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1.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 8092-8111, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335982

RESUMO

Active c-Src non-receptor tyrosine kinase localizes to the plasma membrane via N-terminal lipid modification. Membranous c-Src causes cancer initiation and progression. Even though transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5), a tetraspan(in), can be involved in this mechanism, the molecular and structural influence of TM4SF5 on c-Src remains unknown. Methods: Here, we investigated molecular and structural details by which TM4SF5 regulated c-Src devoid of its N-terminus and how cell-penetrating peptides were able to interrupt c-Src activation via interference of c-Src-TM4SF5 interaction in hepatocellular carcinoma models. Results: The TM4SF5 C-terminus efficiently bound the c-Src SH1 kinase domain, efficiently to the inactively-closed form. The complex involved protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B able to dephosphorylate Tyr530. The c-Src SH1 domain alone, even in a closed form, bound TM4SF5 to cause c-Src Tyr419 and FAK Y861 phosphorylation. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulation studies predicted the directly interfacing residues, which were further validated by mutational studies. Cell penetration of TM4SF5 C-terminal peptides blocked the interaction of TM4SF5 with c-Src and prevented c-Src-dependent tumor initiation and progression in vivo. Conclusions: Collectively, these data demonstrate that binding of the TM4SF5 C-terminus to the kinase domain of inactive c-Src leads to its activation. Because this binding can be abolished by cell-penetrating peptides containing the TM4SF5 C-terminus, targeting this direct interaction may be an effective strategy for developing therapeutics that block the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Proteína Tirosina Quinase CSK/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteína Tirosina Quinase CSK/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Genes src/genética , Genes src/fisiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Tetraspaninas/genética , Tetraspaninas/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4601, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326322

RESUMO

Genomic sequencing of thousands of tumors has revealed many genes associated with specific types of cancer. Similarly, large scale CRISPR functional genomics efforts have mapped genes required for cancer cell proliferation or survival in hundreds of cell lines. Despite this, for specific disease subtypes, such as metastatic prostate cancer, there are likely a number of undiscovered tumor specific driver genes that may represent potential drug targets. To identify such genetic dependencies, we performed genome-scale CRISPRi screens in metastatic prostate cancer models. We then created a pipeline in which we integrated pan-cancer functional genomics data with our metastatic prostate cancer functional and clinical genomics data to identify genes that can drive aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes. Our integrative analysis of these data reveals known prostate cancer specific driver genes, such as AR and HOXB13, as well as a number of top hits that are poorly characterized. In this study we highlight the strength of an integrated clinical and functional genomics pipeline and focus on two top hit genes, KIF4A and WDR62. We demonstrate that both KIF4A and WDR62 drive aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes in vitro and in vivo in multiple models, irrespective of AR-status, and are also associated with poor patient outcome.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Cinesina/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Cinesina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299330

RESUMO

The ability of endocannabinoid (eCB) to change functional microglial phenotype can be explored as a possible target for therapeutic intervention. Since the inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the main catabolic enzyme of anandamide (AEA), may provide beneficial effects in mice model of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology, we aimed at determining whether the FAAH inhibitor URB597 might target microglia polarization and alter the cytoskeleton reorganization induced by the amyloid-ß peptide (Aß). The morphological evaluation showed that Aß treatment increased the surface area of BV-2 cells, which acquired a flat and polygonal morphology. URB597 treatment partially rescued the control phenotype of BV-2 cells when co-incubated with Aß. Moreover, URB597 reduced both the increase of Rho protein activation in Aß-treated BV-2 cells and the Aß-induced migration of BV-2 cells, while an increase of Cdc42 protein activation was observed in all samples. URB597 also increased the number of BV-2 cells involved in phagocytosis. URB597 treatment induced the polarization of microglial cells towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype, as demonstrated by the decreased expression of iNOS and pro-inflammatory cytokines along with the parallel increase of Arg-1 and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, these data suggest that FAAH inhibition promotes cytoskeleton reorganization, regulates phagocytosis and cell migration processes, thus driving microglial polarization towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Carbamatos/farmacologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/farmacologia , Animais , Ácidos Araquidônicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Polaridade Celular/fisiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microglia/patologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/metabolismo
4.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 868, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262131

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) and leukemic cell homing is an important biological phenomenon that occurs through key interactions between adhesion molecules. Tethering and rolling of the cells on endothelium, the crucial initial step of the adhesion cascade, is mediated by interactions between selectins expressed on endothelium to their ligands expressed on HSPCs/leukemic cells in flow. Although multiple factors that affect the rolling behavior of the cells have been identified, molecular mechanisms that enable the essential slow and stable cell rolling remain elusive. Here, using a microfluidics-based single-molecule live cell fluorescence imaging, we reveal that unique spatiotemporal dynamics of selectin ligands on the membrane tethers and slings, which are distinct from that on the cell body, play an essential role in the rolling of the cell. Our results suggest that the spatial confinement of the selectin ligands to the tethers and slings together with the rapid scanning of a large area by the selectin ligands, increases the efficiency of selectin-ligand interactions during cell rolling, resulting in slow and stable rolling of the cell on the selectins. Our findings provide novel insights and contribute significantly to the molecular-level understanding of the initial and essential step of the homing process.


Assuntos
Selectina E/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Microfluídica/métodos , Imagem Individual de Molécula/métodos , Algoritmos , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Ligantes , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Modelos Biológicos
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299282

RESUMO

Shrews are small animals found in many different habitats. Like other mammals, adult neurogenesis occurs in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampal formation. We asked whether the number of new generated cells in shrews depends on their brain size. We examined Crocidura russula and Neomys fodiens, weighing 10-22 g, and Crocidura olivieri and Suncus murinus that weigh three times more. We found that the density of proliferated cells in the SVZ was approximately at the same level in all species. These cells migrated from the SVZ through the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb (OB). In this pathway, a low level of neurogenesis occurred in C. olivieri compared to three other species of shrews. In the DG, the rate of adult neurogenesis was regulated differently. Specifically, the lowest density of newly generated neurons was observed in C. russula, which had a substantial number of new neurons in the OB compared with C. olivieri. We suggest that the number of newly generated neurons in an adult shrew's brain is independent of the brain size, and molecular mechanisms of neurogenesis appeared to be different in two neurogenic structures.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Musaranhos/anatomia & histologia , Musaranhos/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células , Hipocampo/anatomia & histologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Ventrículos Laterais/anatomia & histologia , Ventrículos Laterais/fisiologia , Neurogênese , Bulbo Olfatório/anatomia & histologia , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiologia , Tamanho do Órgão
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4118, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226542

RESUMO

Living cells actively migrate in their environment to perform key biological functions-from unicellular organisms looking for food to single cells such as fibroblasts, leukocytes or cancer cells that can shape, patrol or invade tissues. Cell migration results from complex intracellular processes that enable cell self-propulsion, and has been shown to also integrate various chemical or physical extracellular signals. While it is established that cells can modify their environment by depositing biochemical signals or mechanically remodelling the extracellular matrix, the impact of such self-induced environmental perturbations on cell trajectories at various scales remains unexplored. Here, we show that cells can retrieve their path: by confining motile cells on 1D and 2D micropatterned surfaces, we demonstrate that they leave long-lived physicochemical footprints along their way, which determine their future path. On this basis, we argue that cell trajectories belong to the general class of self-interacting random walks, and show that self-interactions can rule large scale exploration by inducing long-lived ageing, subdiffusion and anomalous first-passage statistics. Altogether, our joint experimental and theoretical approach points to a generic coupling between motile cells and their environment, which endows cells with a spatial memory of their path and can dramatically change their space exploration.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Células CACO-2 , Simulação por Computador , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , RNA Interferente Pequeno
7.
Anticancer Res ; 41(8): 3843-3849, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Integrin-targeting compounds have shown clinically significant benefits in many patients. Here, we examined the activity of millettocalyxin B, extracted from the stem bark of Millettia erythrocalyx, in lung cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The viability of human lung cancer cells was investigated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay. Migration and invasion assays were performed. Phalloidin-rhodamine staining was used to determine the formation of filopodia. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining were used to identify the signaling proteins involved in migration regulation. RESULTS: Non-toxic concentrations (0-25 µM) of millettocalyxin B reduced migration and invasion of lung cancer A549 cells. Filopodia were significantly reduced in millettocalyxin B-treated cells. The migration regulatory proteins including integrin α5, active FAK, active Akt, and Cdc42 were significantly decreased in Millettocalyxin B-treated cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed a novel anti-migration and anti-invasion effects and the underlying mechanism of millettocalyxin B, which may be exploited for cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Células A549 , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Humanos , Integrina alfa5/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Pseudópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
8.
Am J Pathol ; 191(9): 1499-1510, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111428

RESUMO

The contributions that the R-Ras subfamily [R-Ras, R-Ras2/teratocarcinoma 21 (TC21), and M-Ras] of small GTP-binding proteins make to normal and aberrant cellular functions have historically been poorly understood. However, this has begun to change with the realization that all three R-Ras subfamily members are occasionally mutated in Noonan syndrome (NS), a RASopathy characterized by the development of hematopoietic neoplasms and abnormalities affecting the immune, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Consistent with the abnormalities seen in NS, a host of new studies have implicated R-Ras proteins in physiological and pathologic changes in cellular morphology, adhesion, and migration in the cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems. These changes include regulating the migration and homing of mature and immature immune cells, vascular stabilization, clotting, and axonal and dendritic outgrowth during nervous system development. Dysregulated R-Ras signaling has also been linked to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, intellectual disabilities, and human cancers. This review discusses the structure and regulation of R-Ras proteins and our current understanding of the signaling pathways that they regulate. It explores the phenotype of NS patients and their implications for the R-Ras subfamily functions. Next, it covers recent discoveries regarding physiological and pathologic R-Ras functions in key organ systems. Finally, it discusses how R-Ras signaling is dysregulated in cancers and mechanisms by which this may promote neoplasia.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteínas ras/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/metabolismo
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2268: 207-221, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085271

RESUMO

GPCRs are responsible for activation of numerous downstream effectors. Live cell imaging of these effectors therefore provides a real-time readout of GPCR activity and allows for better understanding of temporal dynamics of GPCR-mediated signaling. Opsins, or optically activatable GPCRs, allow for these signaling pathways to be activated in a spatiotemporally precise and reversible manner. Here, we describe optogenetic methods for activating Gi, Gq, and Gs signaling pathways. Additionally, we present assays for detecting activation of these pathways in real time through live cell imaging of Gßγ translocation, PIP3 increase, PIP2 hydrolysis, cAMP production, and cell migration. These assays can be utilized for GPCR-targeted drug development, as well as for studies of a wide range of GPCR-mediated physiological processes.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/métodos , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Opsinas/metabolismo , Optogenética/métodos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Opsinas/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 808, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183779

RESUMO

Collective migration of epithelial cells is a fundamental process in multicellular pattern formation. As they expand their territory, cells are exposed to various physical forces generated by cell-cell interactions and the surrounding microenvironment. While the physical stress applied by neighbouring cells has been well studied, little is known about how the niches that surround cells are spatio-temporally remodelled to regulate collective cell migration and pattern formation. Here, we analysed how the spatio-temporally remodelled extracellular matrix (ECM) alters the resistance force exerted on cells so that the cells can expand their territory. Multiple microfabrication techniques, optical tweezers, as well as mathematical models were employed to prove the simultaneous construction and breakage of ECM during cellular movement, and to show that this modification of the surrounding environment can guide cellular movement. Furthermore, by artificially remodelling the microenvironment, we showed that the directionality of collective cell migration, as well as the three-dimensional branch pattern formation of lung epithelial cells, can be controlled. Our results thus confirm that active remodelling of cellular microenvironment modulates the physical forces exerted on cells by the ECM, which contributes to the directionality of collective cell migration and consequently, pattern formation.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Matriz Extracelular/fisiologia , Comunicação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Fibronectinas/fisiologia , Humanos
11.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(15): 5807-5826, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148098

RESUMO

The actin-binding protein vinculin is a major constituent of focal adhesion, but its role in neuronal development is poorly understood. We found that vinculin deletion in mouse neocortical neurons attenuated axon growth both in vitro and in vivo. Using functional mutants, we found that expression of a constitutively active vinculin significantly enhanced axon growth while the head-neck domain had an inhibitory effect. Interestingly, we found that vinculin-talin interaction was dispensable for axon growth and neuronal migration. Strikingly, expression of the tail domain delayed migration, increased branching, and stunted axon. Inhibition of the Arp2/3 complex or abolishing the tail domain interaction with actin completely reversed the branching phenotype caused by tail domain expression without affecting axon length. Super-resolution microscopy showed increased mobility of actin in tail domain expressing neurons. Our results provide novel insights into the role of vinculin and its functional domains in regulating neuronal migration and axon growth.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Neocórtex/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Talina/metabolismo , Vinculina/metabolismo , Animais , Axônios , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Adesões Focais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia
12.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 753, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140629

RESUMO

Metastatic cancer cells are frequently deficient in WWOX protein or express dysfunctional WWOX (designated WWOXd). Here, we determined that functional WWOX-expressing (WWOXf) cells migrate collectively and expel the individually migrating WWOXd cells. For return, WWOXd cells induces apoptosis of WWOXf cells from a remote distance. Survival of WWOXd from the cell-to-cell encounter is due to activation of the survival IκBα/ERK/WWOX signaling. Mechanistically, cell surface epitope WWOX286-299 (repl) in WWOXf repels the invading WWOXd to undergo retrograde migration. However, when epitope WWOX7-21 (gre) is exposed, WWOXf greets WWOXd to migrate forward for merge. WWOX binds membrane type II TGFß receptor (TßRII), and TßRII IgG-pretreated WWOXf greet WWOXd to migrate forward and merge with each other. In contrast, TßRII IgG-pretreated WWOXd loses recognition by WWOXf, and WWOXf mediates apoptosis of WWOXd. The observatons suggest that normal cells can be activated to attack metastatic cancer cells. WWOXd cells are less efficient in generating Ca2+ influx and undergo non-apoptotic explosion in response to UV irradiation in room temperature. WWOXf cells exhibit bubbling cell death and Ca2+ influx effectively caused by UV or apoptotic stress. Together, membrane WWOX/TßRII complex is needed for cell-to-cell recognition, maintaining the efficacy of Ca2+ influx, and control of cell invasiveness.


Assuntos
Invasividade Neoplásica/fisiopatologia , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/metabolismo , Oxidorredutase com Domínios WW/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/imunologia , Células COS , Cálcio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Células L , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Oxidorredutase com Domínios WW/genética
13.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 321(1): H149-H160, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018852

RESUMO

Age-related wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis (wtATTR) is characterized by systemic deposition of amyloidogenic fibrils of misfolded transthyretin (TTR) in the connective tissue of many organs. In the heart, this leads to cardiac dysfunction, which is a significant cause of age-related heart failure. The hypothesis tested is that TTR affects cardiac fibroblasts in ways that may contribute to fibrosis. When primary cardiac fibroblasts were cultured on TTR-deposited substrates, the F-actin cytoskeleton was disorganized, focal adhesion formation was decreased, and nuclear shape was flattened. Fibroblasts had faster collective and single-cell migration velocities on TTR-deposited substrates. In addition, fibroblasts cultured on microposts with TTR deposition had reduced attachment and increased proliferation above untreated. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of fibroblasts grown on glass covered with TTR showed significant upregulation of inflammatory genes after 48 h, indicative of progression in TTR-based diseases. Together, results suggest that TTR deposited in tissue extracellular matrix may affect the structure, function, and gene expression of cardiac fibroblasts. As therapies for wtATTR are cost-prohibitive and only slow disease progression, better understanding of cellular maladaptation may elucidate novel therapeutic targets.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Transthyretin (TTR) cardiac amyloidosis involves deposition of fibrils of misfolded TTR in the aging human heart, leading to cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Our novel in vitro studies show that TTR fibrils alter primary cardiac fibroblast cytoskeletal and nuclear structure and focal adhesion formation. Furthermore, both fibrillar and tetrameric TTR significantly increased cellular migration velocity and caused upregulation of inflammatory genes determined by transcriptomic RNA and protein analysis. These findings may suggest new therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/metabolismo , Amiloide/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Inflamação/genética , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/genética , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/patologia , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia
14.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(5): e1008592, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029312

RESUMO

During cell migration in confinement, the nucleus has to deform for a cell to pass through small constrictions. Such nuclear deformations require significant forces. A direct experimental measure of the deformation force field is extremely challenging. However, experimental images of nuclear shape are relatively easy to obtain. Therefore, here we present a method to calculate predictions of the deformation force field based purely on analysis of experimental images of nuclei before and after deformation. Such an inverse calculation is technically non-trivial and relies on a mechanical model for the nucleus. Here we compare two simple continuum elastic models of a cell nucleus undergoing deformation. In the first, we treat the nucleus as a homogeneous elastic solid and, in the second, as an elastic shell. For each of these models we calculate the force field required to produce the deformation given by experimental images of nuclei in dendritic cells migrating in microchannels with constrictions of controlled dimensions. These microfabricated channels provide a simplified confined environment mimicking that experienced by cells in tissues. Our calculations predict the forces felt by a deforming nucleus as a migrating cell encounters a constriction. Since a direct experimental measure of the deformation force field is very challenging and has not yet been achieved, our numerical approaches can make important predictions motivating further experiments, even though all the parameters are not yet available. We demonstrate the power of our method by showing how it predicts lateral forces corresponding to actin polymerisation around the nucleus, providing evidence for actin generated forces squeezing the sides of the nucleus as it enters a constriction. In addition, the algorithm we have developed could be adapted to analyse experimental images of deformation in other situations.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Núcleo Celular/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Actinas/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Núcleo Celular/ultraestrutura , Forma Celular/fisiologia , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/fisiologia , Elasticidade/fisiologia , Camundongos , Microtecnologia , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo
15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(9): 13264-13286, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952725

RESUMO

Exosomes are messengers for intercellular communication and signal transduction. Circular RNA (circRNA) abnormal expression and regulation are involved in the occurrence and development of a variety of tumors. In the present study, exosomes in the serum of five patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were isolated before and after EGFR-TKIs resistance, and the circRNA expression profile was screened using a circRNA microarray. The effects of the exosome circRNA_102481 on cell proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed. The interaction between miR-30a-5p and circRNA_102481 or ROR1 was predicted by starBase software, and was confirmed by RNA pull-down and dual-luciferase reporter assays. The results showed that exosomes containing circRNA_102481 were significantly up-regulated in NSCLC with EGFR-TKIs resistance (p<0.05), and that circRNA_102481 was mainly secreted by EGFR-TKIs resistance cell via exosomes (p<0.05). Both circRNA_102481 silencing and si-circRNA_102481 transported by exosomes could inhibit EGFR-TKIs resistance cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis and circRNA_102481 overexpression could promote EGFR-TKIs sensitive cell proliferation and inhibit cell apoptosis in vitro (p<0.05). CircRNA_102481 served as a miR-30a-5p sponge to regulate ROR1 expression (p<0.05). Furthermore, the expression of circRNA_102481 in exosomes was associated with TNM stage, tumor differentiation status, brain metastasis, and PFS and OS duration. Therefore, it was concluded that tumor-derived exosomal circRNA_ 102481 could contribute to EGFR-TKIs resistance via the microRNA-30a-5p/ROR1 axis in NSCLC. Exosomal circRNA_102481 may serve as a novel diagnostic biomarker and a therapeutic target for EGFR-TKIs resistance in NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , RNA Circular/sangue , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Receptores Órfãos Semelhantes a Receptor Tirosina Quinase/genética , Receptores Órfãos Semelhantes a Receptor Tirosina Quinase/metabolismo
16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(9): 13048-13060, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962400

RESUMO

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is closely correlated to metastasis formation generation and maintenance of cancer stem cells, nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of maternal embryonic leucine-zipper kinase (MELK) in EMT regulation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We found that there was overexpression of MELK in human OSCC tissues, and high MELK expression was correlated with lymphatic metastasis and led to poor prognosis in patients with OSCC. We also confirmed that MELK is closely correlated to the EMT process using a human OSCC tissue microarray. Additionally, MELK expression was observed to be regulated in several OSCC cell lines, and knockdown of MELK genes inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and EMT of OSCC cells in vitro. Furthermore, silencing of MELK suppressed tumour growth in vivo, and experimental research verified that MELK may augment OSCC development via mediating the Wnt/Notch signalling pathway. Our findings suggest that MELK serves as an oncogene to improve malignant development of OSCC via enhancing EMT, and MELK might be a potential target for anticancer therapeutic.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Expressão Ectópica do Gene/fisiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3058, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031387

RESUMO

De novo loss of function mutations in the ubiquitin ligase-encoding gene Cullin3 (CUL3) lead to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In mouse, constitutive Cul3 haploinsufficiency leads to motor coordination deficits as well as ASD-relevant social and cognitive impairments. However, induction of Cul3 haploinsufficiency later in life does not lead to ASD-relevant behaviors, pointing to an important role of Cul3 during a critical developmental window. Here we show that Cul3 is essential to regulate neuronal migration and, therefore, constitutive Cul3 heterozygous mutant mice display cortical lamination abnormalities. At the molecular level, we found that Cul3 controls neuronal migration by tightly regulating the amount of Plastin3 (Pls3), a previously unrecognized player of neural migration. Furthermore, we found that Pls3 cell-autonomously regulates cell migration by regulating actin cytoskeleton organization, and its levels are inversely proportional to neural migration speed. Finally, we provide evidence that cellular phenotypes associated with autism-linked gene haploinsufficiency can be rescued by transcriptional activation of the intact allele in vitro, offering a proof of concept for a potential therapeutic approach for ASDs.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas Culina/genética , Proteínas Culina/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Proteostase , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Encéfalo/patologia , Feminino , Genes Reguladores , Haploinsuficiência , Heterozigoto , Homeostase , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mutação , Sistema Nervoso , Prosencéfalo , Transcriptoma
18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(9): 13287-13299, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioma is one of the most wide-spreading brain cancers worldwide. Exosomes have emerged as essential regulators in intercellular communication, and exosomal circular RNAs (circRNAs) are critical for cancer progression. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of exosomal circRNAs in glioma progression and associated mechanisms. METHODS: Exosomes derived from glioma cells were isolated and identified by transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). CCK-8, wound healing assays, transwell invasion assays, and flow cytometry assays were performed to assess glioma progression. RNA sequencing, RT-qPCR, western blotting, fluorescence in situ hybridization assay, luciferase assays, and cell transfection assay were performed to investigate related molecular mechanisms. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that exosomes derived from glioma cells promoted glioma progression. Also, exosomal circRNA 0001445 was taken up and upregulated in glioma cells treated with exosomes. In addition, exosomal circRNA 0001445 acted as a sponge for miRNA-127-5p to upregulate the expression of sorting nexin 5 (SNX5). Lastly, the effect of exosomal circRNA 0001445 was mediated by miRNA-127-5p/ SNX5 signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that exosomal circRNA 0001445 promoted glioma progression through miRNA-127-5p/SNX5 signaling pathway. This study provides a novel understanding of the molecular mechanism of glioma progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , Glioma/metabolismo , RNA Circular/sangue , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Glioma/sangue , Glioma/genética , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Nexinas de Classificação/metabolismo
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2815, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990566

RESUMO

Defining the principles of T cell migration in structurally and mechanically complex tumor microenvironments is critical to understanding escape from antitumor immunity and optimizing T cell-related therapeutic strategies. Here, we engineered nanotextured elastic platforms to study and enhance T cell migration through complex microenvironments and define how the balance between contractility localization-dependent T cell phenotypes influences migration in response to tumor-mimetic structural and mechanical cues. Using these platforms, we characterize a mechanical optimum for migration that can be perturbed by manipulating an axis between microtubule stability and force generation. In 3D environments and live tumors, we demonstrate that microtubule instability, leading to increased Rho pathway-dependent cortical contractility, promotes migration whereas clinically used microtubule-stabilizing chemotherapies profoundly decrease effective migration. We show that rational manipulation of the microtubule-contractility axis, either pharmacologically or through genome engineering, results in engineered T cells that more effectively move through and interrogate 3D matrix and tumor volumes. Thus, engineering cells to better navigate through 3D microenvironments could be part of an effective strategy to enhance efficacy of immune therapeutics.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Células Cultivadas , Matriz Extracelular/imunologia , Matriz Extracelular/fisiologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Engenharia Genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microtúbulos/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Nanoestruturas , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/genética , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/fisiologia , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/fisiologia
20.
World Neurosurg ; 151: e208-e216, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meningioma is a common tumor of the central nervous system, and malignant meningioma is highly aggressive and frequently recurs after surgical resection. Claudin 6 (CLDN6) is involved in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and plays a role in maintaining tight junctions between cells and obstructing the movement of cells to neighboring tissues. METHODS: In the present study, we evaluated the effect of tight junction protein CLDN6 expression levels on meningioma invasiveness using silencing and overexpression constructs in both in vitro and in vivo models. The expression of CLDN6 at the mRNA and protein levels was measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assays. RESULTS: We found that CLDN6 was expressed at higher levels in normal meningeal tissue and cell samples. Next, vectors with silenced and overexpressed CLDN6 were successfully established, and the expression of CLDN6 mRNA and protein in the IOMM-Lee and CH157-MN cell lines was downregulated after transfection with siRNA-CLDN6 and upregulated by transfection of the entire CLDN6 sequence vector. An in vitro assay revealed that abrogation of CLDN6 expression added to the capacity for tumor migration and invasion relative to the overexpression of CLDN6. In addition to the in vitro evidence, we observed a significant increase in tumor growth and invasion-associated gene expression, including matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, vimentin, and N-cadherin, after silencing CLDN6 expression in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: CLDN6 might play an important role in meningioma migration and invasion and, thus, might serve as a novel diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarker and as a potential therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Claudinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Meníngeas/metabolismo , Meningioma/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Claudinas/genética , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Neoplasias Meníngeas/patologia , Meningioma/patologia
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