sangue , Placebos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(4): 361-4, 2020 Apr 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical therapeutic effect of herb-partitioned moxibustion at fanwei point in patients of diabetic gastroparesis differentiated as spleen and stomach deficiency and retention of turbid dampness as well as its effect mechanism. METHODS: A total of 134 patients with diabetic gastroparesis were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 67 cases in each one. In the observation group, herb-partitioned moxibustion at fanwei point was adopted, 40 min each time, once a day for 5 times a week. In the control group, itopride hydrochloride tablets were prescribed for oral administration, 50 mg each time, three times a day. A total of 6 weeks of treatment was required in the two groups. Before and after treatment, the gastroparesis cardinal symptom index (GCSI) scores, 4-hour gastric emptying rate, TCM symptom score, as well as the levels of plasma motilin and serum gastrin were observed in the patients of the two groups. Additionally, the clinical therapeutic effect was evaluated in the two groups. RESULTS: After treatment, the score of every item of GCSI, TCM symptom scores and the levels of plasma motilin and serum gastrin were all reduced as compared with those before treatment in the patients of the two groups (P<0.05), and those in the observation group were lower than the control group (P<0.05). Regarding 4-hour gastric emptying rates, which were increased as compared with those before treatment in the two group (P<0.05), and the rate in the observation group was higher remarkably than that in the control group (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 92.5% (62/67) in the observation group, higher than 74.6% (50/67) in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Herb-partitioned moxibustion at fanwei point relieves the clinical symptoms in the patients with diabetic gastroparesis and increases the gastric emptying rate, which is probably related to the regulation of the levels of plasma motilin and serum gastrin.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Gastrinas/sangue , Gastroparesia/terapia , Motilina/sangue , Moxibustão , Pontos de Acupuntura , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Humanos
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 254: 112713, 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109545

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zoujin pill (ZJP), a medication used to treat gastrointestinal disorders since the 15th Century in China, have been reported to exert anti-depressant effects in various models. STUDY AIM: To assess the effects of ZJP on gastrointestinal function and depressive behavior in rats under chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and to examine the underlying mechanisms related to brain-gut axis. METHODS: The rats suffered the stressor once daily for 5 weeks. ZJP (0.6 and 1.2 g/kg) and fluoxetine (15 mg/kg) as positive control were administered to the rats through gastric intubation once daily for 5 consecutive weeks. The anti-depression effects were compared by performing sucrose preference tests and open field tests. Gastrointestinal motility was investigated by determining the gastrointestinal transit rate and by electrogastrogram. The serum levels of the gastrointestinal hormone (GAS, MOT, VIP, SP), inflammatory cytokine (IL-1ß, IL-6; , TNFα) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For monoamine neurotransmitters (NE, 5-HT, DA), the levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection in conjunction, which was applied on the samples taken from the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and striatum. RESULTS: The depression-like symptoms among rats under CUMS were significantly relieved by ZJP administration (0.6 and 1.2 g/kg). Gastrointestinal motility was also improved by restoring gastric electrical rhythm and promoting gastrointestinal propulsion. The ZJP at 0.6 g/kg dosage obviously up-regulated 5-HT and DA levels in hippocampus. The ZJP at 1.2 g/kg dosage could increase 5-HT and DA levels in hypothalamus, striatum, and hippocampus, while down-regulated the NE level in hypothalamus and hippocampus. ZJP also reversed the alterations in serum gastrointestinal hormones. Furthermore, treatment with ZJP significantly reduced levels of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α and increased serum GLP-1 compared with the CUMS group. Fluoxetine also exerted similar anti-depressant effects in the absence of effects on gastrointestinal motility and the levels of serum hormone, inflammatory cytokine and GLP-1. CONCLUSION: ZJP imposed anti-depressant and gastrointestinal regulating functions in rats under CUMS, suggesting potential clinical application. .


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoaminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Doença Crônica , Citocinas/sangue , Depressão/sangue , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Gastrinas/sangue , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Intestino Delgado/fisiologia , Masculino , Motilina/sangue , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Substância P/sangue , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/sangue
5.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 128(1): 43-51, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873575

RESUMO

AIM: The study aimed to investigate the associations between glycaemic control after acute pancreatitis and gastrointestinal motility, using plasma motilin concentration and gastroparesis cardinal symptom index score as proxies. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 93 individuals after acute pancreatitis. Gastroparesis cardinal index scores, demographic and anthropometric factors, as well as pancreatitis-related factors were analysed. Fasting venous blood was collected to measure motilin, glycated haemoglobin, and fasting blood glucose. Linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between glycaemic control and gastrointestinal motility in unadjusted and adjusted models. RESULTS: Motilin was significantly higher in individuals with diabetes across all adjusted models, with the highest ß-coefficient (95% confidence interval) of 588.89 (138.50, 1039.28); P=0.010. Fasting blood glucose was significantly associated with motilin across all models, with the highest ß-coefficient (95% confidence interval) of 156.30 (55.49, 257.10); P=0.002. Glycated haemoglobin was significantly associated with motilin in one adjusted model with ß-coefficient (95% confidence interval) of 18.78 (1.53, 36.02); P=0.033. Gastroparesis cardinal symptom index was not significantly associated with any measure of glycaemic control. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes in individuals after acute pancreatitis appears to be characterised by elevated plasma motilin but not gastroparesis cardinal symptom index. The role of motilin in this setting warrants further investigations.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus , Motilina/sangue , Pancreatite , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Feminino , Gastroparesia/sangue , Gastroparesia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite/sangue , Pancreatite/complicações
6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(4): 1051-1063, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is considered a key player in the neurophysiology of food reward. Animal studies suggest that the ECS stimulates the sensory perception of food, thereby increasing its incentive-motivational and/or hedonic properties and driving consumption, possibly via interactions with metabolic hormones. However, it remains unclear to what extent this can be extrapolated to humans. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on subjective and metabolic hormone responses to visual food stimuli and food intake. METHODS: Seventeen healthy subjects participated in a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 crossover trial. In each of the 4 visits, subjective "liking" and "wanting" ratings of high- and low-calorie food images were acquired after oral THC or placebo administration. The effect on food intake was quantified in 2 ways: via ad libitum oral intake (half of the visits) and intragastric infusion (other half) of chocolate milkshake. Appetite-related sensations and metabolic hormones were measured at set time points throughout each visit. RESULTS: THC increased "liking" (P = 0.031) and "wanting" ratings (P = 0.0096) of the high-calorie, but not the low-calorie images, compared with placebo. Participants consumed significantly more milkshake after THC than after placebo during oral intake (P = 0.0005), but not intragastric infusion, of milkshake. Prospective food consumption ratings during the food image paradigm were higher after THC than after placebo (P = 0.0039). THC also increased plasma motilin (P = 0.0021) and decreased octanoylated ghrelin (P = 0.023) concentrations before milkshake consumption (i.e., in both oral intake and intragastric infusion test sessions), whereas glucagon-like peptide 1 responses to milkshake intake were attenuated by THC during both oral (P = 0.0002) and intragastric (P = 0.0055) administration. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the ECS drives food intake by interfering with anticipatory, cephalic phase, and metabolic hormone responses. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02310347.


Assuntos
Dronabinol/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Adulto , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Motilina/sangue , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutr Neurosci ; 22(12): 850-862, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29607741

RESUMO

Objectives: Intragastric bitter tastants may decrease appetite and food intake. We aimed to investigate the gut-brain signaling and brain mechanisms underlying these effects.Methods: Brain responses to intragastric quinine-hydrochloride (QHCl, 10 µmol/kg) or placebo infusion were recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 15 healthy women. Appetite-related sensations, plasma levels of gastrointestinal hormones and hedonic food intake (ad libitum drink test) were assessed.Results: Lower octanoylated ghrelin (P<0.04), total ghrelin (P<0.01), and motilin (P<0.01) plasma levels were found after QHCl administration, along with lower prospective food consumption ratings (P<0.02) and hedonic food intake (P<0.05). QHCl increased neural activity in the hypothalamus and hedonic (anterior insula, putamen, caudate, pallidum, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, midbrain) regions, but decreased activity in the homeostatic medulla (all pFWE-corrected<0.05). Differential brain responses to QHCl versus placebo covaried with subjective and hormonal responses and predicted differences in hedonic food intake.Discussion: Intragastric QHCl decreases prospective and actual food intake in healthy women by interfering with homeostatic and hedonic brain circuits in a ghrelin- and motilin-mediated fashion. These findings suggest a potential of bitter tastants to reduce appetite and food intake, through the gut-brain axis.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Quinina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Apetite/fisiologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Intubação Gastrointestinal , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Motilina/sangue , Placebos , Transdução de Sinais , Método Simples-Cego , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(48): e13167, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508896

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the gastrointestinal functions of patients with liver failure (LF) based on gastrointestinal dysfunction (GD) scores and serum gastrointestinal hormone levels.The GD in LF patients was scored using the gastrointestinal dysfunction scoring criteria. Serum gastrin (GAS), cholecystokinin (CCK), and motilin (MTL) levels were determined in LF patients. In addition, liver function and prothrombin activity were detected, and ultrasonography was performed.The GD score was significantly higher in the LF groups than in the control group. Compared with the control group, serum GAS, CCK, and MTL levels significantly increased in the LF groups, and was positively correlated with the severity of LF. Furthermore, in the LF groups, GD was positively correlated with the severity of LF. However, the GD score and serum GAS, CCK, and MTL levels in the acute LF group were not statistically different, when compared with those in the subacute LF group, acute-on-chronic LF group and chronic LF group.LF plays a key role in the development of GD, and may be the main cause of obvious gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal distension, nausea, vomiting and anorexia, in LF patients. The severity of GD is not associated with LF type, but is positively correlated with the severity of LF, suggesting that GD in LF patients may have complicated mechanisms.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Colecistocinina/sangue , Doença Hepática Terminal/sangue , Feminino , Gastrinas/sangue , Gastroenteropatias/sangue , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/biossíntese , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motilina/sangue , Protrombina/biossíntese , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 22(17): 5697-5703, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30229847

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of hydromorphone and morphine intravenous analgesia on plasma motilin and postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing a total hysterectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 80 patients who underwent hysterectomy from April 2015 to June 2016 were randomly divided into two groups, with 40 patients in each group. The two groups received an intravenous infusion of hydromorphone or morphine for analgesia. The VAS pain score and Ramsey sedation score were recorded 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after the first dose of analgesia. The scores of nausea and vomiting were recorded. The levels of motilin were determined by radioimmunoassay before anesthesia, after anesthesia, during hysterectomy and 1 day after the operation. The results showed that the analgesic effect of hydromorphone was more rapid than morphine. RESULTS: There were significant differences in VAS scores between the two groups at each time point (p<0.05), indicating that the analgesic effect of hydromorphone was better than morphine's one. The scores of Ramsay sedation were less than 6 points at each time point within 48 hours after the operation. The content of plasma motilin in the hydromorphone group was higher than that in the morphine group during the first day after anesthesia. There were 34 cases (85%) of mild nausea and vomiting within 24 hours after the operation in the hydromorphone group. In the morphine group, there were 16 cases (40%) of mild nausea and vomiting within 24 hours after the operation, 10 cases (25%) of severe nausea and vomiting. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of severe malignant vomiting after the use of morphine was more than that after the use of hydromorphone. Normal level and function of motilin is the basis of avoiding nausea and vomiting. Too fast or too slow gastrointestinal motility can induce postoperative nausea and vomiting.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Hidromorfona/efeitos adversos , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Morfina/efeitos adversos , Motilina/sangue , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hidromorfona/administração & dosagem , Infusões Intravenosas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/sangue , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(37): e12070, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212936

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the relationship between gastrointestinal dysfunction (GD) and cirrhosis severity in cirrhotic patients, to provide evidences for the prevention and treatment of GD in cirrhotic patients.A total of 95 cirrhotic inpatients and outpatients, who were treated in the Department of Gastroenterology of Xinqu Hospital of the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology, were enrolled in the present study, and assigned as the experimental group (cirrhosis group). According to Child-Pugh classification, these patients were divided into 3 groups: group A (n = 45), group B (n = 23), and group C (n = 27). Forty healthy adults who received health check-ups during the same period served as the control group. The gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of cirrhotic patients were scored, and the fasting serum gastrin (GAS), motilin (MTL), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels were measured in all subjects.The potential correlations of GI symptom scores of patients in these cirrhosis groups with GI hormone levels and cirrhosis severity were analyzed. In cirrhotic patients, the GI symptom scores significantly increased. Furthermore, the symptom scores gradually increased along with the aggravation of liver damage. Moreover, serum GAS and VIP levels were significantly higher in the cirrhosis groups than in the control group, whereas MTL levels were significantly lower. These changes were significantly correlated with cirrhosis severity. The linear correlation analysis revealed that the GI symptom score was positively correlated with GAS and VIP levels, and negatively correlated with MTL level. In addition, the linear correlation analysis revealed that GI symptom score and GAS and VIP levels were positively correlated with cirrhosis severity, whereas MTL level was negatively correlated with cirrhosis severity.Cirrhotic patients have more obvious GI symptoms and higher GI hormone levels, which are closely correlated with the progression of liver cirrhosis and the degree of liver function damage.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Gastrinas/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motilina/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/sangue , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Med Sci ; 355(5): 428-433, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric emptying (GE) of solids is delayed and autonomic dysfunction is detected in autoimmune gastritis (AIG). The goals of this study were to: (1) compare serum levels of ghrelin and motilin in subjects with delayed and normal GE and (2) investigate whether circulating antimyenteric antibodies (CAA), serum ghrelin levels and motilin levels have any effect on autonomic function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests were used in order to evaluate the autonomic function. GE was evaluated by a standard 2-hour scintigraphic test. Serum ghrelin and motilin levels were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and CAA were tested by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The serum ghrelin and motilin levels in the patients with delayed GE (n = 22) were significantly decreased compared to the normal GE patients (n = 19), (67.55 ± 8.81 versus 126.79 ± 25.81pg/mL, P < 0.001 and 279.59 ± 111.12 versus 500.42 ± 155.95pg/mL, respectively, P < 0.001). Whereas, the serum ghrelin and motilin levels in the patients with deranged autonomic function (n = 26) were significantly decreased compared to the patients with normal autonomic function (n = 15), (80.73 ± 28.46 versus 127.79 ± 28.06pg/mL, P < 0.001 and 316.92 ± 160.47 versus 490.20 ± 141.02pg/mL, P < 0.001, respectively).  None of the patients were positive for CAA. CONCLUSIONS: Ghrelin and motilin levels in AIG subjects with delayed GE and deranged autonomic function were significantly decreased. The decrease in serum ghrelin and plasma motilin levels in AIG suggest their potential role in the delayed GE observed in these subjects.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Esvaziamento Gástrico/fisiologia , Gastrite/fisiopatologia , Grelina/sangue , Motilina/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Feminino , Gastrite/sangue , Gastrite/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Saudi J Gastroenterol ; 24(4): 228-235, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29652029

RESUMO

Background/Aim: The purpose of this study was to establish a modified rat model with functional dyspepsia (FD) and analyze the changes in gastrointestinal motility and brain-gut peptide levels in serum and brain-gut axis. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into control group (Con) and FD model group. FD model was established by stimulating semi-starvation rats via tail damping, provocation, and forced exercise fatigue until gastrointestinal motility disorder appeared, and then levels of motilin, leptin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were detected in serum by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and in duodenum, antrum, and hypothalamus by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot. Results: The results showed rates of intestinal propulsion and gastric emptying slowed down markedly compared to Con (P < 0.05), the gastrointestinal electric activity attenuated, and migrating motor complex (MMC) interrupted in the model group. The levels of leptin and VIP markedly increased, but motilin decreased as compared to the Con (P < 0.05) in serum and in the above tissues. It is interesting that the level of CCK decreased in the antrum and duodenum but increased in the hypothalamus as compared to Con (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The modified rat model meets the diagnostic criteria of FD and can be used as a method for studying FD in animals.


Assuntos
Dispepsia/sangue , Dispepsia/fisiopatologia , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/sangue , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Estômago/fisiopatologia , Animais , Colecistocinina/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Esvaziamento Gástrico/fisiologia , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Motilina/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/sangue
13.
Int J Mol Med ; 41(2): 649-658, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29207043

RESUMO

Constipation is a common affliction which causes discomfort and affects the quality of life of affected individuals. Naringenin (NAR), a natural flavonoid widely found in citrus fruits and tomatoes, has been reported to exhibit various pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-mutagenic, hepatoprotective and anticancer effects. Increasing evidence has indicated that NAR has potential for use in the treatment of constipation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the laxative effects of NAR in mice with loperamide-induced (Lop-induced) constipation. The data indicated that NAR relieved Lop-induced constipation in mice based on the changes of fecal parameters (numbers, weight and water content), the intestinal charcoal transit ratio and the histological alteration. ELISA revealed that NAR regulated the production levels of gastrointestinal metabolic components, such as motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas), endothelin (ET), substance P (SP), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in serum. The expression levels of enteric nerve-related factors, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), c-Kit, stem cell factor (SCF) and aquaporin 3 (AQP3) were examined by western blot analysis and RT-PCR analysis. The results of this study suggest that NAR relieves Lop-induced constipation by increasing the levels of interstitial cells of Cajal markers (c-Kit and SCF), as well as AQP3. Thus, NAR may be effective as a candidate in patients suffering from lifestyle-induced constipation.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 3/genética , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Flavanonas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Fator de Células-Tronco/genética , Animais , Constipação Intestinal/sangue , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Constipação Intestinal/genética , Endotelinas/sangue , Gastrinas/sangue , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células Intersticiais de Cajal/efeitos dos fármacos , Laxantes/administração & dosagem , Loperamida/toxicidade , Camundongos , Motilina/sangue
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28776826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intragastric administration of the bitter tastant denatonium benzoate inhibits the increase of motilin plasma levels and antral contractility. While these findings suggest that gastrointestinal bitter taste receptors could be new targets to modulate gastrointestinal motility and hormone release, they need confirmation with other bitter receptor agonists. The primary aim was to evaluate the effect of intragastric administration of the bitter tastant quinine-hydrochloride (QHCl) on motilin and ghrelin plasma levels. Secondly, we studied the effect on interdigestive motility. METHODS: Ten healthy female volunteers were recruited (33±4 y; 22±0.5 kg/m²). Placebo or QHCl (10 µmol/kg) was administered intragastrically through a nasogastric feeding tube after an overnight fast in a single-blind randomized fashion. Administration started 20 min after the first phase III of the migrating motor complex. The measurement continued for another 2 h after the administration. Blood samples were collected every 10 min with the baseline sample taken 10 min prior to administration. KEY RESULTS: The increase in plasma levels of motilin (administration; P=.04) and total ghrelin (administration; P=.02) was significantly lower after QHCl. The fluctuation of octanoylated ghrelin was reduced after QHCl (time by administration; P=.03). Duodenal motility did not differ. The fluctuation of antral activity differed over time between placebo and QHCl (time by administration; P=.03). CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: QHCl suppresses the increase of both motilin and ghrelin plasma levels. Moreover, QHCl reduced the fluctuation of antral motility. These findings confirm the potential of bitter taste receptors as targets for modifying interdigestive motility in man.


Assuntos
Jejum , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Grelina/sangue , Motilina/sangue , Quinina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Duodeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Duodeno/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Antro Pilórico/efeitos dos fármacos , Antro Pilórico/fisiologia
15.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 37(2): 171-174, 2017 Feb 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29231481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy of auricular point sticking on prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal complications after gynecological laparoscopic operation of general anesthesia, and to explore whether it is achieved by regulating the secretion of plasma motilin (MTL). METHODS: Sixty patients who received selective gynecological laparoscopy under general anesthesia were randomly assigned into an observation group and a control group, 30 patients in each one. The patients in the observation group were treated with auricular point sticking at each morning and night, 30 min before anesthesia, revival after surgery and 24 h after surgery. The adhesive fabric with vaccaria seeds was pressed at shenmen (TF4), wei (CO4), benmen (CO3), jiaogan (AH6a) and pizhixia (AT4) for 3 to 5 min until the sensation of sourness, distension and numb appeared. The treatment was given for one week. The patients in the control group were treated only with similar adhesive fabric at auricular points at identical time points; each auricular point was pressed for 3 to 5 min. The anus exhaust time, defecating time and borborygmus were recorded; the level of plasma MTL was tested 30 min before anesthesia, 24 h after o-peration and 48 h after operation; the occurrence of nausea and vomiting from the end of operation to the end of treatment were also recorded. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the occurrence of nausea after operation was reduced in the observation group (P<0.05), and the anus exhaust time and defecating time were shortened (both P<0.05), and the recovery of borborygmus was improved (P<0.05). The levels of MTL 24 h and 48 h after surgery were higher than those before operation in the two groups (all P<0.05); The levels of MTL 24 h and 48 h after surgery in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group (both P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The assist of auricular point sticking could reduce the occurrence of nausea-vomiting and accelerate the recovery of gastrointestinal function in gynecological laparoscopic operation under general anesthesia, which is likely to be related with the inhibition on excess secretion of MTL.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Acupuntura Auricular , Anestesia Geral , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/métodos , Laparoscopia , Motilina/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Náusea , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/sangue
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 3178263, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29082242

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether pathophysiological differences exist among healthy controls (HC) and patients with slow and normal transit constipation (STC and NTC), we evaluated (1) gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms using validated questionnaires; (2) circulating concentrations of neurotensin, motilin, corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), and somatostatin; and (3) possible differences in frequency distribution of the neurotensin rs1800832 A/G and Neurotensin Receptor 1 rs6090453 C/G SNPs. METHODS: Fifty-one patients with severe functional constipation and 20 HC completed the study. Symptoms were evaluated by GSRS and Constipaq scoring system. Plasma concentrations of GI peptides were evaluated by ELISA on fasting and six sequential blood samples after a standard meal. Genotyping was performed by PCR and endonuclease digestion. RESULTS: Symptom profiles largely overlapped between NTC and STC patients. As for peptide profiles, neurotensin showed lower concentrations at 60 and 90 min in STC versus HC, and motilin showed throughout the curve 85% and 82% lower levels in STC than HC and NTC, respectively. Finally, neurotensin polymorphism resulted in being associated with the peptide levels. CONCLUSIONS: Symptom profile is not a reliable tool to discriminate STC, whilst the GI peptide profiles might help in identifying it.


Assuntos
Colo/fisiopatologia , Constipação Intestinal/sangue , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Colo/metabolismo , Constipação Intestinal/genética , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motilina/sangue , Neurotensina/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 19(8): 852-855, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28774357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of extensively hydrolyzed formula on the growth and development in very low birth weight (VLBW) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. METHODS: A total of 375 VLBW or ELBW infants were enrolled and divided into an observation group (187 infants) and a control group (188 infants) using a random number table. The infants in the observation group were given extensively hydrolyzed formula, and when the amount of extensively hydrolyzed formula reached 10 mL/time, it was changed to the standard formula for preterm infants. The infants in the control group were given standard formula for preterm infants. Both groups were fed for 4 consecutive weeks and were compared in terms of incidence rate of feeding intolerance, time to establish full enteral feeding, time to complete meconium excretion, number of spontaneous bowel movements, growth and development, motilin level at 4 and 10 days after feeding, and incidence rate of infection. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the observation group had a lower rate of feeding intolerance (P<0.05), a shorter duration to full enteral feeding and time to complete meconium excretion (P<0.05), a higher mean number of daily spontaneous bowel movements (P<0.05), higher body weight (1 793±317 g vs 1 621±138 g; P<0.05), head circumference (30.5±1.1 cm vs 30.0±1.6 cm; P<0.05), and body length (43.9±1.2 cm vs 42.1±2.0 cm; P<0.05), a higher motilin level at 4 and 10 days after feeding (P<0.05), and a significantly lower infection rate (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Extensively hydrolyzed formula can increase motilin level, improve gastrointestinal feeding tolerance, promote early growth and development, and reduce the incidence of infection in VLBW and ELBW infants.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nutrição Enteral , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Motilina/sangue
18.
World J Gastroenterol ; 23(16): 2987-2994, 2017 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28522917

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effects of Xiangbin prescription (XBP), a Chinese herbal concoction, on gastrointestinal motility. METHODS: Forty healthy volunteers were recruited for this randomized controlled trial of XBP. Antroduodenojejunal manometry was used to monitor gastrointestinal motility in these subjects. After the subjects had fasted for at least 12 h, XBP (n = 30) or placebo (n = 10) was orally administrated and gastrointestinal motility was recorded for 4 h. Plasma motilin and ghrelin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Oral administration of XBP significantly increased the amplitude of duodenal contractions [19.5 (13.0-26.7) vs 16.9 (12.3-23.9), P < 0.05], jejunal contractions [18.3 (15.3-25.0) vs 15.4 (11.7-23.9), P < 0.01], and the motility index of duodenal contractions [522.0 (146.0-139.0) vs 281.0 (76.5-1006.0), P < 0.01] in phase II of the migratory motor complex (MMC), which subsequently initiated the MMC cycle [74.0 (30.0-118.0) vs 116.5 (24.0-219.0), P < 0.05], shortened the duration of phase I of the MMC [42.0 (0.0-90.0) vs 111.5 (42.0-171.0), P < 0.01], and lengthened the duration of phase II of the MMC [120 (21-240) vs 58 (16-170), P < 0.01] compared to the duration before XBP administration. There were significant differences in the amplitude of jejunal contractions [19.8 (14.0-30.0) vs 18.0 (13.0-28.5), P < 0.05], the motility index of duodenal contractions [236.0 (115.0-306.0) vs 195.0 (109.0-310.0), P < 0.05)], and jejunal contractions [214.0 (95.0-403.0) vs 178.0 (55.0-304.0), P < 0.01] in phase III of the MMC. Oral administration of XBP greatly increased plasma motilin (57.69 ± 9.03 vs 49.38 ± 8.63, P < 0.01) and ghrelin (279.20 ± 104.31 vs 238.73 ± 115.59, P < 0.01) concentrations compared to concentrations after oral administration of the placebo. CONCLUSION: XBP can stimulate duodenal and jejunal motility and increase the concentrations of plasma motilin and ghrelin. The clinical applicability of XBP in treating GDIM deserves investigation.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Duodeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Duodeno/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/efeitos adversos , Grelina/sangue , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Jejuno/metabolismo , Masculino , Manometria , Motilina/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Neoplasma ; 64(3): 421-429, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28253721

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal (GI) hormonal peptides play a role in the development of gastrointestinal malignancies, and their abnormal levels may contribute to dysmotility. The aim of this study was to analyze plasma concentrations of enterohormones (motilin, ghrelin, gastrin and pancreatic polypeptide) and to verify if their abnormal levels may contribute to the severity of dyspeptic symptoms in colorectal cancer patients. The study included 60 patients with colorectal malignancies (22 men and 38 women), among them 30 individuals with colon cancers (group A) and 30 subjects with rectal tumors (group B). Fasting plasma levels of pancreatic polypeptide (PP), motilin, gastrin and ghrelin were determined by means of ELISA. The results were compared with the respective parameters of healthy volunteers. Colon cancer patients presented with significantly lower concentrations of ghrelin than the subjects with rectal tumors and healthy controls (156.8±86.7 vs. 260.2±87.6 vs. 258.4±94.2 pg/ml, p=0.02), as well as with significantly higher levels of PP (265.5±66.3 vs. 154.1±54.6 vs. 148.3±64.3 pg/ml, p=0.005). Also the levels of motilin turned out to be lower in colon cancer patients than in the subjects with rectal malignancies and healthy controls. No statistically significant intergroups differences were found in plasma levels of gastrin (388.2±98.6 vs. 475.6±88.7 vs. 428.2±91.2 pg/ml, p>0.05). Epigastric bloating was the most frequent dyspeptic symptom, reported by 63.3% and 40% of patients with colon and rectal tumors, respectively. Our findings imply that colon cancer patients may present with abnormal plasma levels of enterohormones significantly more often than individuals with rectal malignancies. Dysmotility observed in colon cancer patients may result not only from anticancer surgery, but also from abnormal release of enterohormones, induced either by neoplastic process or by changes within the autonomic nervous system.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Gastrinas/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Motilina/sangue , Polipeptídeo Pancreático/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Trials ; 18(1): 102, 2017 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28264722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Manual acupuncture (MA) manipulations are one of the key factors influencing acupuncture effects in traditional Chinese medicine theory. Different MA manipulations contain different stimulating parameters, thus generating different acupuncture responses or effects. Evidence has demonstrated that acupuncture is effective for functional dyspepsia (FD). However, the effects of different stimulating parameters of MA manipulations on FD remain unclear. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a randomized controlled trial with a four-arm, parallel-group structure. Patients with FD with epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) will be included and randomly allocated into four groups: three MA manipulation groups (separately treated with a frequency of 1 Hz, 2 Hz, or 3 Hz) and a control group. All groups will receive omeprazole as a basic treatment and acupuncture: in the MA manipulation groups, the needles will be manipulated manually with three different frequencies on the basis when de qi is reached, while in the control group, the needles will be inserted without any manipulation. All patients will receive acupuncture treatment of five consecutive sessions per week for 2 weeks and be followed up at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The primary outcomes of the study include patients' response to the treatment. The secondary outcomes include dyspeptic symptoms, quality of life, mental status, fasting serum gastrin, motilin, and ghrelin concentrations, and adverse events. The protocol was approved by the Ethics committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University (2016-K-057-01). DISCUSSION: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MA manipulations with different stimulating parameters (different frequencies) on EPS in patients with FD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-IOR-16008189 . Registered on 30 March 2016.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/terapia , Dispepsia/terapia , Eletroacupuntura/métodos , Dor Abdominal/sangue , Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , China , Protocolos Clínicos , Método Duplo-Cego , Dispepsia/sangue , Dispepsia/diagnóstico , Dispepsia/fisiopatologia , Eletroacupuntura/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Gastrinas/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motilina/sangue , Medição da Dor , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Síndrome , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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