Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 68.226
Filtrar
1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 77-84, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190652

RESUMO

Motivational strategies are among the most promising approaches to improve the effectiveness of batterer intervention programs (BIPs). An individualized motivational plan (IMP) is one of these motivational strategies. The present study aimed to explore whether adding an IMP to a standard BIP improved the participant-facilitator working alliance and participants' protherapeutic behaviors. To this end a randomized controlled trial was conducted. One hundred fifty-three men convicted of intimate partner violence were randomly assigned to either a standard BIP (control condition, n = 79) or a standard BIP plus IMP (experimental condition, n = 74). Working alliance (i.e., general working alliance, agreement, and bond) was assessed with the Working Alliance Inventory-Observer, short version. Protherapeutic behaviors (i.e., assumption of responsibility, participant role behavior, and group value) were assessed with the Observational Coding of Protherapeutic Group Behavior. Both working alliance and protherapeutic behaviors were assessed by an external observer early and late in intervention. Our results showed that both general working alliance and agreement and bond, were significantly higher in the standard BIP plus IMP intervention condition, both early and late in intervention. All protherapeutic behaviors were significantly higher in the standard BIP plus IMP early in intervention, and also late in intervention for assumption of responsibility and group value. Our findings have important practical implications as our results clearly showed that a motivational strategy tool such as the IMP improves key intervention processes (i.e., working alliance and protherapeutic behaviors) in BIPs, therefore increasing their effectiveness


Las estrategias motivacionales se encuentran entre los enfoques más prometedores para mejorar la eficacia de los programas de intervención con maltratadores. El plan motivacional individualizado (PMI) es una de estas estrategias motivacionales. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo explorar si añadir un plan motivacional individualizado a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores mejora la alianza de trabajo facilitador-participante y la conducta proterapéutica de los participantes. Para ello se realizó un ensayo clínico aleatorizado. Ciento cincuenta y tres hombres condenados por violencia de género fueron asignados aleatoriamente bien a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores (condición control, n = 79) o bien a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores más PMI (condición experimental, n = 74). La alianza de trabajo (i.e., alianza general, acuerdo y vínculo) se evaluó con la versión breve del Working Alliance Inventory-Observer. Las conductas proterapéuticas (i.e., asunción de responsabilidad, rol conductual del participante y valoración del grupo) fueron evaluadas con el Observational Coding of Protherapeutic Group Behavior. Tanto la alianza de trabajo como las conductas proterapéuticas fueron evaluadas por un observador externo al principio y al final de la intervención. Los resultados mostraron que tanto la alianza de trabajo general como el acuerdo y el vínculo fueron significativamente mayores en la condición experimental, tanto al principio como al final de la intervención. La expresión de todas las conductas proterapéuticas al inicio de la intervención fue significativamente mayor en la condición experimental, así como al final de la intervención para la asunción de responsabilidad y la valoración del grupo. Los resultados tienen importantes implicaciones prácticas, puesto que muestran con claridad que una estrategia motivacional como el PMI mejora procesos clave de la intervención con maltratadores (i.e., la alianza de trabajo y las conductas proterapéuticas), mejorando por lo tanto la efectividad de estos programas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Violência de Gênero/prevenção & controle , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Processos Grupais , Motivação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20190002, Jan.-Dec. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1101978

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the elements of moral sensitivity held by nurses working in a medical clinic unit. Method: this exploratory-descriptive study with a qualitative approach addressed 18 nurses from a medical clinic of a university hospital located in southern Brazil using semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed using discursive textual analysis. Results: data were structured into six categories: relational orientation; experiencing moral dilemmas; following rules; benevolent motivation; structuring moral meaning; and autonomy. These categories enabled the identification of important elements of moral sensitivity, such as acknowledging the ethical dimension of one's attitudes, acknowledging the uniqueness of each patient, dealing with conflict between workers and patients and/or their companions, adapting to the workplace, empathy, dialogue, clinical decision-making, meeting the needs of patients, understanding patients' health condition, respect, welcoming patients' desires and providing guidance that concerns patients' requests and refusals. Conclusion: the elements of moral sensitivity identified in this study contribute to support nurses when making clinical decisions, especially when facing ethical issues arising in a medical clinic setting.


RESUMEN Objetivo: identificar los elementos de sensibilidad moral presentes en las enfermeras que trabajan en una Unidad de Clínica Médica. Método: investigación cualitativa, descriptiva exploratoria, desarrollada a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas analizadas mediante análisis discursivo textual, con 18 enfermeras trabajando en la unidad de clínica médica de un hospital universitario en el sur de Brasil. Resultados: se estructuran en seis categorías: orientación relacional; experimentando conflicto moral; seguir las reglas; motivación benevolente; Estructuración del significado moral y la autonomía que permitieron identificar elementos importantes de la sensibilidad moral, como el reconocimiento de la dimensión ética de las actitudes, el reconocimiento de la singularidad de los pacientes, la forma de hacer frente a los conflictos entre el profesional y el paciente y / o compañero, la adaptación en el entorno de trabajo. , empatía, diálogo, toma de decisiones clínicas, satisfacción de las necesidades de los pacientes, comprensión de su estado de salud, respeto, bienvenida a sus deseos y orientación con respecto a sus solicitudes y rechazos. Conclusión: los elementos de sensibilidad moral identificados en este estudio contribuyen a que las enfermeras puedan tomar decisiones clínicas, especialmente frente a problemas éticos experimentados en el entorno de la clínica médica.


RESUMO Objetivo: identificar os elementos da sensibilidade moral presentes em enfermeiros atuantes em uma Unidade de Clínica Médica. Método: pesquisa qualitativa, do tipo exploratório-descritiva, desenvolvida por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas analisadas mediante análise textual discursiva, com 18 enfermeiros atuantes na unidade de clínica médica de um hospital universitário do sul do Brasil. Resultados: se estruturam em seis categorias: orientação relacional; experimentando o conflito moral; seguir regras; motivação benevolente; estruturação do significado moral e autonomia a qual foi possível identificar importantes elementos da sensibilidade moral como reconhecimento a dimensão ética das atitudes, reconhecer a singularidade dos pacientes, a forma de enfrentamento dos conflitos entre profissional e paciente e/ou acompanhante, adaptação no ambiente de trabalho, empatia, diálogo, tomada de decisão clínica, atendimento as necessidades dos pacientes, compreensão da sua condição de saúde, respeito, acolhimento aos seus desejos e orientação quanto as suas solicitações e recusas. Conclusão: os elementos da sensibilidade moral identificados nesse estudo contribuem para habilitar os enfermeiros para a tomada de decisão clínica, principalmente diante de problemas éticos vivenciados no ambiente de clínica médica.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Saúde do Adulto , Enfermagem , Ética , Moral , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ética em Enfermagem , Motivação
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036326

RESUMO

Physical activity is known to decline during pregnancy and the postnatal period, yet physical activity is recommended during this time due to the significant health benefits for mothers and their offspring. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and the restrictions imposed to reduce infection rates, pregnant and postnatal women have experienced disruption not just to their daily lives but also to their pregnancy healthcare experience and their motherhood journey with their new infant. This has included substantial changes in how, when and why they have engaged with physical activity. While some of these changes undoubtedly increased the challenge of being sufficiently active as a pregnant or postnatal woman, they have also revealed new opportunities to reach and support women and their families. This commentary details these challenges and opportunities, and highlights how researchers and practitioners can, and arguably must, harness these short-term changes for long-term benefit. This includes a call for a fresh focus on how we can engage and support those individuals and groups who are both hardest hit by COVID-19 and have previously been under-represented and under-served by antenatal and postnatal physical activity research and interventions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Exercício Físico , Mães/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Motivação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia
4.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 280-288, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004727

RESUMO

Background/Introduction: Adolescents are the most vulnerable population to initiate tobacco use. It is now well established that most of the adult users of tobacco start tobacco use in their childhood or adolescence. Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate the Group Motivational Therapy (GMT) and Individualised Motivational therapy (IMT) for tobacco cessation in adolescents. Methodology: Oral screening was done in a village named Vehra Khadi near Anand. One hundred and eight adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years were included in the study. They were randomly divided into three groups namely Group 1 - Interventional group consisting of 36 adolescents who were given GMT; Group 2 - Interventional group consisting of 36 adolescents who were given IMT; and Group 3 -3 6 age - matched Negative control group. Hence, a total sample size of 108 was evaluated for tobacco consumption frequency, passive smoking, gingival index, and stain index and followed up for 9 months for the effect of both interventional group as well as positive control. Results: Frequency of tobacco consumption was reduced from baseline to 9 months' follow-up for both the interventional groups, which was statistically significant with <0.001 percent P value showing 84.38% change by intervention 1 and 98.30% in intervention 2. Conclusion: Group and individualized motivation serves as an effective means for tobacco cessation among adolescents. Improvement in gingival health and reduction of the tobacco consumption was observed with motivational intervention.


Assuntos
Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Saúde Bucal , Índice Periodontal
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050616

RESUMO

The current COVID-19 pandemic has paralysed whole countries, which have had to confine their entire population and this changed people's lives worldwide. The aim of this study is to identify the reasons for and the level of commitment to physical activity among the Spanish population during confinement and the return to the "new normal". A sample of 1025 amateurs, 534 males and 491 females with an average age of 35 years old were interviewed using an online survey that collected their motives for practising sport and their commitment to physical activity. A cluster analysis combining hierarchical and non-hierarchical methods was performed, identifying three groups of amateurs: High Commitment (n = 650), Moderate Commitment (n = 324), and Low Commitment (n = 81). The main motives shown by the different groups were psychological motives related to an improved or managed general or emotional well-being. Regarding commitment, all the groups showed higher scores in enthusiasm for physical activity than affliction from sport. The variables referring to gender, educational level and sports habits showed differences that enabled the identification of the different groups. These findings highlight the importance of conducting segmentation studies that provide specific population profiles to improve the action strategies of governments and specialists.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Motivação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Esportes/psicologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
6.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3384, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to validate the content and appearance of an educational manual for breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. METHOD: methodological research, which had the Theory of Psychometry as a theoretical-methodological reference. The minimum 80% Concordance Index was considered to ensure the adequacy of the material. The sample consisted of 17 experts in the subject area of the educational manual and 12 patients previously submitted to radiotherapy due to the diagnosis of breast cancer. RESULTS: two items of the expert evaluation tool were found to have a concordance index <80%. The other items were considered adequate and/or totally adequate in the three blocks of analysis proposed for the experts: objectives - 89.07%, structure and presentation - 92.94%, and relevance - 93.13%; and good and/or very good in the five blocks of analysis proposed for the patients: objectives, organization, writing style, appearance, and motivation, all with 100% agreement rate. CONCLUSION: the educational manual, after having been perfected based on the suggestions of the sample and the scientific literature, was considered valid according to its content and appearance, suggesting its contribution to the clinical practice of nursing and to the understanding of the treatment to which patients with breast cancer are submitted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Humanos , Motivação , Psicometria , Projetos de Pesquisa
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 85-90, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087595

RESUMO

In healthcare settings, questionnaires are used to collect information from a patient. A standard method for this are paper-based questionnaires, but they are often complex to understand or long and frustrating to fill. To increase motivation, we developed a chatbot-based system Ana that asks questions that are normally asked using paper forms or in face-to-face encounters. Ana has been developed for the specific use case of collecting the music biography in the context of music therapy. In this paper, we compare user motivation, relevance of answers and time needed to answer the questions depending on the data entry method (i.e. app Ana versus paper-based questionnaire). A randomised trial was performed with 26 students of music therapy. The results show that the chatbot is more motivating and answers are given faster than on paper. No differences in answer relevance could be determined between the two means. We conclude that a chatbot could become an additional data entry method for collecting personal health information.


Assuntos
Registros de Saúde Pessoal , Musicoterapia , Compreensão , Humanos , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 203-208, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087613

RESUMO

A broad range of aspects are needed to be taken into consideration in the design and development of personalized coaching systems based on artificial intelligence methodologies. This research presents the initial phase of joining different professional and stakeholder perspectives on behavior change technologies into a flexible design proposal for a digital coaching system. The diversity and sometimes opposed views on content, behavior, purposes and context were managed using a structured argument-based design approach, which also feed into the behavior of the personalized system. Results include a set of personalization strategies that will be further elaborated with the target user group to manage sensitive issues such as ethics, social norms, privacy, motivation, autonomy and social relatedness.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Tutoria , Motivação , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Privacidade
9.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 240-245, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087619

RESUMO

Failing to follow up on the abnormal test results can cause serious health problems to patients. We conducted a retrospective medical record review of 3200 randomly selected patients aged 18 to 76 in 14 state clinics and two private laboratory services querying the common regional patient registry. One patient could be included (1 clinical case) in the study only once. We invited patients to take part in the interviews to gain a deeper understanding of the motives to follow up or not after receiving a recommendation and explanation of the role of the automatically generated interpretation in this decision. A qualitative study of the patients' motivation was performed with a group of 689 patients. All the patients who received their interpretations showed a much higher follow-up rate (68% average) than the patients who did not receive interpretations (49 % average). The results of our research demonstrated that there is a significant impact on the patients' decision to follow up on the tests. Patients consider time factor as an important advantage of the computer interpretations and are willing to get automatic interpretations if they can receive it faster than the ones from their doctor (question 4: median =3 out of 7). Discussing the reasons behind the decision to follow up, the patients do trust the computerized clinical decision support systems (question 5: median = 5 out of 7), however, they prefer to receive interpretations and recommendations from doctors (question 3: median = 7).


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Médicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e22910, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: First detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic stretched the medical system in Wuhan and posed a challenge to the state's risk communication efforts. Timely access to quality health care information during outbreaks of infectious diseases can be effective to curtail the spread of disease and feelings of anxiety. Although existing studies have extended our knowledge about online health information-seeking behavior, processes, and motivations, rarely have the findings been applied to an outbreak. Moreover, there is relatively little recent research on how people in China are using the internet for seeking health information during a pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore how people in China are using the internet for seeking health information during a pandemic. Drawing on previous research of online health information seeking, this study asks the following research questions: how was the "#COVID-19 Patient Seeking Help" hashtag being used by patients in Wuhan seeking health information on Weibo at the peak of the outbreak? and what kinds of health information were patients in Wuhan seeking on Weibo at the peak of the outbreak? METHODS: Using entity identification and textual analysis on 10,908 posts on Weibo, we identified 1496 patients with COVID-19 using "#COVID-19 Patient Seeking Help" and explored their online health information-seeking behavior. RESULTS: The curve of the hashtag posting provided a dynamic picture of public attention to the COVID-19 pandemic. Many patients faced difficulties accessing offline health care services. In general, our findings confirmed that the internet is used by the Chinese public as an important source of health information. The lockdown policy was found to cut off the patients' social support network, preventing them from seeking help from family members. The ability to seek information and help online, especially for those with young children or older adult members during the pandemic. A high proportion of female users were seeking health information and help for their parents or for older adults at home. The most searched information included accessing medical treatment, managing self-quarantine, and offline to online support. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings contribute to our understanding of health information-seeking behaviors during an outbreak and highlight the importance of paying attention to the information needs of vulnerable groups and the role social media may play.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pais , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1035-1038, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018162

RESUMO

During gambling, humans often begin by making decisions based on expected rewards and expected risks. However, expectations may not match actual outcomes. As gamblers keep track of their performance, they may feel more or less lucky, which then influences future betting decisions. Studies have identified the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as a brain region that plays a significant role during risky decision making in humans. However, most human studies infer neural activation from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which has a poor temporal resolution. In particular, fMRI cannot detect activity from neuronal populations in the OFC, which may encode specific information about how a subject reacts to mismatched outcomes. In this preliminary study, four human subjects participated in a gambling task while local field potentials (LFPs), captured at a millisecond resolution, were recorded from the OFC. We analyzed high-frequency activity (HFA: >70 Hz) in the LFPs, as HFA has been shown to correlate to activation of neuronal populations. In 3 out of 4 subjects, HFA in OFC modulated between matched and mismatched trials as soon as the outcome of each bet was revealed, with modulations occurring at different times and directions depending on the anatomical location within the OFC.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Tomada de Decisões , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Motivação , Córtex Pré-Frontal
13.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We tested a Public Health Service 5As-based clinician-delivered smoking cessation counseling intervention with adolescent smokers in pediatric primary care practice. METHODS: We enrolled clinicians from 120 practices and recruited youth (age ≥14) from the American Academy of Pediatrics Pediatric Research in Office Settings practice-based research network. Practices were randomly assigned to training in smoking cessation (intervention) or social media counseling (attentional control). Youth recruited during clinical visits completed confidential screening forms. All self-reported smokers and a random sample of nonsmokers were offered enrollment and interviewed by phone at 4 to 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after visits. Measures included adolescents' report of clinicians' delivery of screening and counseling, current tobacco use, and cessation behaviors and intentions. Analysis assessed receipt of screening and counseling, predictors of receiving 5As counseling, and effects of interventions on smoking behaviors and cessation at 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: Clinicians trained in the 5As intervention delivered more screening (ß = 1.0605, P < .0001) and counseling (ß = 0.4354, P < .0001). In both arms, clinicians more often screened smokers than nonsmokers. At 6 months, study arm was not significantly associated with successful cessation; however, smokers in the 5As group were more likely to have quit at 12 months. Addicted smokers more often were counseled, regardless of study arm, but were less likely to successfully quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent smokers whose clinicians were trained in 5As were more likely to receive smoking screening and counseling than controls, but the ability of this intervention to help adolescents quit smoking was limited.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/educação , Motivação , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionais de Enfermagem/educação , Pediatras/educação , Assistentes Médicos/educação , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866171

RESUMO

Academic dishonesty is a common problem at universities around the world, leading to undesirable consequences for both students and the education system. To effectively address this problem, it is necessary to identify specific predispositions that promote cheating. In Polish undergraduate students (N = 390), we examined the role of psychopathy, achievement goals, and self-efficacy as predictors of academic dishonesty. We found that the disinhibition aspect of psychopathy and mastery-goal orientation predicted the frequency of students' academic dishonesty and mastery-goal orientation mediated the relationship between the disinhibition and meanness aspects of psychopathy and dishonesty. Furthermore, general self-efficacy moderated the indirect effect of disinhibition on academic dishonesty through mastery-goal orientation. The practical implications of the study include the identification of risk factors and potential mechanisms leading to students' dishonest behavior that can be used to plan personalized interventions to prevent or deal with academic dishonesty.


Assuntos
Motivação/fisiologia , Má Conduta Profissional/psicologia , Má Conduta Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Decepção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação/ética , Polônia , Má Conduta Profissional/ética , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/ética , Adulto Jovem
15.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 19(3): es10, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870082

RESUMO

To promote undergraduate education reform, teaching professional development (TPD) efforts aim to encourage instructors to adopt evidence-based practices. However, many instructors do not attend TPD. There may be many reasons for this, including low intrinsic motivation to participate in TPD. Psychologists have dealt with motivational barriers in educational contexts using psychosocial interventions, brief activities that draw on a rich history of psychological research to subtly alter key, self-reinforcing psychological processes to yield long-term intrinsic motivation and behavioral changes. Psychosocial interventions, for example, have been used to alter students' noncognitive attitudes and beliefs, such as attributions and mindset, which positively influence students' motivation and academic performance. Here, we propose that insights from research on psychosocial interventions may be leveraged to design interventions that will increase instructors' motivation to participate in TPD, thus enhancing existing pedagogical reform efforts. We discuss psychological principles and "best practices" underlying effective psychosocial interventions that could guide the development of interventions to increase instructors' motivation to attend TPD. We encourage new interdisciplinary research collaborations to explore the potential of these interventions, which could be a new approach to mitigating at least one barrier to undergraduate education reform.


Assuntos
Educação Profissionalizante , Motivação , Ensino/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Atitude , Humanos , Reforço Psicológico , Estudantes/psicologia
16.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003355, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondhand smoke can cause adverse pregnancy outcomes, yet there is a lack of effective smoking cessation interventions targeted at expectant fathers. We examined the effectiveness of a video-based smoking cessation intervention focusing on maternal and child health in promoting quitting among expectant fathers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A single-blind, 3-arm, randomized controlled trial was conducted at the obstetrics registration centers of 3 tertiary public hospitals in 3 major cities (Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Foshan) in China. Smoking expectant fathers who registered with their pregnant partners were invited to participate in this study. Between 14 August 2017 to 28 February 2018, 1,023 participants were randomized to a video (n = 333), text (n = 322), or control (n = 368) group. The video and text groups received videos or text messages on the risks of smoking for maternal and child health via instant messaging. The control group received a leaflet with information on smoking cessation. Follow-up visits were conducted at 1 week and at 1, 3, and 6 months. The primary outcome, by intention to treat (ITT), was validated abstinence from smoking at the 6-month follow-up. The secondary outcomes included 7-day point prevalence of abstinence (PPA) and level of readiness to quit at each follow-up. The mean age of participants was 32 years, and about half of them were first-time expectant fathers. About two-thirds of participants had completed tertiary education. The response rate was 79.7% (815 of 1,023) at 6 months. The video and text groups had higher rates of validated abstinence than the control group (video group: 22.5% [75 of 333], P < 0.001; text group: 14.9% [48 of 322], P = 0.02; control group: 9.2% [34 of 368]) with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 2.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.79-4.37, P < 0.001) in the video group and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.06-2.74, P = 0.03) in the text group. The video and text groups differed in the rates of validated abstinence (22.5% versus 14.9%, P = 0.008; adjusted OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.10-2.46, P = 0.02). The video and text groups had higher rates of 7-day PPA than the control group at 6 months (video group: 24.6% [82 of 333] versus 11.4% [42 of 368], P < 0.001; text group: 17.4% [56 of 333] versus 11.4% [42 of 368], P = 0.02). The video and text groups also differed in the rates of 7-day PPA (24.6% versus 17.4%, P = 0.02). Excluding the quitters, the video and text groups had higher levels of readiness to quit than the control group at 6 months (video group: 43.5% [109 of 251] versus 31.6% [103 of 326], P = 0.002; text group: 40.6% [108 of 266] versus 31.6% [103 of 326], P = 0.01), No such difference was detected between the video and text groups (43.5% versus 40.6%, P = 0.29). The study was limited in that the long-term effectiveness of the intervention is uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: This smoking cessation intervention for expectant fathers that focused on explaining the ramifications of smoking on maternal and child health was effective and feasible in promoting quitting, and video messages were more effective than texts in delivering the information. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03236025.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Pai , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Método Simples-Cego , Fumar/epidemiologia , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
18.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965404

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the experience of the Nursing Committee for Coping with COVID-19 in Bahia. METHODS: The experience report describes motivation, objectives, representatives, organization, working groups, activities and impact of the Committee actions. RESULTS: The Committee consists of educational institutions and class representation. It accepts demands, questions and complaints from nursing workers, acts in favor of safe care and inspection of health and safety conditions at work. Five working groups and six technical support groups were formed. These groups address Communication, Review of Health Services Contingency Plans, Assistance to Long-Term Institutions, Epidemiology and External Activities. An Instagram account was created for quick and reliable access to information, and also an email to meet demands and monitor COVID-19 cases. CONCLUSION: The results of the Committee work contribute to guide, support, value and defend nursing workers in coping with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Comitê de Profissionais/organização & administração , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Motivação , Assistentes de Enfermagem , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238250, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936827

RESUMO

The present study tests predictions from the Tripartite Integration Model of Social Influences (TIMSI) concerning processes linking social interactions to social integration into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) communities and careers. Students from historically overrepresented groups in STEM were followed from their senior year of high school through their senior year in college. Based on TIMSI, we hypothesized that interactions with social influence agents (operationalized as mentor network diversity, faculty mentor support, and research experiences) would promote both short- and long-term integration into STEM via social influence processes (operationalized as science self-efficacy, identity, and internalized community values). Moreover, we examined the previously untested hypothesis of reciprocal influences from early levels of social integration in STEM to future engagement with social influence agents. Results of a series of longitudinal structural equation model-based mediation analyses indicate that, in the short term, higher levels of faculty mentorship support and research engagement, and to a lesser degree more diverse mentor networks in college promote deeper integration into the STEM community through the development of science identity and science community values. Moreover, results indicate that, in the long term, earlier high levels of integration in STEM indirectly influences research engagement through the development of higher science identity. These results extend our understanding of the TIMSI framework and advance our understanding of the reciprocal nature of social influences that draw students into STEM careers.


Assuntos
Engenharia/educação , Matemática/educação , Modelos Estatísticos , Ciência/educação , Apoio Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Tecnologia/educação , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mentores , Modelos Psicológicos , Motivação , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 21-23, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality amoung patients suffering from psychotic disorders. The association between severe COVID-19 and tobacco use is still debated. The aim of this paper is to enhance the importance of providing up to date informations about nicotine and tobacco use in connection with the SARS-CoV-2-related conditions. METHODS: We present 3 cases of sudden tobacco use cessation in 3 long-term heavy smokers receiving mental health care for chronic psychotic disorders. Fear of severe form of COVID-19 was their principal motivation. Nicotine replacement therapy and quitline counseling were provided and no major withdrawal symptoms were declared. RESULTS: As mass media later wrongly presented tobacco use as a protective factor regarding COVID-19, all three patients resumed smoking. Rigorous counseling took advantage of psychotic symptoms to correct false informations and finally promote tobacco use cessation. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic might paradoxically represent a great motivational factor to quit smoking, espacially when considering patients suffering from severe mental health disorders. Beyond the terrible suffering it causes, we illustrate with a case serie that this opportunity must be exploited by mental health professionals to improve quality and life expectancy of their patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Aconselhamento , Humanos , Motivação , Pandemias , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA