Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.707
Filtrar
1.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 202: 102983, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864214

RESUMO

It is unclear whether the effects of emotional state on working memory (WM) are valence-based or motivation-based since the type of emotions used in previous research differed on both dimensions of emotion. Especially, effects of anger, which is a negative but approach-related emotional state, were mostly overlooked. To distinguish between valence vs. motivation accounts, two experiments were conducted in which participants were induced one of four emotional states to create approach-positive (happiness), avoidance-negative (fear), approach-negative (anger), and control (neutral) conditions, followed by Self-ordered Pointing Task (Experiment 1) or N-Back task (Experiment 2) as WM measures. The main effect of emotion on WM accuracy was not significant in neither experiment. In the second experiment, however, reaction times (RTs) in the avoidance-related emotion condition were significantly faster compared to those in approach-related conditions, without compromising accuracy. Together the two experiments suggest that the motivational dimension of emotional state is more effective on WM than the valence dimension, especially on the RTs, indicating working memory updating efficiency.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
2.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25009, jan.- dez. 2019. gráfico, tabelas
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047624

RESUMO

El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la influencia de la modificación de la lógica interna en las emociones percibidas durante las actividades de expresión corporal en alumnos de educación secundaria. Ochenta alumnos (edad: 13.01±0.98 años; sexo: chicos n=49, chicas n=31; curso escolar: 1º ESO n=28, 2º ESO n=30, 3º ESO n=22) participaron voluntariamente en este estudio. Se realizaron dos sesiones compuestas por cinco actividades, separadas por una semana, donde se modificó la lógica interna entre sesiones. Se utilizó la Escala de Juegos y Emociones Deportivas (GES) modificada para el análisis de las emociones. Una modificación en la lógica interna influye directamente en las emociones negativas, manteniéndose altos los valores de emociones positivas. La satisfacción durante la práctica esta relacionada con la emoción de la alegría e inversamente relacionada con la emoción de la vergüenza. En conclusión, el trabajo y análisis de emociones es importante para alcanzar un mayor placer y satisfacción en los alumnos


O objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar a influência da modificação da lógica interna nas emoções percebidas durante as atividades de expressão corporal em alunos do ensino médio. Oitenta estudantes (idade: 13,01±0,98 anos, sexo: meninos n=49, meninas n=31, ano escolar: 1ºESO n=28, 2ºESO n=30, 3ºESO n=22) participaram voluntariamente deste estudo. Duas sessões foram compostas por cinco atividades, separadas por uma semana, em que a lógica interna entre sessões foi modificada. Foi utilizada a Escala de Jogos e Emoções Esportivas (GES) modificada para a análise das emoções. Uma modificação na lógica interna influencia diretamente as emoções negativas, mantendo altos os valores das emoções positivas. A satisfação durante a prática está relacionada à emoção da alegria e inversamente relacionada à vergonha da emoção. Em conclusão, o trabalho e análise de emoções é importante para alcançar maior prazer e satisfação nos alunos


This study analyzed the influence of changes in internal logic on emotions perceived during body expression lessons with secondary education students. Participants were 80 volunteers (age: 13.01±0.98 years; sex: boys n=49, girls n=31; school year of mandatory secondary education: 1st n=28, 2nd n=30, 3rd n=22). Two sessions were performed, separated by 7 days, with five activities each. In each session, the internal logic of the activities was changed. The Games and Emotions Scale (GES) was used to analyze the perceived emotions. A change in internal logic directly influences negative emotions, keeping scores of positive emotions high. Satisfaction during practice is related to emotion of joy and inversely related to the emotion of shame. In conclusion, to work and analyze emotions perceived by the students is important to increase their enjoyment and satisfaction


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Educação Física e Treinamento , Emoções Manifestas , Motivação/fisiologia , Inteligência Emocional
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(11): e1007443, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725719

RESUMO

Human decisions can be habitual or goal-directed, also known as model-free (MF) or model-based (MB) control. Previous work suggests that the balance between the two decision systems is impaired in psychiatric disorders such as compulsion and addiction, via overreliance on MF control. However, little is known whether the balance can be altered through task training. Here, 20 healthy participants performed a well-established two-step task that differentiates MB from MF control, across five training sessions. We used computational modelling and functional near-infrared spectroscopy to assess changes in decision-making and brain hemodynamic over time. Mixed-effects modelling revealed overall no substantial changes in MF and MB behavior across training. Although our behavioral and brain findings show task-induced changes in learning rates, these parameters have no direct relation to either MF or MB control or the balance between the two systems, and thus do not support the assumption of training effects on MF or MB strategies. Our findings indicate that training on the two-step paradigm in its current form does not support a shift in the balance between MF and MB control. We discuss these results with respect to implications for restoring the balance between MF and MB control in psychiatric conditions.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Motivação/fisiologia , Recompensa , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(8): 710-720, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657594

RESUMO

It is unclear whether nicotine and perceived nicotine exposure can influence automatic evaluations of cigarette stimuli. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nicotine dose and instructed dose on motivational responses to smoking cues. Forty overnight nicotine-deprived smokers completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) at each of the four laboratory sessions in a balanced-placebo design that crossed nicotine dose (Given-NIC [given nicotine] vs. Given-DENIC [given denicotinized]) with instructed dose expectancy (Told-NIC [told-nicotine] vs. Told-DENIC. [told-denicotinized]). We measured participants' behavioral performance, including reaction time (RT) and accuracy rate, and the early posterior negativity (EPN) component using the event-related potential (ERP) technique to the target pictures. During congruent trials when the categorization condition was smoking or unpleasant, smokers had greater classification accuracy, shorter RT latency, and greater EPN amplitudes compared to the incongruent trials when the categorization condition was smoking or pleasant. The Given-NIC condition was associated with increased classification accuracy, longer RT latency, and decreased EPN amplitudes compared to the Given-DENIC condition. Similarly, the Told-NIC condition was associated with increased accuracy and decreased EPN amplitudes compared to the Told-DENIC condition, but with shorter RT latency. Cigarette-related pictures produced greater EPN amplitudes than neutral pictures. Both behavioral and ERP results suggest that smokers have negative implicit attitudes toward smoking. While both nicotine dose and expected dose facilitated stimulus categorization, there was no evidence that either factor altered smokers' negative attitudes toward smoking cues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Atitude , Sinais (Psicologia) , Potenciais Evocados/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Fumantes/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Afeto/fisiologia , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Motivação/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Fumar/psicologia
5.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(8): 813-822, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657596

RESUMO

Between-subjects literature has established that trait-like negative mood predicts coping motives, which predict alcohol-related problems and that trait-like positive mood predicts mood enhancement motives, which then predict alcohol consumption. However, there is considerable within-person variation in drinking motives, and the relationship between mood, motives, and alcohol outcomes must be more closely examined at a daily level. The current study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to measure mood, motives, alcohol use, and alcohol consequences in 101 college drinkers over a 15-day period. At the between-subjects level, positive mood predicted enhancement motives, which in turn predicted alcohol consumption and consequences. Negative mood predicted coping motives, which were associated with only alcohol-related consequences. At the within-subjects level, daily anxious and depressed mood were associated with endorsing coping motives, but coping motives were not associated with alcohol consumption or problems. Positive mood was associated with enhancement motives, which was associated with both daily alcohol consumption and problems. These results corroborate previous findings that enhancement motives are most predictive of outcomes in the college population and highlight the importance of considering within-subject variance in drinking motives. The relationships between mood, motives, and alcohol outcomes differ when examined as between-subjects versus within-subject constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Motivação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
6.
Behav Processes ; 169: 103978, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580905

RESUMO

Temporal control of behavior might be impaired by reinforcement devaluation and other motivational operations such as delaying reinforcement of the instrumental response. Here, we report an experiment that assessed the effect of delayed reinforcement on a timing peak procedure. Using a within-subject design with a multiple two-component schedule of reinforcement, we found evidence of flat temporal generalization gradients, along with degraded response-reinforcer contingency, lower response rates and changes in the responding patterns due to delayed reinforcement. This result is consistent with the Learning to Time (LeT) and some versions of Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET).


Assuntos
Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , /fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Esquema de Reforço
7.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(6): 585-595, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587291

RESUMO

Motivation plays an important role when it comes to regular physical exercise. Hence, low levels of intentions to continue exercising in the future may ultimately lead to higher rates of exercise dropout. The first objective of the present research was to test a theoretical model considering the dark side of motivational determinants on intentions towards exercising in the future. The second objective consisted in comparing groups with different characteristics, as a way to identify individuals with weaker intention, which is believed to be an indicator of a higher dropout risk. In total, 544 (294 female; 250 male) gym exercisers aged between 18 and 58 years (M = 35.00; SD = 11.57) partook in the present research. Participants were engaged in fitness group classes (n = 273) or in cardio/resistance workouts (n = 271), and their exercise experience ranged from 3 to 120 months (M = 47.41; SD = 7.54). Results showed that the measurement and the structural model had an excellent fit. In addition, the structural model was invariant between gender, fitness activities, and exercise experience. Each group displayed different explained variance in intention to continue exercising. Overall, male, young adults and more experienced exercisers had stronger intentions towards exercising. Fitness instructors should be aware of their own thwarting behaviors, especially when interacting with female, young and less experienced exercisers, since they have weaker intentions to exercise in the future, possibly representing an increased risk of withdrawal.


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Motivação/fisiologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teoria Psicológica , Adulto Jovem
8.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 163: 123-143, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590726

RESUMO

The major ascending neuromodulator dopamine has long been implicated in cognitive control. Effects of dopamine-related disorders and the treatment of the cognitive control deficits associated with these disorders are commonly attributed to modulation of the prefrontal cortex. However, many disorders that are accompanied by cognitive control deficits also implicate abnormal dopamine transmission in the striatum, which has been associated more readily with value-based learning, choice, and motivation. We put forward the hypothesis that effects of dopamine on cognitive control reflect, in part, indirect modulation of value-based learning and choice computations that alter the motivation to exert control. This hypothesis is grounded in accumulating evidence from work with experimental animals as well as neurochemical PET, pharmacologic fMRI, and computational modeling work with healthy volunteers and patients with addictive disorders, ADHD, and Parkinson's disease. Consistent with an "inverted-U"-shaped relationship between dopamine and value-based learning, this evidence suggests that dopaminergic drugs might paradoxically increase our drive away from cognitive control in individuals with high baseline levels of dopamine, perhaps by "overdosing" dopamine levels, and thus reducing the value of cognitive control. The hypothesis has implications for the many dopamine-related disorders, which are often accompanied by either apathy or problems with impulse control, and their pharmacotreatment with dopaminergic drugs. For example, the cognitive deficits that are commonly associated with prefrontal cortex dysfunctioning might instead reflect modulation of striatal dopamine and its role in the willingness rather than the ability to exert control.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Dopamina/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Neurônios/fisiologia
9.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 163: 147-164, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590727

RESUMO

The frontal lobes contain a complex set of diverse anatomic regions that form multiple distinct, complex networks with cortical and subcortical regions. Damage to these cortical-subcortical networks can have dramatic behavioral consequences, ranging from apathy to impairments in executive functioning. This chapter provides a brief overview of the common syndromes caused by damage to the mediodorsal and dorsolateral prefrontal circuits, followed by a more detailed review of the syndrome-sometimes referred to as pseudopsychopathy or acquired sociopathy-associated with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal circuit.


Assuntos
Agnosia/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Demência Frontotemporal/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Apatia/fisiologia , Humanos , Motivação/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos
10.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 163: 317-332, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590738

RESUMO

Computational models of frontal function have made important contributions to understanding how the frontal lobes support a wide range of important functions, in their interactions with other brain areas including, critically, the basal ganglia (BG). We focus here on the specific case of how different frontal areas support goal-directed, motivated decision-making, by representing three essential types of information: possible plans of action (in more dorsal and lateral frontal areas), affectively significant outcomes of those action plans (in ventral, medial frontal areas including the orbital frontal cortex), and the overall utility of a given plan compared to other possible courses of action (in anterior cingulate cortex). Computational models of goal-directed action selection at multiple different levels of analysis provide insight into the nature of learning and processing in these areas and the relative contributions of the frontal cortex versus the BG. The most common neurologic disorders implicate these areas, and understanding their precise function and modes of dysfunction can contribute to the new field of computational psychiatry, within the broader field of computational neuroscience.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Motivação/fisiologia , Humanos
11.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 163: 351-367, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590741

RESUMO

Development of the frontal lobe is critical to acquisition, execution, and control of a wide range of functions, from basic motor response to complex decision-making. These functions are influenced by contingency-based (e.g., reward and response-cost/punishment) feedback that is mediated through the adaptive integration of fronto-subcortical neural circuitry. The frontal lobe manages incoming information and chooses the appropriate action based on one's goals in a particular context. This aspect of frontal function, while only one component, is crucial to development and maintenance of approach and avoidance behavior central to all human (and animal) behavior. Furthermore, disruptions in fronto-subcortical circuitry governing motivated behavior appear to contribute to a range of developmental disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and confer vulnerability for psychopathology more broadly. The particular deficits that manifest in altered behavior depend upon the specific circuitry that is compromised due to the functional specificity of distinct regions of the frontal lobe and its interconnections with subcortical structures. Neurobiologic models of motivated behavior provide a valuable framework for characterizing developmental disorders from a transdiagnostic dimensional systems perspective. Improved characterization of approach and avoidance motivation across neurodevelopmental disorders has the potential to inform the development of novel interventions and personalized medicine.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Motivação/fisiologia
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4733, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628302

RESUMO

It has been argued that, when they are acutely hungry, people act in self-protective ways by keeping resources to themselves rather than sharing them. In four studies, using experimental, quasi-experimental, and correlational designs (total N = 795), we examine the effects of acute hunger on prosociality in a wide variety of non-interdependent tasks (e.g. dictator game) and interdependent tasks (e.g. public goods games). While our procedures successfully increase subjective hunger and decrease blood glucose, we do not find significant effects of hunger on prosociality. This is true for both decisions incentivized with money and with food. Meta-analysis across all tasks reveals a very small effect of hunger on prosociality in non-interdependent tasks (d = 0.108), and a non-significant effect in interdependent tasks (d = -0.076). In study five (N = 197), we show that, in stark contrast to our empirical findings, people hold strong lay theories that hunger undermines prosociality.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/métodos , Fome/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
13.
Complement Ther Med ; 46: 131-135, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been used as an intervention to support recovery from alcohol use disorder (AUD) and opioid use disorder (OUD). We sought to identify attitudes and experiences toward standardized MBIs among individuals recovering from these substance abuse disorders (SUD) through a qualitative approach. DESIGN: We conducted three 60-minute focus groups among people with history of SUD (6-months to 3 years in recovery): two groups with those with alcohol use disorder (AUD) history and one with individuals with history of opioid use disorder (OUD). Each group had eight participants. RESULTS: Most participants of the OUD focus group had tried some variations on mindfulness training or meditation-like therapies during treatment. Participants expressed perceived benefits for MBIs' non-pharmacological property, while expressing concerns related to perceived barriers of cost, scheduling conflicts with work and child/family care needs, and possible lack of provider empathy. Gift cards and other rewards were recognized as useful participation and retention incentives for completing the described program; the training itself was perceived as an "incentive" if able to deliver significant benefits related to supporting continued recovery from SUD. An overarching theme across all groups was that participants reported their own altruistic behavior and social connectedness as important motivators to help them maintain recovery. CONCLUSION: The importance of perceived provider empathy and the patient's social connectedness in SUD interventions was underscored as incentives for participation and retention, providing valuable information for the implementation of MBIs among patients recovering from SUD.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/psicologia , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Meditação/psicologia , Atenção Plena/métodos , Motivação/fisiologia
14.
J Behav Addict ; 8(3): 442-450, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cybersex is increasingly associated with concerns about compulsive use. The aim of this study was to assess the roles of motives and sexual desire in the compulsive use of cybersex. METHODS: The sample consisted of 306 cybersex users (150 men and 156 women). The participants were assessed using the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) adapted for cybersex, the Cybersex Motives Questionnaire (enhancement, coping, and social motives), and the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 (dyadic and solitary sexual desire). RESULTS: For both genders, coping motive was associated with CIUS score. For women, an additional association with social motives was found whereas an association with sexual desire was found for men. CONCLUSION: The study showed gender differences in the contributors to sex-related CIUS scores.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Literatura Erótica , Internet , Motivação/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Behav Processes ; 168: 103959, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513830

RESUMO

Despite the abundant empirical evidence on lateralized social behaviours, a clear understanding of the relative roles of two brain hemispheres in social processing is still lacking. This study investigated visual lateralization in social interactions of free-ranging European bison (Bison bonasus). The bison were more likely to display aggressive responses (such as fight and side hit), when they viewed the conspecific with the right visual field, implicating the left brain hemisphere. In contrast, the responses associated with positive social interactions (female-to-calf bonding, calf-to-female approach, suckling) or aggression inhibition (fight termination) occurred more likely when the left visual field was in use, indicating the right hemisphere advantage. The results do not support either assumptions of right-hemisphere dominance for control of various social functions or hypotheses about simple positive (approach) versus negative (withdrawal) distinction between the hemispheric roles. The discrepancy between the studies suggests that in animals, the relative roles of the hemispheres in social processing may be determined by a fine balance of emotions and motivations associated with the particular social reaction difficult to categorize for a human investigator. Our findings highlight the involvement of both brain hemispheres in the control of social behaviour.


Assuntos
Bison/fisiologia , Dominância Cerebral/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Meio Social , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Federação Russa , Comportamento Social , Campos Visuais/fisiologia
16.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(7): 626-636, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497986

RESUMO

Exerting self-control depletes capacity for future self-control, which can promote greater alcohol use. However, certain populations may be more susceptible to these effects of depleted self-control capacity. For example, individuals with lower alcohol sensitivity (i.e., requiring more drinks to experience the effects of alcohol) are a high-risk group who are likely to engage in hazardous alcohol use and develop an alcohol use disorder. Those lower in alcohol sensitivity also exhibit heightened motivational reactivity in response to alcohol-related cues, which may be enhanced following exertion of self-control. However, whether drinkers lower in alcohol sensitivity are at higher risk for exhibiting greater motivations toward alcohol-related cues after exerting self-control is unclear. The current research examined the role of alcohol sensitivity in predicting approach motivation following exertion of self-control. It was expected drinkers exerting self-control would exhibit greater orientation toward rewarding cues, particularly after viewing alcohol-related cues. However, we predicted this pattern would be most prominent among drinkers lower in alcohol sensitivity. Experiment 1 supported these hypotheses, with lower alcohol sensitivity predicting greater approach motivation among drinkers required to exert self-control prior to viewing alcohol-related compared to neutral cues. Experiment 2 aimed to replicate these findings by assessing asymmetrical frontal cortical activation, an index of approach motivation. Drinkers with lower alcohol sensitivity exhibited greater relative left frontal cortical activation, consistent with approach motivation, while viewing alcohol-related cues following exertion of self-control. Results have implications for interventions aimed at identifying those at risk for greater alcohol motivations during states of mental exhaustion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Etanol/farmacologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(8): 2359-2371, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372665

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Drug addiction has been suggested to develop through drug-induced changes in learning and memory processes. Whilst the initiation of drug use is typically goal-directed and hedonically motivated, over time, drug-taking may develop into a stimulus-driven habit, characterised by persistent use of the drug irrespective of the consequences. Converging lines of evidence suggest that stimulant drugs facilitate the transition of goal-directed into habitual drug-taking, but their contribution to goal-directed learning is less clear. Computational modelling may provide an elegant means for elucidating changes during instrumental learning that may explain enhanced habit formation. OBJECTIVES: We used formal reinforcement learning algorithms to deconstruct the process of appetitive instrumental learning and to explore potential associations between goal-directed and habitual actions in patients with cocaine use disorder (CUD). METHODS: We re-analysed appetitive instrumental learning data in 55 healthy control volunteers and 70 CUD patients by applying a reinforcement learning model within a hierarchical Bayesian framework. We used a regression model to determine the influence of learning parameters and variations in brain structure on subsequent habit formation. RESULTS: Poor instrumental learning performance in CUD patients was largely determined by difficulties with learning from feedback, as reflected by a significantly reduced learning rate. Subsequent formation of habitual response patterns was partly explained by group status and individual variation in reinforcement sensitivity. White matter integrity within goal-directed networks was only associated with performance parameters in controls but not in CUD patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that impairments in reinforcement learning are insufficient to account for enhanced habitual responding in CUD.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Hábitos , Teorema de Bayes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
18.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(8): 2389-2403, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375849

RESUMO

RATIONALE: According to psychological theories, cognitive distortions play a pivotal role in the aetiology and recurrence of mood disorders. Although clinical evidence for the coexistence of depression and altered sensitivity to performance feedback is relatively coherent, we still do not know whether increased or decreased sensitivity to positive or negative feedback is associated with 'pro-depressive' profile in healthy subjects. OBJECTIVE: Our research has been designed to answer this question, and here, we present the first steps in that direction. METHODS: Using a rat version of the probabilistic reversal-learning (PRL) paradigm, we evaluated how sensitivity to negative and positive feedback influences other cognitive processes associated with mood disorders, such as motivation in the progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement (PRSR) paradigm, hedonic status in the sucrose preference (SP) test, locomotor and exploratory activity in the open field (OF) test, and anxiety in the light/dark box (LDB) test. RESULTS: The results of our study demonstrated for the first time that in rodents, sensitivity to negative and positive feedback could be considered a stable and enduring behavioural trait. Importantly, we also showed that these traits are independent of each other and that trait sensitivity to positive feedback is associated with cognitive flexibility in the PRL test. The computational modelling results also revealed that in animals classified as sensitive to positive feedback, the α learning rates for both positive and negative reward prediction errors were higher than those in animals classified as insensitive. We observed no statistically significant interactions between sensitivity to negative or positive feedback and the parameters measured in the PRSR, SP, OF or LDB tests. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies using animal models of depression based on chronic stress should reveal whether sensitivity to feedback is a latent trait that when interacts with stressful life events, could produce correlates of depressive symptoms in rats.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Esquema de Reforço , Reversão de Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Recompensa , Animais , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/psicologia , Simulação por Computador , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/psicologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(9): 1450-1459, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427771

RESUMO

The rodent hippocampus spontaneously generates bursts of neural activity (replay) that can depict spatial trajectories to reward locations, suggesting a role in model-based behavioral control. A largely separate literature emphasizes reward revaluation as the litmus test for such control, yet the content of hippocampal replay under revaluation conditions is unknown. We examined the content of awake replay events following motivational shifts between hunger and thirst. On a T-maze offering free choice between food and water outcomes, rats shifted their behavior toward the restricted outcome, but replay content was shifted away from the restricted outcome. This effect preceded experience on the task each day and did not reverse with experience. These results demonstrate that replay content is not limited to reflecting recent experience or trajectories toward the preferred goal and suggest a role for motivational states in determining replay content.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Recompensa , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans
20.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 199: 102891, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400651

RESUMO

Cognitive control enables optimal biasing of attention, perception, and actions in the service of mental or behavioral goals. To understand the variability of applied cognitive control, we need to unravel the relation between two underlying mechanisms: proactive and reactive modes. During proactive cognitive control, goal-relevant information is selected before the occurrence of a cognitively demanding event, and is actively maintained for as long as required by the task. During reactive mode, cognitive control is transiently activated only after the cognitively demanding event has occurred. Mechanistically, proactive and reactive control modes may be at least semi-independent and engaged simultaneously, but this has so far not been demonstrated empirically. Situational demands and an individual's cognitive capacity and motivation may bias behavior towards one or the other mode. Reward induces more proactive processing in the AX-CPT task, whereas context load induces reactive processing. We combined these manipulations to investigate the extent to which proactive and reactive control modes can operate independently and simultaneously. The results replicated already published effects of reward incentives and context load. Most importantly, these effects were essentially independent of each other, suggesting that proactive and reactive cognitive control modes depend on separate information-processing and neural mechanisms. The results also show that while proactive processing is influenced by reward, reactive processing seems independent of such factor. These findings have implications for our understanding of the structure of cognitive control and cognitive motivation, and are relevant for the design of interventions to improve cognitive control in various developmental and neuropsychiatric groups.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Recompensa , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA