Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.104
Filtrar
1.
Psychol Aging ; 36(1): 69-82, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705186

RESUMO

Prosociality (i.e., voluntary thoughts and actions intended to benefit somebody else) is arguably essential for positive social relationships. The present research investigated under what conditions a prosocial focus has positive effects on the subjective well-being of a prosocial person. We addressed this question in an intervention study of daily social interactions. All participants (N = 295, 57.6% women, age 19-88 years) started the study with a baseline day with no intervention. Participants then underwent a video-based intervention that trained them to focus on either the well-being of others or the well-being of themselves. Participants applied the corresponding focus in social interactions on the next day. Compared with baseline, focusing on others did not significantly affect subjective well-being, whereas focusing on self significantly reduced subjective well-being (the latter effect was further moderated by age and relationship closeness). The difference between self- and other focus was moderated by age: Younger participants (<36 years) reported lower subjective well-being in the self-focus condition, whereas older adults (>68 years) showed the opposite effect (there was no difference in the middle-aged adults). Taken together, the results suggest that focusing on a social partner increases concerns about the partner's well-being but not necessarily one's own well-being. In contrast, focusing on oneself reduces concerns about the partner's well-being and-particularly for young adults-one's own well-being, rendering a strong focus on oneself a potential risk factor for young adults' well-being. Further research is needed to understand the negative effect of other- versus self-focus on older adults' well-being. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Motivação/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(3): 193-197, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641726

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Maintaining self-motivation during challenging times can be difficult. In this commentary, we consider self-determination theory to explore factors that can influence intrinsic motivation to progress scholarly work. The place of extrinsic motivation is also considered, on the continuum of self-determination. COMMENTARY: Using the components of self-determination theory, autonomy, mastery, and connection; academics, clinicians, and students, working in different environments, were asked to provide personal experiences and perspectives on their ability to maintain motivation during the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Self-assessment questions were used to guide reflections. IMPLICATIONS: Motivation, and in particular intrinsic motivation, can be impacted negatively during challenging times. Using a motivation framework can help identify personal factors that can be strengthened and developed over time. It is recognised that extrinsic factors are important in maintaining motivation. However, intrinsic motivation is a powerful driver to sustain and progress high quality work. Practical strategies and ideas are described to harness and develop self-motivation to pursue scholarly work, during challenging times.


Assuntos
Motivação/fisiologia , Pandemias , Estudantes/psicologia , Humanos , Autonomia Pessoal
3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248627, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been a rapid increase in the number of cases of COVID-19 in Latin America, Africa, Asia and many countries that have an insufficient number of physicians and other health care personnel, and the need for the inclusion of medical students on health teams is a very important issue. It has been recommended that medical students work as volunteers, undergo appropriate training, not undertake any activity beyond their level of competence, and receive continuous supervision and adequate personal protective equipment. However, the motivation of medical students must be evaluated to make volunteering a more evidence-based initiative. The aim of our study was to evaluate the motivation of medical students to be part of health teams to aid in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a questionnaire specifically to evaluate medical students' perceptions about participating in the care of patients with suspected infection with coronavirus during the COVID-19 pandemic. The questionnaire had two parts: a) one part with questions on individual characteristics, year in medical school and geographic location of the medical school and b) a second part with twenty-eight statements assessed on a 5-point Likert scale (totally agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree and totally disagree). To develop the questionnaire, we performed consensus meetings with a group of faculty and medical students. The questionnaire was sent to student organizations of 257 medical schools in Brazil and answered by 10,433 students. We used multinomial logistic regression models to analyze the data. Statements associated with greater odds ratios for participation of medical students in the COVID-19 pandemic were related to a sense of purpose or duty ("It is the duty of the medical student to put himself or herself at the service of the population in the pandemic"), altruism ("I am willing to take risks by participating in practice in the context of the pandemic"), and perception of good performance and professional identity ("I will be a better health professional for having experienced the pandemic"). Males were more prone than females to believe that only interns should participate in the care of patients with COVID-19 (odds ratio 1.36 [coefficient interval 95%:1.24-1.49]) and that all students should participate (OR 1.68 [CI:1.4-1.91]). CONCLUSIONS: Medical students are more motivated by a sense of purpose or duty, altruism, perception of good performance and values of professionalism than by their interest in learning. These results have implications for the development of volunteering programs and the design of health force policies in the present pandemic and in future health emergencies.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Percepção/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1030, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589626

RESUMO

The amount of mental effort we invest in a task is influenced by the reward we can expect if we perform that task well. However, some of the rewards that have the greatest potential for driving these efforts are partly determined by factors beyond one's control. In such cases, effort has more limited efficacy for obtaining rewards. According to the Expected Value of Control theory, people integrate information about the expected reward and efficacy of task performance to determine the expected value of control, and then adjust their control allocation (i.e., mental effort) accordingly. Here we test this theory's key behavioral and neural predictions. We show that participants invest more cognitive control when this control is more rewarding and more efficacious, and that these incentive components separately modulate EEG signatures of incentive evaluation and proactive control allocation. Our findings support the prediction that people combine expectations of reward and efficacy to determine how much effort to invest.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Recompensa , Autoeficácia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1041, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589633

RESUMO

Growing evidence supports that pharmacological application of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) suppresses appetite but also promotes sickness-like behaviors in rodents via GDNF family receptor α-like (GFRAL)-dependent mechanisms. Conversely, the endogenous regulation of GDF15 and its physiological effects on energy homeostasis and behavior remain elusive. Here we show, in four independent human studies that prolonged endurance exercise increases circulating GDF15 to levels otherwise only observed in pathophysiological conditions. This exercise-induced increase can be recapitulated in mice and is accompanied by increased Gdf15 expression in the liver, skeletal muscle, and heart muscle. However, whereas pharmacological GDF15 inhibits appetite and suppresses voluntary running activity via GFRAL, the physiological induction of GDF15 by exercise does not. In summary, exercise-induced circulating GDF15 correlates with the duration of endurance exercise. Yet, higher GDF15 levels after exercise are not sufficient to evoke canonical pharmacological GDF15 effects on appetite or responsible for diminishing exercise motivation.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Receptores de Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/genética , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Creatina Quinase/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Receptores de Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/deficiência , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-6/administração & dosagem , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/genética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Motivação/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 26, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A coherent sexuality education program for adolescents is part of their sexual and reproductive rights and can help them have a healthier future. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the perspectives and intervention preferences of Iranian stakeholders regarding comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) in male adolescents based on the IMB model (information, motivation, behavioral skills). METHODS: This study was a qualitative study that was analyzed through a directed content analysis approach. Individual interviews and focused group discussions (FGDs) were used for data collection. The data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews with stakeholders in two schools and the Education Department in Sari and the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Education in Tehran from March 2019 to August 2019. Data saturation was achieved after 28 interviews and 1 FGDs with 9 participants. Finally, two sets of data were coded and analyzed using directed content analysis. RESULTS: In this study, five themes emerged as (1) role of institutions; (2) role of organizations; (3) need for stakeholder's partnership; (4) need for adolescent sexuality socialization management; and (5) need for enhancing the teachers' professional competence, which seemed to influence the implementation of CSE in male adolescents. Participants also expressed a number of intervention preferences for CSE. The most important of these was the change in macro policies, helping to create a culture against all forms of violence and breaking the taboo of sexuality education for children and adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study revealed the need for a CSE program for adolescents' sexuality socialization. The finding showed that teachers required training to enhance their professional competence about sexuality issues. Therefore, it is necessary to design and implement culture-appropriate skill based programs to enhance the teachers' professional competence regarding the adolescents' sexual health.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Percepção , Saúde Reprodutiva/educação , Educação Sexual , Saúde Sexual/educação , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Educação Sexual/métodos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Participação dos Interessados , Adulto Jovem
7.
Neuroimage ; 228: 117687, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385553

RESUMO

Evidence accrues that readers form multiple hypotheses about upcoming words. The present study investigated the hemodynamic effects of predictive processing during natural reading by means of combining fMRI and eye movement recordings. In particular, we investigated the neural and behavioral correlates of precision-weighted prediction errors, which are thought to be indicative of subsequent belief updating. Participants silently read sentences in which we manipulated the cloze probability and the semantic congruency of the final word that served as an index for precision and prediction error respectively. With respect to the neural correlates, our findings indicate an enhanced activation within the left inferior frontal and middle temporal gyrus suggesting an effect of precision on prediction update in higher (lexico-)semantic levels. Despite being evident at the neural level, we did not observe any evidence that this mechanism resulted in disproportionate reading times on participants' eye movements. The results speak against discrete predictions, but favor the notion that multiple words are activated in parallel during reading.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Leitura , Semântica , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino
8.
Neuroimage ; 228: 117708, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385555

RESUMO

People are capable of rapid improvements in performance when they are offered a reward. The neural mechanism by which this performance enhancement occurs remains unclear. We investigated this phenomenon by offering people monetary reward for successful performance in a sequence production task. We found that people performed actions more quickly and accurately when they were offered large reward. Increasing reward magnitude was associated with elevated activity throughout the brain prior to movement. Multivariate patterns of activity in these reward-responsive regions encoded information about the upcoming action. Follow-up analyses provided evidence that action decoding in pre-SMA and other motor planning areas was improved for large reward trials and successful action decoding in SMA was associated with improved performance. These results suggest that reward may enhance performance by enhancing neural representations of action used in motor planning.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Recompensa , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Neuroimage ; 228: 117711, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385562

RESUMO

The deployment of neural alpha (8-12 Hz) lateralization in service of spatial attention is well-established: Alpha power increases in the cortical hemisphere ipsilateral to the attended hemifield, and decreases in the contralateral hemisphere, respectively. Much less is known about humans' ability to deploy such alpha lateralization in time, and to thus exploit alpha power as a spatio-temporal filter. Here we show that spatially lateralized alpha power does signify - beyond the direction of spatial attention - the distribution of attention in time and thereby qualifies as a spatio-temporal attentional filter. Participants (N = 20) selectively listened to spoken numbers presented on one side (left vs right), while competing numbers were presented on the other side. Key to our hypothesis, temporal foreknowledge was manipulated via a visual cue, which was either instructive and indicated the to-be-probed number position (70% valid) or neutral. Temporal foreknowledge did guide participants' attention, as they recognized numbers from the to-be-attended side more accurately following valid cues. In the magnetoencephalogram (MEG), spatial attention to the left versus right side induced lateralization of alpha power in all temporal cueing conditions. Modulation of alpha lateralization at the 0.8 Hz presentation rate of spoken numbers was stronger following instructive compared to neutral temporal cues. Critically, we found stronger modulation of lateralized alpha power specifically at the onsets of temporally cued numbers. These results suggest that the precisely timed hemispheric lateralization of alpha power qualifies as a spatio-temporal attentional filter mechanism susceptible to top-down behavioural goals.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Mascaramento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto Jovem
10.
Psychol Trauma ; 13(1): 9-15, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382329

RESUMO

Objective: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic represents an acute worldwide public health crisis causing an immediate disruption to every demographic group. One group significantly affected both educationally and psychosocially is college students, as they experienced an abrupt cancellation of in-person courses, were forced to leave their dormitories, and witnessed a loss of social activities. Method: This study utilizes survey data from college students in the throes of COVID-19-based home schooling collected for a Belgium-based international study including more than 134,000 participants from 28 countries around the world. Two hundred fifty-seven college students from a U.S. university participated in this study. Results: Results indicate that college students are affected by COVID-19 on several levels, including fear of themselves or others in their social network contracting the virus, apprehension about the changes in coursework delivery and unclear instructional parameters, overall loneliness, compromised motivation, and sleep disturbances, as well as anxious and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Analyses reveal a positive relationship between academic frustrations and mental health symptoms, the latter also negatively related to trust in the government regarding the preventive measures being implemented. Worries about becoming infected were positively related to mental health symptoms and negatively related to trust in the government. Results and implications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Saúde Mental , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2191: 323-349, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865753

RESUMO

Studies mapping psychological functions to discrete brain regions often require manipulations that yield changes in a particular area and observing a subsequent shift in behavior. As investigators tap into neural underpinnings of behavior, it is useful to utilize technologies that permit temporally and spatially discrete shifts in neural signaling and neurobiological processes. This chapter contains protocols for creating "Fos plumes," a means of mapping alterations in neural activity induced by neural manipulations. By localizing increases or decreases in c-Fos in targeted brain regions, the relative spread of each manipulation can be mapped, and the functional roles of individual mechanisms within particular brain areas can be defined. The chapter also provides examples of behavioral testing protocols using optogenetics to localize psychological functions in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region involved in the production of motivated behaviors. Together, these methods provide avenues for researchers to localize and causally demonstrate the impact of neural manipulations in the brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Optogenética/métodos , Animais , Equidae/sangue , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/métodos , Motivação/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , Coelhos
12.
Neural Netw ; 135: 115-126, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383526

RESUMO

Modular Reinforcement Learning decomposes a monolithic task into several tasks with sub-goals and learns each one in parallel to solve the original problem. Such learning patterns can be traced in the brains of animals. Recent evidence in neuroscience shows that animals utilize separate systems for processing rewards and punishments, illuminating a different perspective for modularizing Reinforcement Learning tasks. MaxPain and its deep variant, Deep MaxPain, showed the advances of such dichotomy-based decomposing architecture over conventional Q-learning in terms of safety and learning efficiency. These two methods differ in policy derivation. MaxPain linearly unified the reward and punishment value functions and generated a joint policy based on unified values; Deep MaxPain tackled scaling problems in high-dimensional cases by linearly forming a joint policy from two sub-policies obtained from their value functions. However, the mixing weights in both methods were determined manually, causing inadequate use of the learned modules. In this work, we discuss the signal scaling of reward and punishment related to discounting factor γ, and propose a weak constraint for signaling design. To further exploit the learning models, we propose a state-value dependent weighting scheme that automatically tunes the mixing weights: hard-max and softmax based on a case analysis of Boltzmann distribution. We focus on maze-solving navigation tasks and investigate how two metrics (pain-avoiding and goal-reaching) influence each other's behaviors during learning. We propose a sensor fusion network structure that utilizes lidar and images captured by a monocular camera instead of lidar-only and image-only sensing. Our results, both in the simulation of three types of mazes with different complexities and a real robot experiment of an L-maze on Turtlebot3 Waffle Pi, showed the improvements of our methods.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Punição , Reforço Psicológico , Recompensa , Robótica/métodos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia
13.
Neuroimage ; 228: 117656, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359338

RESUMO

Aberrant reward processing is a cardinal feature of various forms of psychopathology. However, recent research indicates that aberrant reward processing may manifest at temporally distinct substages and involve interdependent subcomponents of reward processing. To improve our understanding of both the temporal dynamics and distinct subcomponents of reward processing, we added an effort manipulation to the "doors" reward-task paradigm, to derive behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures of effort-based reward processing. Behavioral measures consisting of reaction time, response rate, and response rate change were used to index effort expenditure, and ERP measures were used to index attention allocated toward effort-completion cues, anticipation of reward, valuation of reward, and attention toward monetary feedback. Reduced response rate and slowing of response were evident during the high effort versus the low effort condition. ERP findings indicated increased attention to signals of high- compared to low-effort completion cues-as well as reduced anticipation of rewards, and reduced attention toward feedback information following high effort expenditure. Participants showing the most response-rate slowing evidenced the greatest reward devaluation following high versus low effort. Findings demonstrate that the addition of an effort expenditure manipulation to the doors reward paradigm produced reliable ERP and behavioral measures of effort-based reward processing, providing opportunities for future researchers to utilize the effort-doors task to parse the temporal dynamics of both anticipatory and consummatory reward processing components.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Recompensa , Adolescente , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(10): 734-744, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361668

RESUMO

Objectives This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a walking point project with incentives for increasing walking time, preventing the decline of physical function and worsening depression among older adults.Methods We used data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study, which included subjects aged ≥65 years who lived in Yokohama City in 2013 and 2016. We obtained information on the subjects' participation in the "Yokohama Walking Point (YWP)," a program launched by Yokohama City in 2014, from the 2016 survey data. We excluded individuals with missing data for sex, age, walking time per day (<30, 30-59, 60-89, or ≥90 min/day), physical function (5 physical function category items on the Kihon Checklist), depression (15-item Geriatric Depression Scale), and participation status in the YWP. We used data from 4,509 eligible respondents. Changes in walking time, physical function, and depression were designated as independent variables, and participation status in the YWP was designated as the dependent variable in the multiple regression analysis with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW), after adjusting for demographic variables, socioeconomic status, health status, and behavior.Results Among the total subjects, 758 (16.8%) participated in the YWP. The IPTW method showed that participants in the YWP had significantly higher walking times (B=3.61, 95% CI: 1.04, 6.17), less decline in physical function, and less depression (B=-0.13, 95% CI: -0.23, -0.03; B=-0.21, 95% CI: -0.42, -0.01) than those who did not participate in the YWP.Conclusions Our findings suggest that the YWP, with incentives, effectively increased walking time and prevented worsening of physical function and depression among older adults. The municipality's health point project, based on the number of steps, is a useful population approach for promoting health among older adults.


Assuntos
Depressão/prevenção & controle , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Pontuação de Propensão , Caminhada/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eficiência Organizacional , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino
15.
Science ; 370(6512): 46, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004507
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5350, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093442

RESUMO

Sociality is among the most important motivators of human behaviour. However, the neural mechanisms determining levels of sociality are largely unknown, primarily due to a lack of suitable animal models. Here, we report the presence of a surprising degree of general sociality in Drosophila. A newly-developed paradigm to study social approach behaviour in flies reveal that social cues perceive through both vision and olfaction converged in a central brain region, the γ lobe of the mushroom body, which exhibite activation in response to social experience. The activity of these γ neurons control the motivational drive for social interaction. At the molecular level, the serotonergic system is critical for social affinity. These results demonstrate that Drosophila are highly sociable, providing a suitable model system for elucidating the mechanisms underlying the motivation for sociality.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/fisiologia
17.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003355, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondhand smoke can cause adverse pregnancy outcomes, yet there is a lack of effective smoking cessation interventions targeted at expectant fathers. We examined the effectiveness of a video-based smoking cessation intervention focusing on maternal and child health in promoting quitting among expectant fathers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A single-blind, 3-arm, randomized controlled trial was conducted at the obstetrics registration centers of 3 tertiary public hospitals in 3 major cities (Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Foshan) in China. Smoking expectant fathers who registered with their pregnant partners were invited to participate in this study. Between 14 August 2017 to 28 February 2018, 1,023 participants were randomized to a video (n = 333), text (n = 322), or control (n = 368) group. The video and text groups received videos or text messages on the risks of smoking for maternal and child health via instant messaging. The control group received a leaflet with information on smoking cessation. Follow-up visits were conducted at 1 week and at 1, 3, and 6 months. The primary outcome, by intention to treat (ITT), was validated abstinence from smoking at the 6-month follow-up. The secondary outcomes included 7-day point prevalence of abstinence (PPA) and level of readiness to quit at each follow-up. The mean age of participants was 32 years, and about half of them were first-time expectant fathers. About two-thirds of participants had completed tertiary education. The response rate was 79.7% (815 of 1,023) at 6 months. The video and text groups had higher rates of validated abstinence than the control group (video group: 22.5% [75 of 333], P < 0.001; text group: 14.9% [48 of 322], P = 0.02; control group: 9.2% [34 of 368]) with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 2.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.79-4.37, P < 0.001) in the video group and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.06-2.74, P = 0.03) in the text group. The video and text groups differed in the rates of validated abstinence (22.5% versus 14.9%, P = 0.008; adjusted OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.10-2.46, P = 0.02). The video and text groups had higher rates of 7-day PPA than the control group at 6 months (video group: 24.6% [82 of 333] versus 11.4% [42 of 368], P < 0.001; text group: 17.4% [56 of 333] versus 11.4% [42 of 368], P = 0.02). The video and text groups also differed in the rates of 7-day PPA (24.6% versus 17.4%, P = 0.02). Excluding the quitters, the video and text groups had higher levels of readiness to quit than the control group at 6 months (video group: 43.5% [109 of 251] versus 31.6% [103 of 326], P = 0.002; text group: 40.6% [108 of 266] versus 31.6% [103 of 326], P = 0.01), No such difference was detected between the video and text groups (43.5% versus 40.6%, P = 0.29). The study was limited in that the long-term effectiveness of the intervention is uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: This smoking cessation intervention for expectant fathers that focused on explaining the ramifications of smoking on maternal and child health was effective and feasible in promoting quitting, and video messages were more effective than texts in delivering the information. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03236025.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Pai , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Método Simples-Cego , Fumar/epidemiologia , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(40): 25169-25178, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958673

RESUMO

Human decisions can be biased by irrelevant information. For example, choices between two preferred alternatives can be swayed by a third option that is inferior or unavailable. Previous work has identified three classic biases, known as the attraction, similarity, and compromise effects, which arise during choices between economic alternatives defined by two attributes. However, the reliability, interrelationship, and computational origin of these three biases have been controversial. Here, a large cohort of human participants made incentive-compatible choices among assets that varied in price and quality. Instead of focusing on the three classic effects, we sampled decoy stimuli exhaustively across bidimensional multiattribute space and constructed a full map of decoy influence on choices between two otherwise preferred target items. Our analysis reveals that the decoy influence map is highly structured even beyond the three classic biases. We identify a very simple model that can fully reproduce the decoy influence map and capture its variability in individual participants. This model reveals that the three decoy effects are not distinct phenomena but are all special cases of a more general principle, by which attribute values are repulsed away from the context provided by rival options. The model helps us understand why the biases are typically correlated across participants and allows us to validate a prediction about their interrelationship. This work helps to clarify the origin of three of the most widely studied biases in human decision-making.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Comércio/economia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866171

RESUMO

Academic dishonesty is a common problem at universities around the world, leading to undesirable consequences for both students and the education system. To effectively address this problem, it is necessary to identify specific predispositions that promote cheating. In Polish undergraduate students (N = 390), we examined the role of psychopathy, achievement goals, and self-efficacy as predictors of academic dishonesty. We found that the disinhibition aspect of psychopathy and mastery-goal orientation predicted the frequency of students' academic dishonesty and mastery-goal orientation mediated the relationship between the disinhibition and meanness aspects of psychopathy and dishonesty. Furthermore, general self-efficacy moderated the indirect effect of disinhibition on academic dishonesty through mastery-goal orientation. The practical implications of the study include the identification of risk factors and potential mechanisms leading to students' dishonest behavior that can be used to plan personalized interventions to prevent or deal with academic dishonesty.


Assuntos
Motivação/fisiologia , Má Conduta Profissional/psicologia , Má Conduta Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Decepção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação/ética , Polônia , Má Conduta Profissional/ética , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/ética , Adulto Jovem
20.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 29(3): 175-190, sept. 2020. graf, tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194494

RESUMO

Previous research suggests that the inclusion of motivational strategies in interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders could increase their effectiveness. This review evaluated the effectiveness of interventions for IPV offenders that includes motivational strategies to reduce physical and psychological IPV, treatment dropout, official recidivism to IPV offending, and to increase intervention attendance dose. The present systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted using PRISMA guidelines. The following databases were searched from 1983 to 2018 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions for IPV offenders that incorporated motivational strategies for adult participants that included men and included IPV behaviors as outcomes: Cochrane Collaboration, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL. A total 1,134 studies were identified, 12 RCTs were included in the narrative review and 7 in the meta-analysis. Results indicated that IPV interventions that incorporated motivational strategies were significantly more effective in increasing the intervention dose and reducing dropout than interventions without motivational strategies. IPV offenders receiving interventions with motivational strategies were 1.73 times less likely to intervention dropout compared to those in interventions without such strategies. For physical and psychological IPV and official recidivism (e.g., rearrests, police record), evidence favored interventions with motivational strategies, although not significantly. These findings have important practical implications, especially considering the high dropout rates in IPV offender programs and the link between dropout and higher rates of recidivism


La investigación previa sugiere que la inclusión de estrategias motivacionales en las intervenciones con agresores de pareja podría incrementar la efectividad de estas intervenciones. Esta revisión evaluó la eficacia de las intervenciones en agresores de pareja, que incluye las estrategias motivacionales para reducir la violencia física y psicológica contra la pareja, el abandono de la intervención y la reincidencia oficial, así como para aumentar la dosis de asistencia a las intervenciones. Tanto la revisión sistemática como el meta-análisis se llevaron a cabo siguiendo las recomendaciones PRISMA. Se examinaron las siguientes bases de datos desde 1983 hasta 2018, con objeto de localizar ensayos controlados aleatorizados (ECA) de intervenciones para agresores de pareja que incluyeran estrategias motivacionales, en las que los participantes fueran hombres mayores de edad y que incluyeran como variables de resultado conductas de violencia contra la pareja: Cochrane Collaboration, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO y CINAHL. Se identificaron 1,134 estudios, incluyéndose 12 ECAs en la revisión narrativa y 7 en el meta-análisis. Los resultados indicaron que las intervenciones para agresores de pareja que incorporan estrategias motivacionales eran significativamente más efectivas en incrementar la dosis de intervención y reducir el abandono de la intervención que las que no incluían estrategias motivacionales. Los agresores que participaron en intervenciones con estrategias motivacionales tenían 1.73 veces menor probabilidad de abandonar el tratamiento, en comparación con aquellos que participaron en intervenciones sin tales estrategias. En cuanto a la violencia física y psicológica contra la pareja y la reincidencia oficial (e.g., arrestos reiterados, denuncias policiales), la evidencia, aunque no es significativa, favorece las intervenciones con estrategias motivacionales. Estos resultados tienen importantes implicaciones prácticas, especialmente si se tiene en cuenta las altas tasas de abandono de la intervención que se producen en los programas de intervención con agresores de pareja y la relación existente entre abandono de la intervención y mayores tasas de reincidencia


Assuntos
Humanos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Motivação/fisiologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , 25783 , Assunção de Riscos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...