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1.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 26, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries (RTI) are one of the most prominent causes of morbidity and mortality, especially among children and young adults. Motorcycle crashes constitute a significant part of RTIs. Policymakers believe that safety helmets are the single most important protection against motorcycle-related injuries. However, motorcyclists are not wearing helmets at desirable rates. This study systematically investigated factors that are positively associated with helmet usage among two-wheeled motorcycle riders. METHODS: We performed a systematic search on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane library with relevant keywords. No language, date of publication, or methodological restrictions were applied. All the articles that had evaluated the factors associated with helmet-wearing behavior and were published before December 31, 2021, were included in our study and underwent data extraction. We assessed the quality of the included articles using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist for observational studies. RESULTS: A total of 50 articles were included. Most evidence suggests that helmet usage is more common among drivers (compared to passengers), women, middle-aged adults, those with higher educations, married individuals, license holders, and helmet owners. Moreover, the helmet usage rate is higher on highways and central city roads and during mornings and weekdays. Travelers of longer distances, more frequent users, and riders of motorcycles with larger engines use safety helmets more commonly. Non-helmet-using drivers seem to have acceptable awareness of mandatory helmet laws and knowledge about their protective role against head injuries. Importantly, complaint about helmet discomfort is somehow common among helmet-using drivers. CONCLUSIONS: To enhance helmet usage, policymakers should emphasize the vulnerability of passengers and children to RTIs, and that fatal crashes occur on low-capacity roads and during cruising at low speeds. Monitoring by police should expand to late hours of the day, weekends, and lower capacity and less-trafficked roads. Aiming to enhance the acceptance of other law-abiding behaviors (e.g., wearing seat belts, riding within the speed limits, etc.), especially among youth and young adults, will enhance the prevalence of helmet-wearing behavior among motorcycle riders. Interventions should put their focus on improving the attitudes of riders regarding safety helmets, as there is acceptable knowledge of their benefits.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/etiologia , Cintos de Segurança , Polícia , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Motocicletas
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36613175

RESUMO

Trauma-related injuries in traffic-accident victims can be quite serious. Evaluating the factors contributing to traffic accidents is critical for the effective design of programs aimed at reducing traffic accidents. Therefore, this study identified which factors related to traffic accidents are associated with injury severity in hospitalized victims. Factors related to traffic accidents, injury severity, disability and data collected from blood toxicology were evaluated, along with associated severity and disability indices with data collected from toxicology on victims of traffic accidents at the largest tertiary hospital in Latin America. One hundred and twenty-eight victims of traffic accidents were included, of whom the majority were young adult men, motorcyclists, and pedestrians. The most frequent injuries were traumatic brain injury and lower-limb fractures. Alcohol use, hit-and-run victims, and longer hospital stays were shown to lead to greater injury severity. Women, elderly individuals, and pedestrians tend to suffer greater disability post-injury. Therefore, traffic accidents occur more frequently among young male adults, motorcyclists, and those who are hit by a vehicle, with trauma to the head and lower limbs being the most common injury. Injury severity is greater in pedestrians, elderly individuals and inebriated individuals. Disability was higher in older individuals, in women, and in pedestrians.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Fraturas Ósseas , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Acidentes de Trânsito , Motocicletas , Extremidade Inferior , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674166

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the association between drunk riding, unhelmeted riding, unlicensed riding, and running-off-road (ROR) crashes. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) by using the National Taiwan Traffic Crash Dataset for 2011-2016. The results revealed that unhelmeted riding was associated with 138% (AOR = 2.38; CI (confidence interval) = 2.34-2.42) and 47% (AOR = 1.47; CI = 1.45-1.49) higher risks of drunk riding and unlicensed riding, respectively. The risk of unhelmeted riding increased with blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), and riders with the minimum BAC (0.031-0.05%) had nearly five times (AOR = 4.99; CI = 4.74-5.26) higher odds of unlicensed riding compared with those of riders with a negative BAC. Unhelmeted riding, drunk riding, and unlicensed riding were associated with 1.21 times (AOR = 1.21; CI = 1.13-1.30), 2.38 times (AOR = 2.38; CI = 2.20-2.57), and 1.13 times (AOR = 1.13; CI = 1.06-1.21) higher odds of ROR crashes, respectively. The three risky riding behaviours (i.e., unhelmeted riding, drunk riding, and unlicensed riding) were significantly related to ROR crashes. The risk of unhelmeted riding and ROR crashes increased with BACs.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica , Alcoolismo , Humanos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Motocicletas , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito
4.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0281138, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36706096

RESUMO

The study aimed to determine whether the reaction time (RT) to the starting signal has an impact on the points scored by elite male motorcycle speedway riders, or whether it depends on the starting position (gate). Differences among junior and senior riders, and how it changes during a single match (15 heats) and in the subsequent phases of the competitive season (the main and knockout phases) were investigated. The database of reaction times to the starting signal obtained by motorcycle speedway riders was collected from a mobile application called PGE Ekstraliga ver. 1.0.66 (PGE Ekstraliga, Warsaw, Poland). The database included 1.261 results obtained by 65 male riders (age 25.9 ±7.6 years), competing in the highest league in Poland (PGE Speedway Ekstraliga) in the 2021 competitive season. Reaction time was measured using the Pegasus Speedway © telemetry system (Black Burst, Warsaw, PL). Riders scoring 3 points during a heat had the fastest reaction time (F(3,1257) = 8.90, p<0.001, η2 = 0.02), but RT did not influence the final result of the match (p<0.130). The times differ depending on the occupied starting position (F(3,1257) = 6.89, p<0.001, η2 = 0.02), with the fastest RT in the inner position-A compared to the B (p<0.05) and C (p <0.001) positions. Senior riders showed significantly faster RT (0.246s) compared to junior ones (0.258s) (p<0.001). The width of the starting line affects the reaction time (F(3,1257) = 7.94, p<0.001, η2 = 0.02). In the last (15th) heat of the match, RT was the fastest. The fast reaction time during the start affects the scoring of more points in a heat but depends on riders' experience, the starting position and the straight width of the motorcycle speedway stadium. Coaches should pay attention to these factors when programming training measures.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Motocicletas , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Tempo de Reação , Polônia , Acidentes de Trânsito
5.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 49: e20223387, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629720

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: many studies have demonstrated the benefits of helmet to prevent and reduce severity of injuries in motorcyclists. OBJECTIVE: the aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible relationship between the use of different types of helmets and the occurrence of facial injuries among victims of motorcycle accidents, seen at Hospital da Restauração, Recife/PE, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: demographic and trauma data were collected from hospitalized motorcycle accident victims with facial injuries from December 2020 to July 2021. Pearsons chi-square test was used to assess association between two categorical variables using a margin of error of 5%. RESULTS: among the participants, the average age was 33.46 years. The age group between 18 and 29 years was the most prevalent. Most participants were male. 60.0% of motorcyclists used helmets at the time of the accident and of this percentage 37.6% used fixed full-face helmet, 16.5% open-face helmet and the other 5.9% articulated full-face helmet. 62.7% of participants had facial fractures. Among the fractures, those of the zygomatic-orbital complex were the most common fracture and were significantly associated with the use of helmets, especially with open-face helmet. CONCLUSIONS: the use of helmets was associated with a lower number of facial fractures among patients who were victims of motorcycle accidents. Fracture of the zygomatic-orbital complex was related to the absence of a helmet at the time of the accident, as well as the use of open-face helmets.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Faciais , Fraturas Cranianas , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Feminino , Estudos Prospectivos , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Acidentes de Trânsito , Motocicletas , Traumatismos Faciais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Faciais/etiologia , Traumatismos Faciais/prevenção & controle
6.
Injury ; 54(1): 160-167, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36496266

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure annual rates of road traffic injuries (RTI) and to describe the characteristics of road traffic crashes experienced by children and adolescents in Tanga, Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional household survey using geospatial population-weighted sampling in the city of Tanga in northern Tanzania. Data were collected in February and March of 2022. We report 12-month rates of road traffic crashes and RTI (reported by adult caregivers) among children and adolescents <18 years of age. RESULTS: A total of 2,794 adult respondents reported data on 6563 children and adolescents, among whom, 180 were reported to have experienced road traffic crashes in the past 12 months (crash incidence: 27.4 per 1,000 children, 95%CI 23.5-31.4) and 158 sustained injuries (RTI incidence: 24.1 per 1000 children, 95%CI 20.4-27.8). Almost a quarter of RTI (23%) were reported to be major (resulting in ≥30 days of missed activities). RTI was higher among adolescents (13-17 years) than children <5 years (21.5 vs. 14.1 per 1,000, p=0.039). Few children always or sometimes wore helmets when riding on motorcycles/motorbikes (12.8%) or wore safety restraints/seat belts in cars or other vehicles (11.9%). CONCLUSION: The high rate of road traffic crashes and RTI observed among children and adolescents in a medium-sized city in Tanzania underscores the urgent need to improve road safety and increase use of safety equipment in low resource settings.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Motocicletas , Cintos de Segurança , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
7.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 49: e20223364, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36515331

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to assess the epidemiological profile of traffic accident victims in the setting of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and analyze the admissions throughout the different levels of restriction (flags), as well as compare the results with the pre-pandemic period. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was performed, with probability sampling, in a trauma center in Brazil. Medical records of patients involved in traffic accidents from June 2020 to May 2021 were evaluated. Aside from epidemiological characteristics, variables such as the current flag, the trauma mechanism, the resulting injuries, and the Revised Trauma Score (RTS) were also considered. Data were compared between three different flag periods and the proportion of consultations during the pandemic was compared with that from pre-pandemic time (December 2016 to February 2018). RESULTS: it was observed that 62.2% of the patients were victims of motorcycle accidents, 77.5% were male, and the mean age was 33 ± 12.4 years. The mean and median RTS were 7.5 and 7.8, respectively. Statistical difference was stated when comparing the number of visits per day between the yellow and red flags (p=0.001) and orange and red flags (p=0.016). A significantly lower number of consultations for traffic accidents was observed in the pandemic when compared to the pre-pandemic period. CONCLUSIONS: the epidemiological profile of the study consisted mostly of young men who were victims of motorcycle accidents. There was a lower incidence of admissions during red flag periods and a lower proportion of consultations throughout the survey when compared to the pre-pandemic period.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , COVID-19 , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Motocicletas , Estudos Transversais , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia
8.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(Suppl 1)(4): S979-S982, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36550657

RESUMO

Background: To determine the frequency of tibial diaphyseal fractures among patients presenting with motorcycle accidents. It was a cross-Sectional Study, conducted at Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi between May to December, 2020. Methods: All patients irrespective of gender, between ages 18-60 years who suffered from a motorcycle injury with a single bone involvement were eligible for the study. All patients who refused to take part in the study, had head injury, or had multiple fractures were excluded from the study. The data included patient's age, sex, associated bones involved and types of injury. The fractures were classified according to whether it was open or closed. Results: A total of 174 patients were included in the study with a mean±SD age of 43.7±12.4. Tibial diaphyseal fracture was found to be in 111 (63.8%) patients as shown. Duration of fracture, gender, side of fracture, type of fracture was done with respect to Tibial diaphyseal fracture among patients. Insignificant difference was noted in age group (p=0.346), duration of fracture (p=0.087), gender (p=0.672), and type of fracture (p=0.063) whereas significant difference was found in side of fracture (p=0.0001). Conclusion: We highlighted the importance of tibial diaphyseal fractures in middle aged men who use motorcycles as a means of transport in Karachi, Sindh which is a frequent finding among these patients. Efforts should be made at both the community and government levels to increase awareness regarding traffic rules and consequences of reckless driving.


Assuntos
Motocicletas , Fraturas da Tíbia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Incidência , Estudos Transversais , Fraturas da Tíbia/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Acidentes
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2059, 2022 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies have focused on injuries sustained by intoxicated drivers themselves, but few have examined the effect of drunk driving on injury outcomes among VRUs (vulnerable road users) in developing countries. This study aims to evaluate the effect of drunk driving on fatal injuries among VRUs (pedestrians, cyclists, or motorcyclists). METHODS: The data were extracted from the National Taiwan Traffic Crash Dataset from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2019. Crashes involving one motorized vehicle and one VRU were considered. This study examines the effect of drunk driving by estimating multivariate logistic regression models of fatal injuries among VRUs after controlling for other variables. RESULTS: Among 1,416,168 casualties, the fatality rate of VRUs involved in drunk driving was higher than that of general road users (2.1% vs. 0.6%). Drunk driving was a significant risk factor for fatal injuries among VRUs. Other risk factors for fatal injuries among VRUs included VRU age ≥ 65 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 5.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.53-6.07), a nighttime accident (AOR: 4.52, 95% CI: 4.22-4.84), and being hit by a heavy-duty vehicle (AOR: 2.83, 95% CI: 2.26-3.55). Subgroup analyses revealed a linear relationship between driver blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and the risk of fatal injury among motorcyclists. Motorcyclists exhibited the highest fatality rate when they had a BAC ≤ 0.03% (AOR: 3.54, 95% CI: 3.08-4.08). CONCLUSION: Drunk driving was associated with a higher risk of fatality for all VRUs. The risk of fatal injury among motorcyclists was linearly related to the BAC of the drunk drivers. Injuries were more severe for intoxicated motorcyclists, even those with BAC ≤ 0.03%, which is within the legal limit.


Assuntos
Dirigir sob a Influência , Humanos , Idoso , Motocicletas , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito
10.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12(4): 552-559, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36441473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Benin, some riders of two-wheeled vehicles still do not wear helmets, the main protection against head injuries in road accidents. The objective of this study is to describe the characteristics of two-wheeled users, and to determine the factors influencing helmet use among this group. METHODS: This is a prospective cross-sectional study of 977 two-wheeled road accident victims from a cohort. Proportions or means were calculated for the different variables. Statistical comparisons were made to test the association with helmet use. Logistic regression modelling was performed to identify factors associated with helmet use. RESULTS: Among all subjects, 81.1% [CI95% (78.5; 83.4)] wore a helmet. Factors explaining helmet use were female gender (OR = 2.8 [1.3-6.1]), purpose of trip (OR = 1.7 [1.1-2.6]), possession of health insurance (OR = 3.7 [1.3-10, 5]), having been driving for 15-20 years (OR = 2.6 [1.4-4.7]) or more than 20 years (OR = 3.4 [2.0-5.8]), good road conditions (OR = 3.1 [2.0-4.8]), and good visibility (OR = 1.9 [1.3-3.1]). CONCLUSION: The factors influencing helmet use are gender, reason for travel, length of time as a driver, possession of health insurance, conditions, and visibility of the road on which the subject are driving. These factors are related to experience and appropriation of the notion of risk, but also related to the environment. To increase helmet use among two-wheelers, helmet awareness should take into account the individual factors found in this study. Enforcement actions should be strengthened, and the quality of the roads improved.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Motocicletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Benin/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidentes de Trânsito
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20546, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36446787

RESUMO

Electric bicycles and scooters have gained popularity among riders; studies assessing these device-related injuries have not specified ocular trauma. Our study examined the types and risk factors for ocular and periocular injuries associated with electric devices compared to motorcycle accidents. The study was conducted on the National Trauma Registry database from 20 trauma centers, including patients involved in accidents with electric bicycles, scooters, and motorcycles between 2014 to 2019. Injured riders were assigned into two groups: motorcycle group (M) and electric bicycle & scooter group (E). Data such as gender, age, protective gear use, ocular injury type, injury severity score (ISS), and ocular surgery were captured. Logistic regression models were conducted for injury types and the need for surgery. 8181 M-riders and 3817 E-riders were involved in an accident and hospitalized. E-riders suffered from ocular injury more than M-riders. Males were most vulnerable and the ages of 15-29. Orbital floor fracture was the most common injury, followed by ocular contusion, eyelid laceration, and other ocular wounds. Electric bicycle and scooter riders are more likely to suffer from ocular injury than motorcycle riders. Riders without helmets are at greater risk for injuries, specifically orbital floor fractures. ISS of 16 + was associated with injury demanding ocular surgery.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Oculares , Fraturas Orbitárias , Masculino , Humanos , Motocicletas , Traumatismos Oculares/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Oculares/etiologia , Meios de Transporte , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(22)2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36433443

RESUMO

Accurate distance estimation is a requirement for advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) to provide drivers with safety-related functions such as adaptive cruise control and collision avoidance. Radars and lidars can be used for providing distance information; however, they are either expensive or provide poor object information compared to image sensors. In this study, we propose a lightweight convolutional deep learning model that can extract object-specific distance information from monocular images. We explore a variety of training and five structural settings of the model and conduct various tests on the KITTI dataset for evaluating seven different road agents, namely, person, bicycle, car, motorcycle, bus, train, and truck. Additionally, in all experiments, a comparison with the Monodepth2 model is carried out. Experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms Monodepth2 by 15% in terms of the average weighted mean absolute error (MAE).


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Motocicletas
13.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275537, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36260555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brazil occupies the fifth position in the ranking of the highest mortality rates due to RTI in the world. With the objective of promoting traffic safety and consequently reducing deaths, Brazil created the Life in Traffic Project (LTP). The main goal of LTP is reducing 50% of RTI deaths, by promoting interventions to tackle risk factors, such as driving under the influence of alcohol and excessive and/or inappropriate speed. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the magnitude of risky and protective factors for RTI in capitals participating in the LTP in Brazil. We estimated these factors according to sociodemographic (age group, sex, education, race and, type of road user). METHODS: A total of 5,922 car drivers and motorcyclists from 14 Brazilian capitals participating in the LTP were interviewed. Data collection was carried out in sobriety checkpoints at night and consisted of the administration of an interview and a breathalyzer test. Risky and protective behaviors associated with RTI were investigated. Covariates of the study were: age, sex, education, race and, type of road user. Poisson multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between variables of interest. RESULTS: The prevalence of individuals with positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was 6.3% and who reported driving after drinking alcohol in the last 30 days was 9.1%. The others risky behaviors reported were: driving at excessive speed on roads of 50 km/h, using a cell phone for calls while driving, using a cell phone to send or read calls while driving, running a red light. Use of seatbelts and helmets showed prevalence above 96,0% Use of seatbelts showed prevalence of 98.6% among car drivers, and helmet use was described by 96.6% of motorcycle drivers. Most risky behaviors were more prevalent in younger age groups (except BAC measurement higher in older participants), in males (except for cell phone use), in participants with higher education level and without a driver's license. CONCLUSION: Excessive speed and driving under the influence of alcohol, defined as priorities within the LTP, need more consistent interventions, as they still have considerable prevalence in the cities investigated. The factors described such as cell phone usage and passing red traffic lights should also need to be prioritized as a focus on promoting traffic safety.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Motocicletas
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(20)2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298302

RESUMO

In this work, we describe in detail how Deep Learning and Computer Vision can help to detect fault events of the AirTender system, an aftermarket motorcycle damping system component. One of the most effective ways to monitor the AirTender functioning is to look for oil stains on its surface. Starting from real-time images, AirTender is first detected in the motorbike suspension system, simulated indoor, and then, a binary classifier determines whether AirTender is spilling oil or not. The detection is made with the help of the Yolo5 architecture, whereas the classification is carried out with the help of a suitably designed Convolutional Neural Network, OilNet40. In order to detect oil leaks more clearly, we dilute the oil in AirTender with a fluorescent dye with an excitation wavelength peak of approximately 390 nm. AirTender is then illuminated with suitable UV LEDs. The whole system is an attempt to design a low-cost detection setup. An on-board device, such as a mini-computer, is placed near the suspension system and connected to a full hd camera framing AirTender. The on-board device, through our Neural Network algorithm, is then able to localize and classify AirTender as normally functioning (non-leak image) or anomaly (leak image).


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Motocicletas , Redes Neurais de Computação , Algoritmos , Computadores
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e054289, 2022 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36302559

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is widespread use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) in the USA for both work-related and recreational activities. In this study, we aimed to determine the difference in injury severity, Glasgow Coma scales and length of stay between ATV-related injuries and injuries sustained from motorcycles (MOTOs) and automobiles (AUTOs). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed ATV, MOTO and AUTO injuries from a Level 2 Trauma Center between 01 January 2015 and 31 August 2020. Proportional odds regression analyses, as well as multivariable regression models, were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: There were significantly more male and paediatric patients that suffered ATV-related injuries compared with MOTO or AUTO injuries. Victims of ATV-related injuries were also more likely to have open fractures. Paediatric patients were less likely to sustain an injury from either AUTO or MOTO accidents compared with ATV accidents. Patients with no drug use during injury and those who used protective equipment such as seat belts and child seats were significantly associated with lower Injury Severity Scores and higher Glasgow Coma Scale scores, indicating less severe injuries. DISCUSSION: Paediatric patients are very likely to suffer sequela and long-term disability due to the severity of ATV-related injuries. Public awareness campaigns to educate our population, especially our youth, about the danger of ATV use are highly needed.


Assuntos
Veículos Off-Road , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Motocicletas , Automóveis , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo de Internação , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231413

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Single-track vehicles (including, among others, scooters, bicycles, mopeds, and motorcycles) are becoming increasingly popular means of transport, especially in large cities. A significant disadvantage of single-track vehicles is the low level of protection of users' bodies during road accidents, which causes life-threatening injuries. The aim of this study is to characterize the injuries of users of single-track vehicles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An analysis of medical documentation of the ambulance service in the region of central Poland covered cases in 2019-2020. Out of 17,446 interventions, a group of 248 road incidents involving single-track vehicles was selected. The data included the scene of the event, the sociodemographic data of the casualties, the injuries suffered, and the clinical diagnoses. Analyses of the correlation of variables with the chi-squared and Spearman's Rho tests were applied. All results were considered significant at p < 0.05. RESULTS: In the analyzed period, trips of men accounted for 83.5% of all of the interventions (n = 207), while trips of women accounted for 16.5% (n = 41). The mean age of the victims was 45.66 years (SD ± 20.45). Taking into account the division of single-track vehicles, individual cases were recorded with the participation of bicycles (n = 183), motorcycles (n = 61), and scooters (n = 4). Taking into account the type of event, the following were distinguished: deductions (n = 62), falls (n = 179), and sickness (n = 7). The most common injuries were to the heads of cyclists (n = 101, which constitutes 55.19% of all injuries), lower limb injuries in motorcyclists (n = 35; 57.38%), and head injuries in scooter users (n = 3; 75%). The locations of sustained injuries significantly correlated with the type of vehicle in the cases of head injuries (p = 0.046), spine/back injuries (p = 0.001), pelvis injuries (p = 0.021), and lower limb injuries (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The users of single-track vehicles injured in road accidents were more often men than women. The characteristics of the injuries depended on the type of vehicle. The lack of adequate body protection significantly increases the likelihood of death or damage to health. It is advisable to promote safety rules among users of single-track vehicles, with a particular emphasis on the protection of individual parts of the body.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motocicletas , Polônia/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
17.
South Med J ; 115(9): 674-680, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to evaluate the characteristics of off-highway vehicle (OHV) crashes correlated with neurological injury and accident severity in the pediatric population in El Paso, Texas. METHODS: A retrospective review of 213 patients who were victims of an OHV crash attended at a regional Level I trauma center from 2012 to 2020 was performed. OHVs were defined as vehicles designated for use outside public roads. Neurological outcomes included any traumatic brain injury (TBI) or a brain hemorrhage/hematoma. Severe injury was defined as a Glasgow Coma Scale less than 8, a length of stay longer than 7 days, a Pediatric Trauma Score lower than 8, and requiring pediatric intensive care unit admission. Bivariate and multivariate analyses by logistic regression models were conducted to determine the factors related to the neurological outcomes and accident severity. RESULTS: Of 213 OHV crash patients, 104 (48.8%) had TBI and 22 (10.3%) had brain hemorrhages or hematomas. Risk analyses demonstrated that children younger than age 6 years and occupants of recreational OHVs have a significantly higher risk of severe injuries. Off-highway motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles were risk factors for TBI, whereas helmets were a protective factor. CONCLUSIONS: OHVs are associated with both TBIs and severe injuries. Stricter laws requiring helmets and forbidding children younger than 6 to ride are required, as modifying these factors could reduce the incidence of OHV crashes and their complications.


Assuntos
Veículos Off-Road , Acidentes , Acidentes de Trânsito , Criança , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Humanos , Motocicletas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Texas/epidemiologia
18.
Acta Diabetol ; 59(12): 1625-1634, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103089

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the overall and sex-age-specific absolute and relative risks of motorcycle collisions at road traffic accidents among patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A cohort study in Taiwan was conducted by following 989,495 patients with type 2 diabetes and the same number of matched controls recruited between 2010 and 2012 to the end of 2016. Collision events by motorcycle driver victims were identified from the Police-reported Traffic Accident Registry. Overall and sex-age-specific incidence rates of collision involving motorcycle driver victims were estimated under Poisson assumption. The Cox proportional hazard regression models were performed to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of collision in association with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Over an up to 7 years of follow-up, patients with type 2 diabetes had a higher incidence rate of motorcycle collision than controls at 1.16 and 0.89 per 100 person-years, respectively, which represented a significantly elevated HR of 1.28 (95% CI 1.27-1.30) after adjusting for potential confounders including various diabetic complications. The elevated HR was similarly seen in both men and women patients, and was significantly decreasing with increasing age regardless of sex. Little evidence supported the dose-response relationship between duration of type 2 diabetes and motorcycle collision risk. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for common diabetic complications and comorbidities that could impair driving performance, patients with type 2 diabetes still suffered from increased risk of motorcycle collisions, regardless of sex, but was more evident in younger than in older patients.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Motocicletas , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia
19.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 59: 102139, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055135

RESUMO

Road traffic injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with pedestrians and riders of two-wheeled motor vehicles being the most vulnerable. The present study aims to determine the epidemiological characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in a portion of the Italian region of Emilia Romagna, and to compare them with the data available in literature. Data were retrieved from autopsy reports on 350 subjects who died following road accidents involving moped or motorcycle in the cities of Parma, Piacenza, and Reggio Emilia. Two types of data were extrapolated: circumstantial and traumatological. The population was divided into subgroups according to gender, crash time, alcohol positivity, presence or absence of the helmet, and the period elapsed between the accident and death. Most of the considered road accidents occurred during the day and on weekends. 25.5 % of the victims tested positive for alcohol. As far as traumas are concerned, the limbs resulted to be the most affected body segment, followed by the head (87.4 %), the thorax (85.7 %), the abdomen (65.7 %), and lastly the neck (50.3 %). According to similar studies, the sample victim of a moped/ motorcycle accident is a young male subject. The results obtained allow us to demonstrate that the mandatory use of the helmet has reduced skull and brain injury over the years. At present, no law regulates the use of protections for other body parts. Regulatory interventions in this sense would be desirable given the ever more rapid technical evolutions in the field of motorcycles.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Motocicletas , Masculino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Itália/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078241

RESUMO

Not wearing a helmet, not properly strapping the helmet on, or wearing a substandard helmet increases the risk of fatalities and injuries in motorcycle crashes. This research examines the differences in motorcycle crash injury severity considering crashes involving the compliance with and defiance of helmet use by motorcycle riders and highlights the temporal variation in their impact. Three-year (2017-2019) motorcycle crash data were collected from RESCUE 1122, a provincial emergency response service for Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The available crash data include crash-specific information, vehicle, driver, spatial and temporal characteristics, roadway features, and traffic volume, which influence the motorcyclist's injury severity. A random parameters logit model with heterogeneity in means and variances was evaluated to predict critical contributory factors in helmet-wearing and non-helmet-wearing motorcyclist crashes. Model estimates suggest significant variations in the impact of explanatory variables on motorcyclists' injury severity in the case of compliance with and defiance of helmet use. For helmet-wearing motorcyclists, key factors significantly associated with increasingly severe injury and fatal injuries include young riders (below 20 years of age), female pillion riders, collisions with another motorcycle, large trucks, passenger car, drivers aged 50 years and above, and drivers being distracted while driving. In contrast, for non-helmet-wearing motorcyclists, the significant factors responsible for severe injuries and fatalities were distracted driving, the collision of two motorcycles, crashes at U-turns, weekday crashes, and drivers above 50 years of age. The impact of parameters that predict motorcyclist injury severity was found to vary dramatically over time, exhibiting statistically significant temporal instability. The results of this study can serve as potential motorcycle safety guidelines for all relevant stakeholders to improve the state of motorcycle safety in the country.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Motocicletas , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adulto , Feminino , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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