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1.
Zoolog Sci ; 37(1): 50-60, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068374

RESUMO

The labial palps of bivalves are thought to be involved in suspension feeding. However, the function of their muscular movements and neural regulation are still unclear. In semi-intact preparations of Mytilus, in which one valve was removed, suspended particles were removed from the labial palps following two kinds of compound movements: torsional and rotational. Both of these compound movements are therefore thought to function in rejection during feeding. These movements were observed in reduced preparations of isolated labial palps with intact cerebral ganglia, and were maintained even after removal of the cerebral ganglia, suggesting that they are generated by the peripheral neural network. Stimulation of the anterior pallial nerve elicited tetanic contraction of the labial palp, followed by secondary responses, including torsional movement. Secondary responses were dramatically reduced by a high concentration of divalent cations, in which polysynaptic pathways were inhibited. Hence, the cerebral ganglia may play an excitatory role within the peripheral neural network and the labial palp musculature via the anterior pallial nerve. Administration of serotonin induced repetitive muscular movements, whereas dopamine did not induce muscular movements. Serotonin-induced muscular movements were not elicited under a high concentration of divalent cation condition. In histochemical experiments, both the serotonergic and dopaminergic neural processes and cell body-like structures were widely observed inside the labial palp, the anterior pallial nerve, and the cerebral ganglia. Serotonin may thus contribute to activation of polysynaptic peripheral pathways, which are involved in regulating compound movements.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Músculos/inervação , Mytilus/fisiologia , Animais , Dopamina/farmacologia , Gânglios , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Serotonina/farmacologia
2.
Exp Parasitol ; 208: 107779, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634474

RESUMO

Here, we report enhanced the in vitro effect of potassium usnate on coupled adult Schistosoma mansoni worms at different time intervals and concentrations. The evaluated schistosomicidal parameters were the following: motility, mortality, fecundity and integumentary changes, as viewed in photomicrographs. Potassium usnate was able to cause 100 and 50% mortality at 100 and 50 µM concentrations, respectively, after 24 h of exposure, while 25 and 12.5 µM concentrations caused changes in motility at 48 and 72 h, and lethality at 96 and 120 h respectively. Eggs were not detected at any of the concentrations analyzed. Photomicrographs revealed morphological tegument alterations within all periods of observation, such as swelling, blisters, dorsoventral contraction, short and curved worms. In conclusion, our results indicate that potassium usnate represents a possible candidate for a new drug in the control of schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose mansoni/prevenção & controle , Análise de Variância , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Benzofuranos/administração & dosagem , Benzofuranos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotomicrografia , Schistosoma mansoni/fisiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 206: 107769, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mansonellosis arises from infections with threadlike filarial nematodes in millions of individuals, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Since infections present no overt clinical symptoms but attenuate immune responses that might lead to increased susceptibility and worsened disease course of concomitant infections, it is truly a neglected tropical disease. Nevertheless, only few studies focus on identifying suitable safe drugs for its control and little is known about the requirements for in vitro maintenance of the Mansonella perstans transmission stage. This study, therefore, evaluated the survival of M. perstans microfilariae (mf) using in vitro conditions that have been shown to promote survival of Loa loa, a closely related filarial nematode. Furthermore, the in vitro microfilaricidal effect of 15 agents was assessed on this helminth. METHODS: The ability of two basic culture media; Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) and Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI-1640) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and a monkey kidney epithelial cell line (LLC-MK2) to support the survival of M. perstans microfilariae was investigated. Subsequently, 6 anti-helminthics, 5 anti-malarials, 1 anti-microbacterial, 2 trypanocidals and 1 anti-cancer agent were tested in vitro against mf. The suitability of the culture media as well as the effect of the anti-infective agents on mf survival was assessed by scoring their motility. RESULTS: FBS supplement and additional LLC-MK2 cells significantly improved the survival of mf in DMEM and RPMI-1640 culture. In detail, RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10% FBS and LLC-MK2 cells sustained the maintenance of mf for at least 20 days (100.00 ±â€¯0.00% survival). In co-cultures with LLC-MK2 cells without serum, M. perstans mf were maintained in DMEM and RPMI-1640 medium with a motility above 99% by day 5. Mefloquine displayed the highest microfilaricidal effect in vitro followed by artesunate. CONCLUSION: Both RPMI and DMEM in the presence of LLC-MK2 cells are suitable for the maintenance of M. perstans mf in vitro. In absence of the feeder cells, the addition of 10% FBS to RPMI-1640 medium improved the parasite survival rate and motility. The microfilaricidal activity of mefloquine and artesunate on M. perstans mf was documented for the first time in this study and can therefore be considered as reference for further screening of agents against this parasite stage.


Assuntos
Artesunato/farmacologia , Filaricidas/farmacologia , Mansonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Mansonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mefloquina/farmacologia , Amodiaquina/farmacologia , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Área Sob a Curva , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Meios de Cultura/química , Haplorrinos , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Mansonella/fisiologia , Microfilárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microfilárias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microfilárias/fisiologia , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Rifampina/farmacologia
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109754, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606639

RESUMO

In (eco)toxicology, there is a critical need for efficient methods to evaluate the neurotoxic potential of environmental chemicals. Recent studies proposed analysis of early coiling activity in zebrafish embryos as a powerful tool for the identification of neurotoxic compounds. In order to demonstrate that the analysis of early tail movements of zebrafish embryos allows for the discrimination of neurotoxicants acting via different mechanisms, the present study investigated the effects of four different neurotoxicants on the embryogenesis (fish embryo toxicity test) and early tail coiling movements of zebrafish embryos. Cadmium predominantly increased the frequency of tail coiling at the late pharyngula stage. Dichlorvos delayed embryonic development and caused convulsive tail movements resulting in prolonged duration of tail coils. Embryos exposed to teratogenic concentrations of fluoxetine and citalopram displayed absence of spontaneous tail movements at 24 h post-fertilization. In contrast, a non-teratogenic test concentration of citalopram decreased coiling frequency at multiple time points. Results demonstrated that the analysis of tail coiling movements of zebrafish embryos has the potential to discriminate neurotoxic compounds with different primary modes of action. In addition, chemical-induced effects on coiling activity were shown to potentially overlap with effects on embryogenesis. Further studies are needed to clarify the interplay of unspecific developmental toxicity of neurotoxic chemicals and effects resulting from specific neurotoxic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Citalopram/toxicidade , Diclorvós/toxicidade , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Fluoxetina/toxicidade , Cauda , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
5.
PLoS Biol ; 17(10): e3000485, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622335

RESUMO

Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms that infect over 200 million people, causing the neglected tropical disease, schistosomiasis. A single drug, praziquantel, is used to treat schistosome infection. Limitations in mass drug administration programs and the emergence of schistosomiasis in nontropical areas indicate the need for new strategies to prevent infection. It has been known for several decades that rotifers colonizing the schistosome's snail intermediate host produce a water-soluble factor that paralyzes cercariae, the life cycle stage infecting humans. In spite of its potential for preventing infection, the nature of this factor has remained obscure. Here, we report the purification and chemical characterization of Schistosome Paralysis Factor (SPF), a novel tetracyclic alkaloid produced by the rotifer Rotaria rotatoria. We show that this compound paralyzes schistosome cercariae and prevents infection and does so more effectively than analogous compounds. This molecule provides new directions for understanding cercariae motility and new strategies for preventing schistosome infection.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Cercárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Rotíferos/química , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Cercárias/patogenicidade , Cercárias/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento/fisiologia , Rotíferos/isolamento & purificação , Rotíferos/metabolismo , Schistosoma mansoni/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Schistosoma mansoni/patogenicidade , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/parasitologia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Solubilidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
J Insect Sci ; 19(5)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665784

RESUMO

Insect herbivores can modify their foraging behavior to obtain a balanced food intake, and they tend to move between food sources with different nutrient values. We investigated this movement in early instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) using a putative optimal artificial diet (OP) and high protein (HP) and high carbohydrate (HC) artificial diets based on protein (p) and carbohydrate (c) ratios. Larvae were allowed to choose between the same kind of diet cubes (effectively no-choice), or diet cubes with different p: c ratios. In no-choice tests, we found that first instar larvae remained longest on OP diet and spent the least time on HC diet, while third instar larvae remained longest on HC diet and spent least time on OP diet. First instar larvae moved the most when provided with HC diet, while third instar larvae moved most when provided with OP diet. However, both stages moved the least when allowed to choose between diet cubes with different p: c ratios. The relative growth rate decreased when larvae increased their movement, but this influence was not evident when larvae fed on HC diet. Larvae that fed only on HC diet had the highest relative growth rate, followed by larvae with access to all diets simultaneously, indicating a behavior to mix nutrient intake. We relate these findings to behavior of this major pest species under field conditions.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/fisiologia , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(9): e1008041, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553770

RESUMO

Filariae are parasitic nematodes that are transmitted to their definitive host as third-stage larvae by arthropod vectors like mosquitoes. Filariae cause diseases including: lymphatic filariasis with distressing and disturbing symptoms like elephantiasis; and river blindness. Filarial diseases affect millions of people in 73 countries throughout the topics and sub-tropics. The drugs available for mass drug administration, (ivermectin, albendazole and diethylcarbamazine), are ineffective against adult filariae (macrofilariae) at the registered dosing regimen; this generates a real and urgent need to identify effective macrofilaricides. Emodepside, a veterinary anthelmintic registered for treatment of nematode infections in cats and dogs, is reported to have macrofilaricidal effects. Here, we explore the mode of action of emodepside using adult Brugia malayi, one of the species that causes lymphatic filariasis. Whole-parasite motility measurement with Worminator and patch-clamp of single muscle cells show that emodepside potently inhibits motility by activating voltage-gated potassium channels and that the male is more sensitive than the female. RNAi knock down suggests that emodepside targets SLO-1 K channels. We expressed slo-1 isoforms, with alternatively spliced exons at the RCK1 (Regulator of Conductance of Potassium) domain, heterologously in Xenopus laevis oocytes. We discovered that the slo-1f isoform, found in muscles of males, is more sensitive to emodepside than the slo-1a isoform found in muscles of females; and selective RNAi of the slo-1a isoform in female worms increased emodepside potency. In Onchocerca volvulus, that causes river blindness, we found two isoforms in adult females with homology to Bma-SLO-1A and Bma-SLO-1F at the RCK1 domain. In silico modeling identified an emodepside binding pocket in the same RCK1 region of different species of filaria that is affected by these splice variations. Our observations show that emodepside has potent macrofilaricidal effects and alternative splicing in the RCK1 binding pocket affects potency. Therefore, the evaluation of potential sex-dependent effects of an anthelmintic compound is of importance to prevent any under-dosing of one or the other gender of nematodes once given to patients.


Assuntos
Brugia Malayi/efeitos dos fármacos , Brugia Malayi/fisiologia , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Filaricidas/farmacologia , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Brugia Malayi/genética , Feminino , Filariose/tratamento farmacológico , Filariose/parasitologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/química , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/genética , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento/fisiologia , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/fisiologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 142: 528-535, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473567

RESUMO

Tryptophan at concentrations higher than 0.1 mM, triggered characteristic early physiological effects such as rapid (within 5 min) dose-dependent membrane hyperpolarization in Mimosa pudica motor cells and modification of the time course of the spontaneous proton efflux monitored in the incubation medium of pulvinar tissues. The rapid modifications of the leaf turgor-mediated movements seen on the primary pulvini of M. pudica following a shock and on Cassia fasciculata leaflets during a transition from light to darkness indicate that tryptophan disturbed the ionic migrations involved in the electrophysiological events and in the osmocontractile reaction of the motor cells. These reactions were specific to tryptophan compared to those induced by serine and 5-hydroxytryptophan. The tryptophan mode of action cannot be linked to a direct modification of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity as monitored on purified pulvinar plasma membrane vesicles. The tryptophan metabolism-linked products tryptamine and indole also inhibited the motile reactions, activated in a continuous manner the H+ secretion of pulvinar tissues and showed properties of a protonophore and an ATPase activity inhibitor on plasma membrane vesicles, respectively. The specific behavior of tryptophan in the reaction studies here is discussed in light of the previously reported action of phytohormones.


Assuntos
Cassia/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Mimosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Triptofano/farmacologia , Cassia/citologia , Cassia/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Mimosa/citologia , Mimosa/fisiologia , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/citologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Triptofano/metabolismo
9.
Exp Parasitol ; 204: 107720, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279929

RESUMO

Parasite life history can be affected by conditions of the host and of the external environment. Rapamycin, a known immunosuppressant of mammals, was fed to laboratory mice that were then infected with the Trichostrongylid nematode Heligmosomoides bakeri to determine if host rapamycin exposure would affect parasite survival, growth, and reproduction. In addition, adult worms from control fed mice were directly exposed to rapamycin to assess if rapamycin would affect worm viability and ex vivo reproduction. We found that host ingestion of rapamycin did not affect H. bakeri survival or growth for male or female worms, but female worms had increased reproduction both in vivo and when removed from the host and cultured ex vivo. After direct rapamycin exposure, motility of female worms was greater at low levels of rapamycin compared to high levels of rapamycin or high levels of DMSO (the vehicle used to solubilize rapamycin) in control media, but was similar to females in low levels of DMSO in control media. Male motility was not affected by the presence of rapamycin or DMSO in the media. Ex vivo egg deposition was higher when exposed to rapamycin than when cultured in control media that contained DMSO, regardless of DMSO dose. Overall, we conclude that host ingestion of rapamycin or direct exposure to rapamycin was generally favorable or neutral for parasite life history traits.


Assuntos
Heligmosomatoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Dimetil Sulfóxido/administração & dosagem , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Feminino , Heligmosomatoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Heligmosomatoidea/fisiologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Intestino Delgado/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Sexuais , Razão de Masculinidade , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico
10.
Ecotoxicology ; 28(6): 612-618, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154538

RESUMO

Wastewater effluents are teeming with organisms, nutrients and chemical substances which water treatment processes fail to remove. Among these substances, pharmaceuticals such as antidepressants are a frequent occurrence, and have been reported to lead to severe effects in the physiology and behaviour of non-target marine species across taxa. Venlafaxine (VFX) is one of the most consistently prescribed substances for the treatment of human depressive disorders, acting as a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. In the present study, the potential effects of this antidepressant on the survival and key behaviours (i.e. movement, aggression and foraging) of white seabream (Diplodus sargus) larvae were addressed. Larvae were submitted to an acute exposure of two different VFX treatments (low concentration, 10 µg L-1; and high concentration, 100 µg L-1) for a total of 48 h. Sampling took place after 24 and 48 h of exposure. Overall, results showed a significant effect of a two-day exposure to VFX in larvae of D. sargus. Survival was significantly reduced by exposure to a high concentration, but behavioural effects of antidepressant exposure were subtle: i.e. increased attack frequency and temporary modulation of capture success. Further research efforts should be directed towards evaluating the potential chronic effects of antidepressants in marine species, if we are to anticipate possible pressures on natural populations, and effectively advice policymakers towards the investment in new and more efficient methods of wastewater treatments.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Dourada/fisiologia , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória
11.
Br J Anaesth ; 122(6): e127-e135, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104756

RESUMO

The drug-induced, reversible coma of anaesthesia requires three clinical outcomes: unconsciousness, immobility, and the control of autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to surgical stimulation. Producing the anaesthetised state with a single anaesthetic agent, such as an inhaled vapour or propofol, is challenging, primarily because suppressing ANS responses requires very high anaesthetic concentrations, resulting in haemodynamic depression and prolonged recovery. The antinociceptive effects of opioids (i.e. minimum alveolar concentration reduction) are thus central to the well-entrenched 'balanced anaesthesia' concept. In recent years, the notion of 'multimodal general anaesthesia' has extended the concept of balanced anaesthesia to include more drugs that target different neuroanatomical circuits and multiple neurophysiologic mechanisms. The opioid epidemic has provided some of the motivation to move away from opioids toward other adjunct drugs. Persistent opioid use after surgery is a component of the opioid epidemic and is a major concern for perioperative physicians. Potential solutions to the problem of persistent opioid use after surgery have focused on proper 'opioid stewardship' after operation, wherein opioids are used conservatively in combination with other analgesic adjuncts, and excessive opioid prescribing for home use is avoided. But there is a paucity of data on how intraoperative opioid usage patterns may be contributing to persistent opioid use after surgery. There are cogent reasons to moderate perioperative opioid use, including intraoperative opioids, but whether these changes in practice integral to the multimodal general anaesthesia concept will improve anaesthesia outcomes, including persistent opioid use after surgery, is unknown. Studies investigating these issues are an important research priority.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Inconsciência/induzido quimicamente
12.
Acta Biomed ; 90(2): 248-250, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125003

RESUMO

In hospitals without stroke unit Department, the patients with acute ischemic stroke are stabilized in First Aid and sent to the Department of Internal Medicine. During the hospedalization period the patients undergo medical therapy for the stabilization of hemodynamic parameters and instrumental examinations for the determination of cardiovascular risk and thromboembolic evaluation. All patients are subjected to multidimensional evaluation of cognitive, praxis capacities, spatial-temporal orientation, quality of life and adherence to medical therapy. The aim of this study is evaluate the effect of Rotigotine patch on the impairment of neuro-cognitive capacity throught a continuous dopaminergic stimulation with transdermal administration. We have  observed 19 patients (10 male and 9 female with range age 75-92 yrs) with Acute Ischemic Stroke stabilized in First Aid Depatment. The outcomes were the neurological changes from the baseline to 7 days in the clinical summury score on MMSE (on a scale from 0 to 30, with higher scores indicating fewer symtoms and lower physical limitations), Morinsky scale (on scale from 0 to 8, indicating adherence to therapy) and swallowing test (acts/minute). During the first week the patients were undergone to treatment with rotigotine 2 mg/24 hours. At the end of  the treatment we obtained a statistically significant correlation about improvement of MMSE, Morinsky scale and swallowing test from a basal value. Rotigotine transdermal patches could be a new useful approach in the treatment of elderly hospetalized patients with acute ischaemic stroke correlated with cognitive impairment. Data shown that low dose of rotigotine patch could improves cognitive and praxis functions  and therefore the quality of life of the hospitalized elderly patients. Rotigotine was effective and well-tolerated when used in routine clinical practice. Our data gave comfortable results but further evaluation are needed to have conclusive results.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/tratamento farmacológico , Segurança do Paciente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Tetra-Hidronaftalenos/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Administração Cutânea , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Agonistas de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco , Amostragem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Percepção do Tempo , Adesivo Transdérmico , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Brain Struct Funct ; 224(5): 1925-1932, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087183

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that infusion of a GABAA receptor antagonist, such as bicuculline (bic), into the ventral (pallidum VP) of rats elicits vigorous ingestion in sated subjects and abnormal pivoting movements. Here, we assessed if the ingestive effects generalize to the lateral preoptic area (LPO) and tested both effects for modulation by dopamine receptor signaling. Groups of rats received injections of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, haloperidol (hal), the D1 antagonist, SCH-23390 (SCH), or vehicle (veh) followed by infusions of bic or veh into the VP or LPO. Ingestion effects were not observed following LPO bic infusions. Compulsive ingestion associated with VP activation was attenuated by hal, but not SCH. VP bic-elicited pivoting was attenuated by neither hal, nor SCH.


Assuntos
Prosencéfalo Basal/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzazepinas/farmacologia , Receptores de Dopamina D1/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Dopamina D2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Prosencéfalo Basal/metabolismo , Bicuculina/farmacologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Dopamina D2/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/farmacologia , Masculino , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 683: 193-201, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129327

RESUMO

DMSO is a very common solvent for hydrophobic chemicals that may pose a threat to aquatic organisms. Ectoine (ECT) is a protective amino acid produced by various strains of halophilic bacteria with high potential to alleviate detrimental effects induced by environmental stressors. This amino acid is used in many cosmetics and pharmaceuticals may enter aquatic ecosystems interacting with ions and macromolecules. Little is known on the effects of DMSO and its interaction with ECT on behavioral, physiological and biochemical endpoints of aquatic invertebrates. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine protective effects of DMSO alone and in the combination with ECT on hopping frequency, swimming speed, heart rate, thoracic limb activity, catalase activity and NOx level in an animal model, Daphnia magna subjected to 0.1% and 1% DMSO alone and during combinatorial exposure to ECT (0-25 mg/L) and DMSO for 24 h and 48 h. The results showed that swimming speed, heart rate and thoracic limb activity were inhibited by both 0.1% and 1% DMSO alone however alleviating effects were observed in the combination DMSO + ECT. Thoracic limb activity was higher in the animals exposed to both solutions of DMSO alone, however the parameter was more stimulated at DMSO + ECT. The results suggest that DMSO alone may alter Daphnia behavior and physiological parameters, therefore use of the control group of non-treated animals with DMSO alone would be recommended to avoid data misinterpretation.


Assuntos
Diamino Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Dimetil Sulfóxido/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Daphnia/enzimologia , Daphnia/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Natação
15.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(9): 2667-2676, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941469

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has grown into a serious public health concern throughout the Western World. AAS use is associated with adverse medical, psychological, and social consequences. Around 30% of AAS users develop a dependence syndrome with sustained use despite adverse side effects. AAS dependence is associated with a high frequency of intra- and interpersonal problems, and it is central to identify factors related to the development and maintenance of dependence. METHODS: The present study investigated the ability to recognize emotion from biological motion. The emotional biological motion task was administered to male AAS dependent users (AAS dependents; n = 45), AAS non-dependent users (AAS non-dependents; n = 38) and a comparison-group of non-using weightlifters (non-users; n = 69). RESULTS: Multivariate analysis of variance showed a general impairment in emotion recognition in AAS dependents, compared to the non-using weightlifters, whereas no significant impairment was observed in AAS non-dependents. Furthermore, AAS dependents showed impaired recognition of fearful stimuli compared to both AAS non-dependents and non-using weightlifters. The between-group effect remained significant after controlling for Intelligence Quotient (IQ), past 6 months of non-AAS drug use, antisocial personality problems, anxiety, and depression. CONCLUSION: AAS dependents show impaired emotion recognition from body movement, fear in particular, which could potentially contribute to higher frequency of interpersonal problems and antisocial behaviors in this population.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/efeitos adversos , Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto , Anabolizantes/administração & dosagem , Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Transtornos de Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Congêneres da Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Congêneres da Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Exp Parasitol ; 200: 37-41, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928354

RESUMO

Toxocara spp. are responsible for causing toxocariasis, a zoonotic disease of global importance, which is difficult to treat as the available drugs have moderate efficacy in the clinical resolution of the disease. A promising alternative to the existing drugs is Propolis, which is known for having biological and pharmacological properties such as antiparasitic, antioxidant, and antitumor activities. In this study, we report the in vitro anthelmintic activity of essential oil from Brazilian Red Propolis (EOP) against larvae of Toxocara cati. Approximately 100 larvae per well were cultivated in microplates containing RPMI-1640 medium and incubated in the presence of EOP (18.75, 37.5, 75, 150, 300 and 600 µg/mL) to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and IC50 (concentration required to inhibit 50% of the population) values. Then, T. cati larvae treated with the MIC of EOP were inoculated in mice to evaluate their progression in vivo. A concentration of 600 µg/mL of EOP showed 100% larvicidal activity after exposure for 48 h, while 300 µg/mL represented the IC50 and CC50. The anthelmintic activity of EOP was confirmed by the inability of the treated T. cati larvae to infect the mice. Our findings demonstrate the potential of EOP as an anthelmintic.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Própole/química , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Helmínticos/toxicidade , Células CHO , Corantes , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Feminino , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Cinética , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Toxocara/fisiologia , Azul Tripano
17.
J R Soc Interface ; 16(150): 20180713, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958146

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) can influence plant signalling, physiology and development. We have previously observed that an argon plasma jet in atmospheric air can activate plant movements and morphing structures in the Venus flytrap and Mimosa pudica similar to stimulation of their mechanosensors in vivo. In this paper, we found that the Venus flytrap can be activated by plasma jets without direct contact of plasma with the lobe, midrib or cilia. The observed effects are attributed to RONS, which are generated by argon and helium plasma jets in atmospheric air. We also found that application of H2O2 or HNO3 aqueous solutions to the midrib induces propagation of action potentials and trap closing similar to plasma effects. Control experiments showed that UV light or neutral gas flow did not induce morphing or closing of the trap. The trap closing by plasma is thus likely to be associated with the production of hydrogen peroxide by the cold plasma jet in air. Understanding plasma control of plant morphing could help design adaptive structures and bioinspired intelligent materials.


Assuntos
Droseraceae/fisiologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Mecanotransdução Celular/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio/farmacologia
18.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213657, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870472

RESUMO

The main aim of the present study was to explore the value of several measures of handwriting in the study of motor abnormalities in patients with bipolar or psychotic disorders. 54 adult participants with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or bipolar disorder and 44 matched healthy controls, participated in the study. Participants were asked to copy a handwriting pattern consisting of four loops, with an inking pen on a digitizing tablet. We collected a number of classical, non-linear and geometrical measures of handwriting. The handwriting of patients was characterized by a significant decrease in velocity and acceleration and an increase in the length, disfluency and pressure with respect to controls. Concerning non-linear measures, we found significant differences between patients and controls in the Sample Entropy of velocity and pressure, Lempel-Ziv of velocity and pressure, and Higuchi Fractal Dimension of pressure. Finally, Lacunarity, a measure of geometrical heterogeneity, was significantly greater in handwriting patterns from patients than from controls. We did not find differences in any handwriting measure on function of the specific diagnosis or the antipsychotic dose. Results indicate that participants with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or bipolar disorder exhibit significant motor impairments and that these impairments can be readily quantified using measures of handwriting movements. Besides, they suggest that motor abnormalities are a core feature of several mental disorders and they seem to be unrelated to the pharmacological treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Escrita Manual , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Entropia , Feminino , Fractais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Environ Int ; 126: 699-706, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875563

RESUMO

Previous studies have indicated the means by which micro-sized plastic particles may affect the soil environment, and this could be linked to the behavior of plastics in the soil system and how these particles are influenced by biological responses. Soil-dwelling organisms play a key role in modifying the soil system by constructing bio-pores, and these structural changes are potentially related to the behavior of plastic particles. In this study, we found that micro-sized plastic particles moved into bio-pores within seconds, and that this influx disrupted the movement of springtails (Lobella sokamensis). The springtails moved to avoid becoming trapped, and this behavior created bio-pores in the soil system. The influx of plastic particles into these cavities subsequently immobilized the springtails within. This phenomenon was observed at low a concentration of plastic particles (8 mg/kg), and it likely occurs in actual soil environments. The findings of this study indicate that the behavior of plastic particles in the soil not only disrupts the movement of springtails but also has wider implications for effective management of soils.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Plásticos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Distribuição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Artrópodes/fisiologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Solo/química
20.
Neurosci Lett ; 703: 119-124, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885634

RESUMO

Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful stimulant drug of abuse, with potent addictive and neurotoxic properties. In this study, the effects of low-dose METH administration prior to high-dose METH administration on movement and neural activity in rats were examined. Rats were administered low-dose (1 mg/kg/day) METH or saline for 5 consecutive days (m5 and s5, respectively), followed by high-dose (10 mg/kg) METH on day 6 (m5M and s5M, respectively). An accelerometer was used to evaluate the frequency of movement when rats were placed in a cage for 30 min. The expression of c-fos, a neuronal activity marker, in the striatum was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Striatal protein expression of neuronal markers, including vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), and the glial marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), was analyzed by western blot. Accelerometer counts and the numbers of c-fos-positive cells in the striatum were significantly higher in the m5M than in the s5, m5, and s5M groups. The expression levels of VGLUT2 and GAD67, but not those of TH, TPH2, or GFAP, were significantly higher in the m5M than in the s5M group. These results suggest that pre-administration of low-dose METH prior to high-dose METH administration in rats may alter excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the striatum, thereby affecting movement and neural activity in rats.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanfetamina/administração & dosagem , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Corpo Estriado/citologia , Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Masculino , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Triptofano Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Proteína Vesicular 2 de Transporte de Glutamato/metabolismo
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