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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866171

RESUMO

Academic dishonesty is a common problem at universities around the world, leading to undesirable consequences for both students and the education system. To effectively address this problem, it is necessary to identify specific predispositions that promote cheating. In Polish undergraduate students (N = 390), we examined the role of psychopathy, achievement goals, and self-efficacy as predictors of academic dishonesty. We found that the disinhibition aspect of psychopathy and mastery-goal orientation predicted the frequency of students' academic dishonesty and mastery-goal orientation mediated the relationship between the disinhibition and meanness aspects of psychopathy and dishonesty. Furthermore, general self-efficacy moderated the indirect effect of disinhibition on academic dishonesty through mastery-goal orientation. The practical implications of the study include the identification of risk factors and potential mechanisms leading to students' dishonest behavior that can be used to plan personalized interventions to prevent or deal with academic dishonesty.


Assuntos
Motivação/fisiologia , Má Conduta Profissional/psicologia , Má Conduta Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Decepção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação/ética , Polônia , Má Conduta Profissional/ética , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/ética , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237805, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Incentivising vaccine consent form return may improve vaccine uptake and be seen as less coercive than incentivising vaccination itself. We assessed the acceptability of financial incentives in this context among adolescent females and explored potential mechanisms by which incentives might change behaviour. DESIGN: Focus groups and analysis of free-text questionnaire responses. METHODS: Study 1: 36 female secondary students in London (age 13-14) participated in six focus groups exploring the use of incentives in the context of vaccination. Data were analysed thematically. Study 2: was conducted to triangulate the findings of Study 1, by analysing free-text questionnaire responses from 181 female secondary students in London (age 12-13) reporting their opinion of incentivising consent form return. Data from Study 1 was also used to explore perceived potential mechanisms of action by which incentives might encourage consent form return. RESULTS: Focus group participants had positive attitudes towards incentives, with 61% of free-text responses also expressing this. Most focus group participants thought that incentives would encourage consent form return (18% of free-text respondents spontaneously also mentioned this). While incentivising consent form return was seen as ethical, focus group participants who incorrectly thought that vaccine receipt was being incentivised raised concerns about bribery, although only 4% of free text respondents reported these concerns. Frequently raised mechanisms of action included incentives increasing engagement with, and the perceived value of consent form return. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents had positive views of financially incentivising consent form return to promote vaccine uptake, although care must be taken to reduce misconceptions regarding what is being incentivised. Incentivising vaccination was seen as coercive, but incentivising actions that increase the likelihood of vaccination (i.e. consent form return) were not. Incentives may encourage adolescents to return consent forms by helping them engage with this behaviour or increasing its' perceived value.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Vacinação , Adolescente , Termos de Consentimento , Demografia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Londres , Motivação/ética , Pais , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Recompensa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/economia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
J Infect Dis ; 222(3): 356-361, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469074

RESUMO

Trials are in development and underway to examine potential interventions for treatment and prophylaxis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). How should we think about offering payment to participants in these trials? Payment for research participation is ethically contentious even under ideal circumstances. Here, we review 3 functions of research payment-reimbursement, compensation, and incentive-and identify heightened and novel ethical concerns in the context of a global pandemic. We argue that COVID-19 trial participants should usually be offered reimbursement for research-related expenses, and compensation for their time and effort, as for other types of research under usual circumstances. Given increased risk of undue influence against pandemic background conditions, incentive payment should be avoided unless essential to recruitment and retention in important trials whose social value outweighs this risk. Where essential, however, incentives can be ethically permissible, so long as reasonable efforts are made to minimize the possibility of undue influence.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Compensação e Reparação/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Motivação/ética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa/economia
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(4): e202044, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242906

RESUMO

Importance: The strongest evidence for the effectiveness of Medicare's Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) involves greater reductions in readmissions for hospitals receiving penalties compared with those not receiving penalties. However, the HRRP penalty is an imperfect measure of hospitals' marginal incentive to avoid a readmission for HRRP-targeted diagnoses. Objectives: To assess the association between hospitals' condition-specific incentives and readmission performance and to examine the responsiveness of hospitals to condition-specific incentives compared with aggregate penalty amounts. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort analysis used Medicare readmissions data from 2823 US short-term acute care hospitals participating in HRRP to compare 3-year (fiscal years 2016-2019) follow-up readmission performance according to tertiles of hospitals' baseline (2016) marginal incentives for each of 5 HRRP-targeted conditions (acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, and hip and/or knee surgery). Main Outcomes and Measures: Linear regression models were used to estimate mean change in follow-up readmission performance, measured using the excess readmissions ratio, with baseline condition-specific incentives and aggregate penalty amounts. Results: Of 2823 hospitals that participated in the HRRP from baseline to follow-up, 2280 (81%) had more than 1 excess readmission for 1 or more applicable condition and 543 (19%) did not have any excess readmissions. The mean (SD) financial incentive to reduce readmissions for incentivized hospitals ranged from $8762 ($3699) to $58 158 ($26 198) per 1 avoided readmission. Hospitals with greater incentives for readmission avoidance had greater decreases in readmissions compared with hospitals with smaller incentives (45% greater for pneumonia, 172% greater for acute myocardial infarction, 40% greater for hip and/or knee surgery, 32% greater for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 13% greater for heart failure), whereas hospitals with no incentives had increases in excess readmissions of 4% to 7% (median, 4% [percentage change for nonincentivized hospitals was 3.7% for pneumonia, 4.2% for acute myocardial infarction, 7.1% for hip and/or knee surgery, 3.7% for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 3.7% for heart failure]; P < .001). During the study period, each additional $5000 in the incentive amount was associated with a 0.6- to 1.3-percentage point decrease, or up to a 26% decrease, in excess readmissions (P < .001). Regression to the mean explained approximately one-third of the results depending on the condition examined. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that improvements in readmission avoidance are more strongly associated with incentives from the HRRP than with aggregate penalty amounts, suggesting that the program has elicited sizeable changes. Worsened performance among hospitals with small or no incentives may indicate the need for reconsideration of the program's lack of financial rewards for high-performing hospitals.


Assuntos
Economia Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/economia , Motivação/ética , Readmissão do Paciente/economia , Doença Aguda , Artroplastia de Quadril/economia , Artroplastia de Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos , Artroplastia do Joelho/economia , Artroplastia do Joelho/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/economia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/economia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Pneumonia/economia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/economia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119702

RESUMO

Punishment aims to deter individuals' selfish behaviors, but it can occasionally backfire. Some scholars have proposed promoting prosocial behaviors using punishment that communicates positive social norms because it provides additional motivation. However, it is unclear which factors affect the norm expressive function of punishment. This study proposes that third-party punishment communicates more positive normative information, and thus, promotes more prosocial behavior in observers than does second-party punishment. Using dictator games, we investigated the effects of second-party punishment compared to third-party punishment of another's unfair sharing on observers' norm perceptions and subsequent sharing decision-making. Two experiments consistently found that third-party punishment was more effective than second-party punishment at inducing observers' beliefs that unfair distribution was unusual (descriptive norm) and unacceptable (injunctive norm). The altered descriptive but not injunctive norm perception further guided individuals' own sharing behaviors. Taken together, these results suggest that third-party punishment might be better than second-party punishment at decreasing selfish behaviors by shaping individuals' norm perceptions, especially descriptive norm perception, regarding the relevant behaviors.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/ética , Punição/psicologia , Altruísmo , China , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/ética , Normas Sociais , Adulto Jovem
7.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 37: 100652, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075712

RESUMO

Decision making requires consideration of both the benefits of a given choice and the costs, which can include risk, delay, and effort. Previous research has examined the developmental trajectory of adolescent decision making regarding risk and delay; however, the effects of effort on adolescent decision making remain largely unexplored. In the present study, we pilot tested a novel, developmentally-appropriate task designed to examine developmental differences in the willingness to expend effort during goal pursuit in adolescents (ages 13-16, n = 23) versus young adults (ages 18-23, n = 25). Self-reported reward responsivity correlated with task-related parameter estimates for effort and reward, providing evidence of task validity. Adolescents exhibited reduced sensitivity to physical effort costs compared to adults, effects which did not appear to be driven by differences in subjective task motivation or awareness of the effort requirements. These findings provide preliminary evidence that adolescence may be a time of increased willingness to expend effort during goal pursuit. Effort-based decision making is an understudied but exciting avenue for developmental research, as the willingness to engage in effortful pursuit of new experiences during adolescence may help to facilitate the path to independence.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Motivação/ética , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
8.
Narrat Inq Bioeth ; 9(1): 41-45, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031289

RESUMO

Citizen science, a diverse enterprise involving multiple processes, participants, and projects, challenges conventional approaches to thinking about science and the issues it raises. This commentary explores three key themes identified in the accompanying narratives. (1) Motivated volunteers may serve as novel resources for science, allowing projects to proceed in ways that are cheaper and more accessible than previously considered. (2) Traditional scientific approaches may be insufficient to even identify research questions, much less attempt to address issues. Citizen science may fill that gap. (3) Ethical concepts may have unique applications in this burgeoning field, both due to the emergence of novel ethical issues and to new categories of people, places, and things inherent in the conduct of citizen science. The commentary closes with suggestions for moving forward as citizen science becomes the norm rather than the exception.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão/ética , Ética em Pesquisa , Humanos , Motivação/ética , Projetos de Pesquisa , Pesquisadores/ética , Voluntários
9.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 49(2): 40-46, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998274

RESUMO

According to the mainstream conception of research involving human participants, researchers have been trained scientists acting within institutions and have been the individuals doing the studying, while participants, who are nonscientist members of the public, have been the individuals being studied. The relationship between the public and scientists is evolving, however, giving rise to several new concepts, including crowdsourcing and citizen science. In addition, the practice of gamification has been applied to research protocols. The role of gamified, crowdsourced citizen scientist is new in the domain of scientific research and does not fit into the existing taxonomy of researchers and participants. We delineate and explicate this role and show that, while traditional roles are governed by well-established norms and regulations, individuals engaged in gamified, crowdsourced citizen science-gamers-fall through the cracks of research protections and regulations. We consider the issues this raises, including exploitation and the absence of responsibility and accountability. Finally, we offer suggestions for how the current lack of appropriate norms may be rectified.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão/ética , Crowdsourcing/ética , Jogos Experimentais , Experimentação Humana/ética , Humanos , Motivação/ética , Projetos de Pesquisa , Pesquisadores/ética , Estados Unidos
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 80, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug companies rely on their marketing activities to influence physicians. Previous studies showed that pharmaceutical companies succeeded to manage physicians prescribing behavior in developed countries. However, very little studies investigated the impact of pharmaceutical marketing strategies on prescribing pattern in developing countries, middle-eastern countries. The objective of this research was to examine the influence of drug companies' strategies on physicians' prescription behavior in the Lebanese market concerning physicians' demographic variables quantitatively. Moreover, this study tested whether Lebanese physicians considered gifts and samples acceptance as an ethical practice. METHODS: Sampling was done by using a non-probability method. An online cross-sectional study was conducted through WhatsApp. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted during the months of February and March 2018. Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient was calculated. Data were statistically analyzed by using IBM SPSS statistics version 24 software. Chi-square and Cramer's v tests were used to finding sign correlation, and Spearman test was used to measure the strength and direction of a relationship between variables. RESULTS: Results found that pharmaceutical marketing strategies are correlated to physicians' prescribing behavior. We demonstrated that the majority of the promotional tools tested were mostly or sometimes motivating physicians to prescribe promoted drugs. The major tools that physicians agreed to be mostly motivated by are visits of medical representatives and drug samples while sales calls made by pharmaceutical companies are the less influential tool. Regarding gift acceptance, this study demonstrated that physicians consider gifts' acceptance as a non-ethical practice. Results showed that most physicians use free samples to treat their patients. We demonstrated that there is a relationship between physicians' prescribing pattern and their age, gender and the location of practice. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this study provided an insightful work, serving as one of the first humble steps in the imminent direction of merging this paper with the previous literature. From a managerial perspective, pharmaceutical marketing managers of drug companies can use the research findings to design better their strategies directed to the Lebanese physicians who can also benefit from the results obtained.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica/ética , Doações/ética , Marketing/ética , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Líbano , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação/ética , Médicos/ética , Padrões de Prática Médica/ética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Urology ; 127: 42-48, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the expectations of urology trainees with the experience of practicing urologists. METHODS: Residents, fellows, and practicing urologists were surveyed in 2018 regarding weekly work hours, number of hospitals covered, call nights per week, administrative workload relative to residency, annual net income, and time to pursue personal interests and hobbies. Urology trainees, defined as residents and fellows, were also surveyed regarding their expectations for clinical practice. The expectations of trainees were compared with the reported experience of practicing urologists using 1-tailed t test and chi-square analysis. Trainee expectations were also stratified by age, gender, training level, relationship status, and whether trainees had dependent children. RESULTS: The expectations of 99 trainees were compared with the reported experience of 377 practicing urologists. Trainees expect to work more hours but less call nights per week than reported by practicing urologists while annual net income was either consistent or underestimated. Compared to practicing urologists, however, trainees appear to underestimate the administrative workload relative to residency and overestimate time to pursue personal interests and hobbies. Junior residents were more likely to underestimate administrative workload than senior residents and fellows. CONCLUSION: While the expectations of urology trainees for work hours and annual net income were fairly consistent with those reported by practicing urologists, trainees may underestimate administrative workload and overestimate time to pursue personal interests and hobbies.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência/tendências , Satisfação no Emprego , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/tendências , Motivação/ética , Urologistas/tendências , Urologia/educação , Adulto , Idoso , Competência Clínica , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Urologistas/educação , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
12.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(1): 53-59, ene.-feb. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183627

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analizar y comprender los discursos reticentes a la vacunación, particularmente los de las personas que han decidido no vacunar a sus hijos/as. Métodos: Estudio cualitativo con cinco entrevistas individuales y dos grupos focales con personas que optaron por no vacunar a su hijos/as en la provincia de Granada. Resultados: Padres y madres manifiestan un sistema de creencias en salud diferente al paradigma biomédico. Desde el punto de vista ético, justifican su posición a partir del derecho a la autonomía y la responsabilidad de sus decisiones. Como argumentos concretos, dudan de la administración de varias vacunas simultáneamente en edades muy tempranas de manera sistemática y sin individualizar cada caso, temen efectos adversos y no entienden la variabilidad en el calendario vacunal. Conclusiones: Los discursos reticentes responden al conflicto de individualidad vs. colectividad: padres y madres, en defensa de su derecho a una crianza sin interferencias del Estado, centran su responsabilidad en el bienestar individual de sus hijos/as independientemente de las consecuencias que su acción u omisión conlleve a la colectividad. En su gestión de los riesgos, elevan los derivados de vacunar por encima de las consecuencias individuales y colectivas de no hacerlo. Las vacunas que más dudas generan son aquellas con mayor controversia en el ámbito científico. La transparencia en la comunicación de efectos adversos, el respeto de las autoridades a otros conceptos de salud/enfermedad, el destierro del término «antivacunas» del lenguaje mediático y científico, y el desarrollo de espacios de diálogo son puentes por construir


Objective: To analyse and understand vaccination hesitancy discourses, particularly those of people who have decided not to vaccinate their sons and daughters. Methods: Qualitative study of five individual interviews and two focus groups with people who chose not to vaccinate their children in the province of Granada (Spain). Results: Mothers and fathers manifest a system of health beliefs different to the biomedical paradigm. From an ethical point of view, they justify their position based on the right to autonomy and responsibility for their decisions. Alleged specific reasons: they doubt administration of several vaccines simultaneously at an early age in a systematic way and without individualising each case; they fear adverse effects and do not understand the variations of the vaccination schedule. Conclusions: These vaccination hesitancy discourses respond to the individual vs collective conflict; parents defend their right to bring up their children without any interference from the state and focus their responsibility on the individual welfare of their sons and daughters, regardless of the consequences that their actions might have on the collective. In their management of risks, they consider those derived from vaccination more relevant than the individual or collective consequences of not doing so. The vaccines generating most doubts are the more controversial ones within the scientific world. Transparency in communication of adverse effects; authorities respect for other health/disease concepts; banishment of the term "anti-vaccines" from the media and scientific vocabulary, and developing spaces for dialogue are bridges to be built


Assuntos
Humanos , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Movimento contra Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Causalidade , Vacinação/ética , Programas de Imunização/ética , Motivação/ética , Fatores de Risco , Políticas Públicas de Saúde , Grupos Focais/estatística & dados numéricos , Entrevistas como Assunto
13.
Am J Infect Control ; 47(7): 816-821, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The sterile processing of surgical instruments and equipment is an essential part of surgical operations. Although clean instruments prevent infections, little is known about the departments that conduct this work. We sought to describe sterile processing departments (SPDs) and to identify factors impacting them. METHODS: We analyzed data from 22 qualitative interviews of staff and managers and a quantitative benchmarking database. RESULTS: Qualitative results indicated 4 primary factors impacting sterile processing work: (1) role and visibility, (2) relationships and communication with other departments and vendors, (3) staffing and management, and (4) technical problems and solutions. Quantitative analysis revealed significant differences in SPD responsibilities and scope. DISCUSSION: Relationships with operating room staff were of paramount importance in the ability of the SPD to accomplish its job and in staff motivations and feelings. Differences in management practices, communication strategies, and problem-solving resources were also emphasized. Both quantitative and qualitative data showed concern for the role of the SPD in patient safety, particularly concerning practices such as the use of immediate-use steam sterilization. CONCLUSIONS: To more completely address adverse patient events and surgical patient safety, we must move toward examining the entire surgical process, including the vital role of SPDs.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Departamentos Hospitalares/organização & administração , Motivação/ética , Esterilização/organização & administração , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas , Segurança do Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Vapor , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209872, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620731

RESUMO

The percentage of protesters in contingent valuation surveys is substantial-about 20% across many studies. This paper seeks to clarify the motivations behind protest responses. In addition, the question whether the estimation of willingness to pay (WTP) is more biased by the exclusion or inclusion of protest bids is yet undecided. Methodological improvements are difficult for three reasons: motivations behind protest responses are largely unclear, definitions of protest differ between studies and often only participants who state a zero WTP are asked for their reasons. Our survey on farm animal welfare (n = 1335) provides detailed motivations, two definitions and includes debriefing of all participants for their WTP. We find that protest bids are not a refusal to answer, they are neither irrational nor driven by lack of understanding. Quite the contrary, a large part of participants is directly motivated by moral reasons. Furthermore, protest responses are not coupled to a zero WTP. In our sample, only 8% out of 32% protesting participants had a zero WTP. Only a small fraction of zero bids (0.4%) are true WTP-statements, i.e. respondents were satisfied with the status quo. This finding has important implications for existing WTP-estimates which might be biased. Finally, we provide detailed estimates of the WTP for animal welfare issues by including and excluding different types of protesters and outliers.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal/ética , Motivação/ética , Adulto , Bem-Estar do Animal/economia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Atitude , Viés , Feminino , Financiamento Pessoal , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Princípios Morais , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Bioethics ; 33(2): 223-229, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136739

RESUMO

In this paper, I present and criticize Ted Kaczynski's ("The Unabomber") theory that industrialization has been terrible for humanity, and that we should use any means necessary, including violent means, to induce a return to pre-industrial ways of living. Although Kaczynski's manifesto, Industrial society and its future, has become widely known, his ideas have never before been subject to careful philosophical criticism. In this paper I show how Kaczynski's arguments rely on a number of highly implausible philosophical premises. I further make the case that, although his theory as a whole should be rejected, Kaczynski raises a number of worries about technological development that ought to receive serious attention. Some of these worries have recently come to be shared by prominent defenders of human enhancement, including Nick Bostrom and Julian Savulescu. In the last section I indicate why I believe it is important that academic philosophers scrutinize ideas that motivate acts of violence.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Motivação/ética , Filosofia , Ativismo Político , Mudança Social , Tecnologia , Violência/ética , Melhoramento Biomédico , Dissidências e Disputas , Teoria Ética , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Terrorismo/ética , Terrorismo/psicologia , Violência/psicologia
16.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 25(3): 791-811, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29532279

RESUMO

Some fundamental biotechnologies hold unprecedented potential to eradicate many incurable diseases. However, in absence of regulations, the power of patent makes the future use of some important biotechnology in few institution's hands. The excessive patents restrict researcher access to the fundamental technologies. It generates concerns and complaints of deteriorating the public health and social welfare. Furthermore, intellectual curiosities, funding, respect among colleagues etc., rather than patents, are the real motivations driving a major ground-breaking discoveries in biotechnology. These phenomena reveal that some biotechnology patents are alienated from the purpose of patent system. Therefore, it is necessary to take some approaches to stop over-patenting these fundamental biotechnology inventions. This article proposes a model regulatory framework for controlling biotechnology patent alienating from the purpose of patent system.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/ética , Biotecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Invenções/ética , Invenções/legislação & jurisprudência , Patentes como Assunto/ética , Patentes como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência , Biotecnologia/tendências , DNA Recombinante , Regulamentação Governamental , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas , Humanos , Invenções/tendências , Motivação/ética , Objetivos Organizacionais , Propriedade/ética , Propriedade/legislação & jurisprudência , Propriedade/tendências , Patentes como Assunto/história , Interferência de RNA , Estados Unidos
17.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 76: 1-8, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414865

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The most common and conceptually sound ethical concerns with financial incentives for research participation are that they may (1) represent undue inducements by blunting peoples' perceptions of research risks, thereby preventing fully informed consent; or (2) represent unjust inducements by encouraging enrollment preferentially among the poor. Neither of these concerns has been shown to manifest in studies testing the effects of incentives on decisions to participate in hypothetical randomized clinical trials (RCTs), but neither has been assessed in real RCTs. METHODS AND ANALYSES: We are conducting randomized trials of real incentives embedded within two parent RCTs. In each of two trials conducted in parallel, we are randomizing 576 participants to one of three incentive groups. Following preliminary determination of patients' eligibility in the parent RCT, we assess patients' research attitudes, demographic characteristics, perceived research risks, time spent reviewing consent documents, ability to distinguish research from patient care, and comprehension of key trial features. These quantitative assessments will be supplemented by semi-structured interviews for a selected group of participants that more deeply explore patients' motivations for trial participation. The trials are each designed to have adequate power to rule out undue and unjust inducement. We are also exploring potential benefits of incentives, including possible increased attention to research risks and cost-effectiveness.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Motivação/ética , Participação do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes/ética , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Coerção , Compreensão , Humanos , Percepção , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sujeitos da Pesquisa , Risco , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico
18.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 40(10): 599-605, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We have evaluated the prevalence of and the motivating factors behind the refusal to provide reproductive health services and the ethical knowledge of the subject among medical students from the Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study involved 120 medical students. A questionnaire was utilized. The dependent variables were students' objections (or not) regarding three clinical reproductive health cases: abortion provided by law, contraceptive guidance to an adolescent without parental consent, and prescription of emergency contraception. The independent variables were age, gender, religion, ethical value, degree of religiosity, and attendance at worship services. Ethical knowledge comprised an obligation to state the reasons for the objection, report possible alternatives, and referral to another professional. Data were analyzed with χ2 tests and t-tests with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Abortion, contraception to adolescents, and emergency contraception were refused by 35.8%, 17.5%, and 5.8% of the students, respectively. High religiosity (p < 0.001) and higher attendance at worship services (p = 0.034) were predictors of refusing abortion. Refusal to provide contraception to adolescents was significantly higher among women than men (p = 0.037). Furthermore, 25% would not explain the reason for the refusal, 15% would not describe all the procedures used, and 25% would not refer the patient to another professional. CONCLUSION: Abortion provided by law was the most objectionable situation. The motivating factors for this refusal were high commitment and religiosity. A reasonable portion of the students did not demonstrate ethical knowledge about the subject.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Recusa Consciente em Tratar-se , Motivação , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Aborto Induzido , Adulto , Brasil , Recusa Consciente em Tratar-se/ética , Anticoncepção , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/ética , Autorrelato
19.
Eur Urol Focus ; 4(3): 348-350, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224264

RESUMO

Current methods for diagnosing testosterone deficiency are inadequate. It is time to rethink how we determine who is a candidate for treatment, with a goal of helping our patients. Free testosterone appears more accurate than total testosterone.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Hipogonadismo/diagnóstico , Testosterona/deficiência , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Bioensaio/normas , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipogonadismo/epidemiologia , Hipogonadismo/etiologia , Masculino , Motivação/ética , Testosterona/sangue , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration/organização & administração
20.
Psychol Sci ; 29(8): 1234-1246, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29787345

RESUMO

People perceive morality to be distinctively human, with immorality representing a lack of full humanness. In eight experiments, we examined the link between immorality and self-dehumanization, testing both (a) the causal role of immoral behavior on self-dehumanization and (b) the causal role of self-dehumanization on immoral behavior. Studies 1a to 1d showed that people feel less human after behaving immorally and that these effects were not driven by having a negative experience but were unique to experiences of immorality (Study 1d). Studies 2a to 2c showed that self-dehumanization can lead to immoral and antisocial behavior. Study 3 highlighted how self-dehumanization can sometimes produce downward spirals of immorality, demonstrating initial unethical behavior leading to self-dehumanization, which in turn promotes continued dishonesty. These results demonstrate a clear relationship between self-dehumanization and unethical behavior, and they extend previous theorizing on dehumanization.


Assuntos
Desumanização , Princípios Morais , Autoimagem , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Emoções/ética , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Motivação/ética
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