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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e27715, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health misinformation is a public health concern. Various stakeholders have called on health care professionals, such as nurses and physicians, to be more proactive in correcting health misinformation on social media. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify US physicians' and nurses' motivations for correcting health misinformation on social media, the barriers they face in doing so, and their recommendations for overcoming such barriers. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 participants, which comprised 15 (50%) registered nurses and 15 (50%) physicians. Qualitative data were analyzed by using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participants were personally (eg, personal choice) and professionally (eg, to fulfill the responsibility of a health care professional) motivated to correct health misinformation on social media. However, they also faced intrapersonal (eg, a lack of positive outcomes and time), interpersonal (eg, harassment and bullying), and institutional (eg, a lack of institutional support and social media training) barriers to correcting health misinformation on social media. To overcome these barriers, participants recommended that health care professionals should receive misinformation and social media training, including building their social media presence. CONCLUSIONS: US physicians and nurses are willing to correct health misinformation on social media despite several barriers. Nonetheless, this study provides recommendations that can be used to overcome such barriers. Overall, the findings can be used by health authorities and organizations to guide policies and activities aimed at encouraging more health care professionals to be present on social media to counteract health misinformation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comunicação , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/normas , Motivação , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Mídias Sociais/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 465, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angola is among one of the most deprived countries in the world in terms of medical professionals. In the past decade, the Angolan Government has invested in the expansion of faculties of medicine in the country.  We analysed the profiles of medical students in Angola according to four clusters of medical schools: older faculty in the country, private faculties, Cuban sponsored faculties and military faculty; under the assumption that the organizational culture of the different faculties might influence the expectations and decisions towards future professional life of medical students regarding where they want to work (community versus hospital) and in which sector (exclusively public versus not exclusively public). METHODS: Observational cross-sectional study. Piloted, standardized questionnaire to final year medical students or higher year of training in the first four-month of 2014 (N = 402). Data were entered into a SPSS v.20 database and descriptive statistics computed. Statistical significance for categorical variables was tested by Pearson chi-square, Fisher exact or likelihood ratio tests as appropriate. Comparison of means was tested with Anova. Backward elimination binary logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that type of faculty of medicine is an important determinant of future professional practice, i.e., level (hospital vs. community) or sector of practice (exclusive public sector vs. private or private and public), while controlling for confounders. RESULTS: After controlling for age, sex, marital status, place of birth and place of primary and secondary education, type of family and family influence, students were more likely to choose community over hospital practice and to prefer exclusive public practice if attending a Cuba supported faculty of medicine. CONCLUSIONS: Medical education cannot be isolated from planning of the medical workforce. Some important and impactful careers choices, like choosing rural over urban practice, public over private sector practice, have deep influences in the medical professionals' labour market. Some of these decisions are shaped even before the end of the medical training. As such, the monitoring of future professional intentions in medical schools should be done regularly to accommodate both the health system needs and the hopes and dreams of medical trainees.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Angola , Escolha da Profissão , Estudos Transversais , Docentes de Medicina , Humanos , Motivação
3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 905, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In an effort to encourage Family Planning (FP) adoption, since 1952, the Government of India has been implementing various centrally sponsored schemes that offer financial incentives (FIs) to acceptors as well as service providers, for services related to certain FP methods. However, understanding of the role of FIs on uptake of FP services, and the quality of FP services provided, is limited and mixed. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted in Chatra and Palamu districts of Jharkhand state. A total of 64 interviews involving multiple stakeholders were conducted. The stakeholders included recent FP acceptors or clients, FP service providers of public health facilities including Accredited Social Healthcare Activists (ASHAs), government health officials managing FP programs at the district and state level, and members of development partners supporting FP programs in Jharkhand. Data analysis included both inductive and deductive strategies. It was done using the software Atlas ti version 8. RESULTS: It has emerged that there is a strong felt need for FP among majority of the clients, and FIs may be a motivator for uptake of FP methods only among those belonging to the lower socio economic strata. For ASHAs, FI is the primary motivator for providing FP related services. There may be a tendency among them and the nurses to promote methods which have more financial incentives linked with them. There are mixed opinions on discontinuing FIs for clients or replacing them with non-financial incentives. Delays in payment of FIs to both clients and the ASHAs is a common issue and adversely effects the program. CONCLUSION: FIs for clients have limited influence on their decision to take up a FP method while different amounts of FIs for ASHAs and nurses, linked with different FP methods, may be influencing their service provision. More research is needed to determine the effect of discontinuing FI for FP services.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Motivação , Atenção à Saúde , Governo , Humanos , Índia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(9): 1123-1125, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500537

RESUMO

The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the professional challenges faced by lady surgeons in Pakistan. This qualitative exploratory phenomenological study was conducted from April 2019 to June 2019. Four lady surgeons participated in in-depth interviews, based on four questions: challenges during training; perceptions of gender-based professional treatment; perceptions of relationships with peers; and perception of gender on the quality of training. Four main themes with ten sub-themes were developed. Family support is identified as major facilitating factor. Participants experienced gender-based discrimination at workplace, long exhausting duty hours with lack of quality time for their families and social gatherings. With the passage of time, these problems diminished as the surgeons gained a work-life balance with their motivation. Key Words: Barriers, Career progression Challenges, Lady surgeons, Gender.


Assuntos
Cirurgiões , Humanos , Motivação , Paquistão , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Local de Trabalho
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e047099, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475155

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Experimental and clinical data demonstrate that skin diseases like psoriasis are affected by psychological factors and can be modulated by interventions other than conventional drug therapy. The expectation of patients towards the benefit of a forthcoming treatment as well as treatment pre-experiences have been demonstrated as crucial factors mediating placebo responses in inflammatory skin diseases. However, it is unknown whether and to what extent treatment outcomes of psoriasis patients under therapy with monoclonal antibodies like secukinumab can be experimentally modulated at subjective and physiological levels by modifying the expectation of patients via verbal instruction or prior experience. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Treatment expectations will be modulated in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis undergoing treatment with the anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody secukinumab. Patients with a Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) >12 will be randomly allocated to one of three groups (N=40 each). As a standard schedule, patients in the pharmacological control group (group 1) will be treated weekly with 300 mg secukinumab, while patients in groups 2 and 3 will receive only 75 mg secukinumab (75% dose reduction) during all treatment weeks. In addition to the injections, patients in group 3 will ingest a novel tasting drink, with a cover story explaining that previous studies showed additional beneficial effects of this combination (drug and drink). Patients will be assessed and treated at nine visits over a 16-week period, during which the severity of pain and itch symptoms, skin lesions and quality of life will be analysed with standardised questionnaires and the PASI. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Ethics committee of the Medical Faculty of the University Duisburg-Essen. Study outcomes will be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals.


Assuntos
Psoríase , Qualidade de Vida , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Motivação , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3535-3542, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468649

RESUMO

This article aims to describe the reasons for sport participation in the Brazilian adult population according to gender, age and schooling level. This is a cross-sectional study with data from a National Household Sample Survey - 2015. The reasons to practice or not practice sports in the previous year were obtained by questionnaire with predetermined answer options. All analyses were performed in Stata 12.1 and stratified by gender. The prevalence of sports participation for men and women were 31.7% and 16.9%, respectively. The most frequent reasons for sports participation among men were: having fun, quality of life and performance. Among women, the most frequent reasons were: quality of life, performance and medical recommendation. Regarding reasons for not practicing sports, the most reported ones were: lack of time (38.8% for men and 37.8% for women), not enjoying (34.8% for men and 35.3% for women) and health problem (20.3% for men and 17.9% for women). The study findings showed the most frequent reasons for sport participation in Brazil. Understanding these reasons and how they affect different age ranges and educational levels may contribute to improve strategic planning to promote sports in middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Motivação , Esportes , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida
7.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151(35-36)2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495624

RESUMO

​Digital proximity tracing has been promoted as a major technological innovation for its potential added benefits of greater speed, wider reach and better scalability compared with traditional manual contact tracing. First launched in Switzerland on 25 June 2020, the SwissCovid digital proximity tracing app has now been in use for more than one year. In light of this milestone, we raise the questions: What is currently known about the role of SwissCovid in mitigating the pandemic? Were the expectations fulfilled? ​In this review, we will summarise the current state of the literature from empirical studies on the adoption, performance and effectiveness of SwissCovid. The review consists of three sections. The first section summarizes findings from effectiveness studies, which suggest that SwissCovid exposure notifications contributed to preventive actions in 76% of exposure notification recipients and were associated with a faster quarantine time in some SwissCovid user groups. The second describes the public perception and current state of adoption of SwissCovid in Switzerland in light of prevalent misconceptions and overemphasised expectations. the third places the evidence on SwissCovid in an international context. Specifically, we compare key performance indicators of SwissCovid, which are of similar magnitude as for digital proximity tracing apps from other European countries. Using findings from Switzerland, we subsequently derive a preliminary measure of the population-level effectiveness of digital proximity tracing apps. We estimate that exposure notifications may have contributed to the notification and identification of 500 to 1000 SARS-CoV-2-positive app users per month. We explore why this effectiveness estimation is somewhat lower when compared with Germany or the United Kingdom. ​In light of the presented evidence, we conclude that digital proximity tracing works well in specific contexts, such as in mitigating non-household spread. However, future applications of digital proximity tracing should invest into stakeholder onboarding and increased process automatization - without deviating from the principles of voluntariness and user privacy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aplicativos Móveis , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , Motivação , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501933

RESUMO

Sport has been heavily impacted by the pandemic for over a year with restrictions and closures of facilities. The main aims of this study are to identify motivation and barriers for an international group of Master weightlifters (ages 35 and up) and analyze age and gender differences in pandemic-related changes to physical activities. A sample of 1051 older athletes, 523 women and 528 men, aged from 35 to 88 years, from Australia, Canada, Europe, and the USA provided responses to an online survey conducted in June 2021. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to examine age, gender, and regional differences about motivation, barriers, and pandemic impact on sport and physical activities. Participants showed enthusiasm for the opportunity to compete despite health challenges with increasing age but faced barriers due to access to training facilities and qualified coaches even before the pandemic. The oldest athletes had the greatest reduction in physical activities during the pandemic. Weightlifters had the opportunity to compete in virtual competitions and 44% would like to see some of these continued in the future, especially women. These findings highlight the benefits of competitive sports and may provide future directions in strength sports for organizations, sports clubs, and coaches.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Atletas , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , SARS-CoV-2 , Levantamento de Peso
9.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(235): 292-294, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506435

RESUMO

The killing of an illegitimate newborn immediately or within 24 hours of birth is neonaticide which differs from other forms of homicide in terms of diagnosis and motives. Neonaticide is a cognizable offense where mothers are usually the perpetrators. This case reports the autopsy findings of a smothered neonate at a secluded location in rural Nepal. The present case study also highlights the medicolegal implications in such cases.


Assuntos
Homicídio , Infanticídio , Autopsia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Motivação
10.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 63(7): 565-569, 2021.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Independent psychiatrists around 68 years old often postpone the phasing out of their working practices. They have difficulty to decide whether, when and how to retire. AIM: Clarify why many independent psychiatrists keep on working for long after their retirement age, and how they eventually can phase out their practices. METHOD: Interviews with over 50 independent psychiatrists, within the context of IFMS (Individual Functioning Medical Specialists), and consultation of literature. RESULTS: Three quarters of the consulted psychiatrists struggled with emotions concerning retirement. Narcissistic and obsessive compulsive motives, but also the pleasure in their work and the feeling of being needed, often played a role. Continuing to work keeps us physically and mentally healthy, once retirement comes into view. Still, it is wise to stop working before our old age actually diminishes our functioning. Gradually and tightly managing the phasing out of work, and at the same time building up a new life perspective, seems to be the best approach for effective retirement. CONCLUSION: In the western world, the retirement age increases gradually - independent psychiatrists exceed this trend, by working for even longer. Responsibly phasing out their practices means: the need to anticipate on an undefinable stopping moment. Letting go, loss, and starting a new phase, can be an intense process, also for psychiatrists, in which assignment emotional and practical support can be helpful.


Assuntos
Motivação , Psiquiatria , Idoso , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Aposentadoria
11.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 63(7): 570-577, 2021.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Independent psychiatrists around 68 years old often postpone the phasing out of their working practices. They have difficulty to decide whether, when and how to retire. AIM: Clarify why many independent psychiatrists keep on working for long after their retirement age, and how they eventually can phase out their practices. METHOD: Interviews with over 50 independent psychiatrists, within the context of IFMS (Individual Functioning Medical Specialists), and consultation of literature. RESULTS: Three quarters of the consulted psychiatrists struggled with emotions concerning retirement. Narcissistic and obsessive compulsive motives, but also the pleasure in their work and the feeling of being needed, often played a role. Continuing to work keeps us physically and mentally healthy, once retirement comes into view. Still, it is wise to stop working before our old age actually diminishes our functioning. Gradually and tightly managing the phasing out of work, and at the same time building up a new life perspective, seems to be the best approach for effective retirement. CONCLUSION: In the western world, the retirement age increases gradually - independent psychiatrists exceed this trend, by working for even longer. Responsibly phasing out their practices means: the need to anticipate on an undefinable stopping moment. Letting go, loss, and starting a new phase, can be an intense process, also for psychiatrists, in which assignment emotional and practical support can be helpful.


Assuntos
Motivação , Psiquiatria , Idoso , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Aposentadoria
12.
Hist Psychol ; 24(3): 223-227, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516187

RESUMO

Teo et al. (2021, p. 217) have asked me "to locate [myself] epistemologically and politically and identify [my] position in…institutional and departmental struggles…to allow a reader to contextualize [my] reconstructions." Therefore, I provide information on my political and scientific orientation, my position at the Free University of Berlin, and my relationship to Klaus Holzkamp. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Historiografia , Motivação , Humanos , Autorrelato
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 970, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To bridge the physical distance between parents and children during a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay, webcams are used in few German NICUs. They allow parents to view their infant even when they cannot be present on the ward. The aim of the study was to explore the factors for and against webcam use that parents with or without webcam use encountered. METHODS: Guideline-based, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in the period from September 2019 to August 2020. Interview transcripts were analysed using a category-based content analysis. The categories were generated in a combined deductive-inductive procedure. RESULTS: We interviewed 33 mothers and seven fathers. Parents with webcam experience emphasised positive aspects concerning their webcam use. Factors that increased webcam acceptance included feeling certain about the child's well-being and an increased sense of proximity. Only a few critical voices emerged from parents who had webcam experience, e.g. regarding privacy concerns. Parents who had no experience with webcam use showed ambivalence. On the one hand, they expressed a positive attitude towards the webcam system and acknowledged that webcam use could result in feelings of control. On the other hand, reservations emerged concerning an increase of mental stress or a negative influence on parental visitation behaviour. CONCLUSION: In addition to the parents' positive experiences with webcam use, results show a need within parents who lacked webcam experience. Despite some criticism, it was evident that webcam use was primarily seen as an opportunity to counteract the negative consequences of separation in the postnatal phase. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Neo-CamCare study is registered at the German Clinical Trials Register. DRKS-ID: DRKS00017755 . Date of Registration in DRKS: 25-09-2019.


Assuntos
Motivação , Pais , Criança , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
14.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(2): 268-273, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A central aspect of professional identity is occupational commitment, which has a significant relationship with motivation and positive mental states in healthcare environments. However, it is not clear how occupational commitment is related to teaching practices in universities. AIM: To apply the Occupational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) to university teachers and relate its results with the Teaching Practices Questionnaire. MATERIAL AND METHODS: OCQ and Teaching Practices Questionnaire were answered by 319 university teachers from 13 Chilean regions, who were selected through a non-probabilistic volunteer sampling. Data collection was done after informed consent. An exploratory factor analysis was performed for OCQ. The internal consistency of each factor was calculated with Cronbach's Alpha. Spearman correlations were used to explore the relationship between the two questionnaires. RESULTS: Two factors were identified in OCQ, namely Teacher Commitment and Ethical-Professional Commitment. Cronbach's Alpha was 0.85 for both factors. A moderate direct relationship between teacher commitment, ethical-professional commitment, and the Teaching Practices Questionnaire was found. CONCLUSIONS: OCQ showed an adequate internal consistency, and it was directly related with teaching practices. Committed teachers had better teaching practices. This confirms the importance of teachers' values and perceptions on their professional performance.


Assuntos
Docentes , Motivação , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensino , Universidades
15.
Nurs Open ; 8(3): 1115-1124, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482655

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the present research was to investigate the obstacles, which prevent nurses being present with patients. BACKGROUND: It is vital for nurses to be able to spend time with patients for an accurate assessment of patients' needs to take place and to allow patients to express their concerns. The factors, which prevent nurses spending time with patients, are still unclear. METHOD: Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with thirty-five participants, including the nurses and physicians from educational hospitals of Tehran. The analysis was performed through the conventional content analysis. To achieve accuracy and trustworthiness of the data, the Lincoln and Guba criteria were used. RESULT: The results of the study can be summarized as: "conflict between human considerations and bureaucratic structure," "failure to meet basic needs," "the personal and interpersonal aspects of caring" and "safety in caring context." CONCLUSION: To ensure high-quality care, it is important to understand more fully the factors that prevent nurses spending time with patients. Interventions are needed to allow nurses to spend more time with the patients. IMPLICATION FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Health service managers should consider that the intrinsic motivation of nurses is to care for patients. They can increase the presence of nurses at patients' bedside and improve care quality by creating an attractive working environment, appreciating nurses' values, paying attention to their opinions and establishing professional communication based on mutual respect.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Motivação , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
16.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 287-297, mayo-sept. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202552

RESUMO

Actualmente, el engagement educativo se considera uno de los factores más importantes a la hora de predecir un buen aprendizaje por parte de los estudiantes, así como su éxito educativo. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los instrumentos descritos, no incluyen todos los factores clave vinculados al engagement académico: motivaciones, valores, contextos de aprendizaje, estado emocional y estrategias de gestión. El objetivo de este estudio es desarrollar una escala para valorar el nivel de engagement educativo de los estudiantes en Educación Superior (EMMEE) que supere esta limitación. MÉTODO: Se realizan análisis factoriales exploratorio y confirmatorio, así como un estudio de la consistencia interna, validez convergente y discriminante en una muestra de 764 estudiantes de la Universidad de Sevilla (España), perteneciente a todas las áreas de saber y los diferentes cursos de grados. RESULTADOS: Se explora y se confirma con muy buen nivel de ajuste una estructura multifactorial de engagement educativo de cinco factores que explican una varianza cercana al 65.78%, con una excelente consistencia interna (α = .91) y con indicios significativos de validez convergente y discriminante. CONCLUSIONES: Se concluye que la EMMEE es un instrumento válido y fiable para medir el nivel de engagement de las aulas, así como mejorar el entendimiento del constructo a través de sus factores


Today, educational engagement is considered one of the most important factors in predicting good student learning and educational success. However, most of the instruments described do not include all the key factors linked to academic engagement: motivations, values, learning contexts, emotional state and management strategies. The aim of this study is to develop a scale to assess the level of educational engagement in High-er Education students (MMSEE) that overcomes this limitation. METHODS: Exploratory and confirmatory factorial analyses, as well as a study of internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, were carried out on a sample of 764 students from the University of Seville (Spain), belonging to all areas of knowledge and different degree courses. RESULTS: A multifactorial structure of educational engagement with five factors that explain a variance close to 65.78%, with an excellent internal consistency (α = .91) and with significant indicators of convergent and discriminant validity is explored and confirmed with a very good level of adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that MMSEE is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the level of engagement of classrooms, as well as to improve the under-standing of the construct through its factors


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Aprendizagem , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Avaliação Educacional/normas , Análise Fatorial , Emoções , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Valores de Referência
17.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 323-333, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202555

RESUMO

Este estudio tiene dos objetivos. Primero, estudiar la validez del modelo de clima motivacional de la familia como indicador de implicación parental, cuando se evalúa con el cuestionario de Clima Motivacional de la Familia para padres (CMF/P). Y, segundo, hacerlo en población española y cubana con el fin de determinar las diferencias en la percepción del CMF de los padres de ambos países. Participaron 892 padres, 400 españoles y 492 cubanos. Se realizaron análisis factoriales confirmatorios, de validez cruzada y multigrupo, y análisis de fiabilidad. Los resultados muestran, tanto en España como en Cuba, la validez del Modelo teórico que subyace al cuestionario. Las ayudas que ofrecen los padres sirviendo como ejemplo a sus hijos y la estructuración del trabajo escolar en casa por parte de los padres son los factores de mayor peso en la definición del CMF. Sin embargo, la cultura moderó la configuración del CMF en varios indicadores del Modelo, mostrando diferentes maneras de actuar entre padres españoles y cubanos en la configuración de un clima familiar motivador


This study has two objectives. First, to study the validity of the family motivational climate model as an indicator of parental involvement, when it is evaluated with the Family Motivational Climate questionnaire for Parents (CMF / P). Second, to do it in the Spanish and Cuban population in order to determine the differences in the CMF perception of the parents of both countries. A total of 892 parents participated in the study, 400 from Spain and 492 from Cuba. Confirmatory factor analyses, cross-validation and multi-group analyses performed, as well as reliability analysis. The results show, both in Spain and in Cuba, the validity of the theoretical model that underlies the questionnaire. The help offered by parents serving as an example to their children, and the way in which parents structure the schoolwork at home are the most important factors in the definition of the CMF. However, culture moderated the configuration of the CMF in several indicators of the Model, showing different ways of acting between Spanish and Cuban parents in the configuration of a family motivating climate


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Comparação Transcultural , Relações Pais-Filho , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Análise Fatorial , Percepção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Cuba , Espanha
18.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 361-370, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202559

RESUMO

El enfoque psicológico en torno a la actividad emprendedora contribuye a explicar por qué las personas deciden o no emprender. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar diferentes perfiles de personalidad emprendedora, así como identificar las variables de personalidad que puedan explicar el convertirse en trabajador por cuenta propia. Empleando una muestra de 586 participantes (Medad= 39,31; DTedad = 14,66), se analizaron diferentes perfiles de personalidad emprendedora mediante técnicas de análisis de perfiles latentes. Además, se analizó si había diferencias en otras variables psicológicas en función del perfil de personalidad emprendedora. Finalmente, se estudió, mediante un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales, si la responsabilidad, el autocontrol, el grit y la personalidad emprendedora ayudan a explicar que las personas se conviertan en trabajadores por cuenta propia. Los resultados apoyan la existencia de tres perfiles latentes de personalidad emprendedora (baja, media y alta), siendo el perfil alta personalidad emprendedora el que muestra mayores puntuaciones en otras variables psicológicas, así como mayor proporción de trabajadores por cuenta propia. El modelo de ecuaciones estructurales planteado explica un 2,6% de la varianza de la variable ser trabajador autónomo, por lo que las variables de personalidad ayudan a explicar una pequeña parte de la actividad emprendedora


The psychological approach to entrepreneurial activity helps to explain why people decide or not to undertake. The objective of this study is to analyze different entrepreneurial personality profiles, as well as to identify the personality variables that can explain becoming a self-employed. Using a sample of 586 participants (Mage = 39.31; SDage = 14.66), different entrepreneurial personality profiles were analyzed using la-tent profile analysis techniques. In addition, it was analyzed whether there were differences in other psychological variables based on the entrepreneurial personality profile. Finally, it was studied, using a structural equation model, if conscientiousness, self-control, grit and entrepreneurial personality help to explain why people become self-employed. The results support the existence of three latent profiles of entrepreneurial personality (low, medium and high), being high entrepreneurial personality the one profile that shows higher scores in other psychological variables, as well as a higher proportion of self-employed. The proposed structural equation model explains 2.6% of the variance of the variable being self-employed, so the personality variables help to explain a small part of entrepreneurial activity


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Empreendedorismo , Conscientização , Autocontrole/psicologia , Motivação , Emprego/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Valores de Referência
19.
Gen Dent ; 69(5): 5, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424201
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444419

RESUMO

Message framing has been used as a strategy for promoting physical activity (PA) in university students, but the effectiveness of gain-framed (GF), or loss-framed (LF) messages is variable. This study aims to investigate the effects on motivation and PA behaviour of framed messaging on social media in university students. Gain- and loss-framed messages communicated the mental health outcomes of PA. A three-arm feasibility study (n = 148) collected pre-post intervention online questionnaire responses to assess motivation for PA, exercise, active travel, and PA levels, in response to the messaging intervention on Facebook. Both GF and LF messages effectively increased average motivation for PA in comparison to controls (GF by 0.3 (on a 7-point Likert scale), 9% [95% CI: 3-17%], p = 0.007, LF by 0.3, 10% [CI: 3-18%], p = 0.005). Average motivation for exercise increased in comparison to controls (GF by 0.6, 16% [95% CI: 6-26%], p = 0.001, LF by 0.5, 14.6% [95% CI: 5-26%], p < 0.001). Average motivation for active travel increased in comparison to controls (GF by 0.7, 18% [95% CI: 8-29%], p < 0.001, LF by 0.6, 19% [95% CI: 8-30%], p < 0.001). No meaningful differences between GF or LF messages were observed. Framed messages regarding mental health outcomes of PA delivered via social media could be effective for increasing PA motivation in university students. However, based on our results there is no gain- or loss-framed advantage.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Motivação , Estudantes , Universidades
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