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1.
Water Res ; 171: 115395, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918386

RESUMO

Stormwater harvesting (SWH) provides multiple benefits to urban water management. Other than providing water for human use, it also reduces the volume of polluted stormwater discharge to the environment. There are currently no methods available to quantify the additional environmental benefits, which could encourage greater uptake of the practice. This paper investigates a number of factors (climate and catchment characteristics, pollutant reduction targets, etc.) that could impact upon the benefits of SWH for pollution reduction through sensitivity analyses. A method was developed and tested for quantification of the pollution mitigation benefits by SWH under different scenarios. A novel indicator, Impervious Area Offset (IAO), was proposed to reflect the additional impervious area that can be left untreated to achieve the equivalent pollution load reduction targets due to the introduction of SWH. Results indicate significant correlations (p < 0.01) between IAO values and extraction rate (proportion of total annual runoff removed due to the harvesting system and water use substitution), system type, and pollutant reduction targets. The proposed linear empirical relationships between IAO values and extraction rate for different types of system configurations and pollution reduction targets were well represented by observed linear regression (average R2 = 0.98 for all tested scenarios). Empirical relationships were validated successfully against different scenarios, with differences between predicted IAO and baseline IAO values being only ±4.5% for the majority of the validation scenarios. Using this simple and reliable method to rapidly quantify SWH benefits can further add to the growing business case of adopting SWH practices.


Assuntos
Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Chuva , Água
2.
Ground Water ; 58(1): 125-131, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037740

RESUMO

Locally collected precipitation water can be actively used as a groundwater tracer solution based on four inherent tracer signals: electrical conductivity, stable isotopic signatures of deuterium [δ2 H], oxygen-18 [δ18 O], and heat, which all may strongly differ from the corresponding background values in the tested groundwater. In hydrogeological practice, a tracer test is one of the most important methods for determining subsurface connections or field parameters, such as porosity, dispersivity, diffusion coefficient, groundwater flow velocity, or flow direction. A common problem is the choice of tracer and the corresponding permission by the appropriate authorities. This problem intensifies where tracer tests are conducted in vulnerable conservation or water protection areas (e.g., around drinking water wells). The use of (if required treated) precipitation as an elemental groundwater tracer is a practical solution for this problem, as it does not introduce foreign matters into the aquifer system, which may contribute positively to the permission delivery. Before tracer application, the natural variations of the participating end members' tracer signals have to be evaluated locally. To obtain a sufficient volume of tracer solution, precipitation can be collected as rain using a detached, large-scale rain collector, which will be independent from possibly existing surfaces like roofs or drained areas. The collected precipitation is then stored prior to a tracer experiment.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chuva , Água , Movimentos da Água
3.
Ground Water ; 58(1): 46-55, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891733

RESUMO

The absence of recent research on dispersion in engineering applications indicates the need for a description that is more focused on field and modeling practice. Engineers may benefit from simple calculation tools allowing them to understand the processes encountered in the field. Based on a conceptual model for advective transport through an elongated conductivity zone, for example, in fluvial sediments, explicit expressions are presented for macro-scale phenomena: (1) the different travel distances of water particles traveling in laminar flow through and adjacent to a single zone with conductivity higher or lower than that of the aquifer; (2) the affected thickness of the bundle of flowlines; (3) the distinction of inflow, outflow, and through-flow sections; (4) the development of a plume front vs. that of a tail; (5) conservation of mass causing water particles to travel both slower and faster than the aquifer average velocity while passing a single zone. The spread derived from a spatial distribution in a field experiment relates to the geometric mean of the spreads of the plume front and tail. The results obtained for a single conductivity zone are expanded for a general aquifer that is characterized by stochastic parameters. A fundamental new expression describes the dispersive mass flux as the product of the advective volume shift and the related local concentration difference. Contrary to Fickian theory, the dispersive mass flux in both the front and tail of a plume in highly heterogeneous aquifers is limited. In modeling, the advective volume shift is proportional to the cell size.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Movimentos da Água , Modelos Teóricos
4.
Ground Water ; 58(1): 35-45, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891740

RESUMO

Widely used numerical models of solute transport processes in subsurface aquifers are limited to nonlocally refined rectangular, or logically rectangular, structured grids. This presents an unsuitable option to efficient numerical simulations maintaining an acceptable level of accuracy. Optimal selection of locally refined cells for efficient solute transport models is challenging to the current generation of numerical models. We present a novel and relatively simple to implement algorithm addressing these shortcomings. This method operates in four steps involving travel times simulations, a grid coarsening stage followed by a selective local grid refinement based on a cell-wise indicator, and a final postprocessing step. The refinement index is the sum of weighted logarithmic distributions of scaled forward and backward travel times. We calculate representative flow and transport properties at the two scales of the composite grid with a flow-based upscaling technique. We present two test problems to demonstrate the performances of this new gridding algorithm. We obtain the most important speedups for composite grids generated with the highest indicator thresholds. When hydrodynamic dispersion effects increase, we obtain less important speedups. An important outcome of this work is that grid design depends on nature and strength of the underlying flow and solute transport processes. Therefore, we suggest developing solute transport workflows integrating this grid generation algorithm as an integral component to build comprehensive and efficient groundwater models.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Movimentos da Água , Hidrodinâmica , Modelos Teóricos , Soluções
5.
Ground Water ; 58(1): 9-18, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705655

RESUMO

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a valuable tool for managing variations in the supply and demand of freshwater, but system performance is highly dependent upon system-specific hydrogeological conditions including the salinity of the storage-zone native groundwater. ASR systems using storage zones containing saline (>10,000 mg/L of total dissolved solids) groundwater tend to have relatively low recovery efficiencies (REs). However, the drawbacks of low REs may be offset by lesser treatment requirements and may be of secondary importance where the stored water (e.g., excess reclaimed, surface, and storm waters) would otherwise go to waste and pose disposal costs. Density-dependent, solute-transport modeling results demonstrate that the RE of ASR systems using a saline storage zone is most strongly controlled by parameters controlling free convection (e.g., horizontal hydraulic conductivity) and mixing of recharged and native groundwater (e.g., dispersivity and aquifer heterogeneity). Preferred storage zone conditions are moderate hydraulic conductivities (5 to 20 m/d), low degrees of aquifer heterogeneity, and primary porosity-dominated siliclastic and limestones lithologies with effective porosities greater than 5%. Where hydrogeological conditions are less favorable, operational options are available to improve RE, such as preferential recovery from the top of the storage zone. Injection of large volumes of excess water currently not needed into saline aquifers could create valuable water resources that could be tapped in the future during times of greater need.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Água Doce , Salinidade , Movimentos da Água , Abastecimento de Água
6.
Ground Water ; 58(1): 93-109, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906991

RESUMO

Hyporheic exchange is the interaction of river water and groundwater, and is difficult to predict. One of the largest contributions to predictive uncertainty for hyporheic exchange has been attributed to the representation of heterogeneous subsurface properties. Our study evaluates the trade-offs between intrinsic (irreducible) and epistemic (reducible) model errors when choosing between homogeneous and highly complex subsurface parameter structures. We modeled the Steinlach River Test Site in Southwest Germany using a fully coupled surface water-groundwater model to simulate hyporheic exchange and to assess the predictive errors and uncertainties of transit time distributions. A highly parameterized model was built, treated as a "virtual reality" and used as a reference. We found that if the parameter structure is too simple, it will be limited by intrinsic model errors. By increasing subsurface complexity through the addition of zones or heterogeneity, we can begin to exchange intrinsic for epistemic errors. Thus, the appropriate level of detail to represent the subsurface depends on the acceptable range of intrinsic structural errors for the given modeling objectives and the available site data. We found that a zonated model is capable of reproducing the transit time distributions of a more detailed model, but only if the geological structures are known. An interpolated heterogeneous parameter field (cf. pilot points) showed the best trade-offs between the two errors, indicating fitness for practical applications. Parameter fields generated by multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) produce transit time distributions with the largest uncertainties, however, these are reducible by additional hydrogeological data, particularly flux measurements.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Rios , Água Doce , Alemanha , Movimentos da Água
7.
Ground Water ; 58(1): 119-124, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025321

RESUMO

Vertical wells with radial extension at the well bottom can improve the rate of water production. No study has yet investigated the effects of the transient state and anisotropy in directional hydraulic conductivities on the wellbore flux rate for this type of well. This study derives a semianalytical transient drawdown solution for constant-head pumping at a fully penetrating well radially extended at the bottom of a confined, anisotropic aquifer by applying Laplace transform and separation of variables as well as conducting a Fourier analysis. The results of this new solution indicate that transient and steady-state wellbore flux rates can be increased by a factor of two for greater radial extension of the well. Compared with an isotropic aquifer (a ratio of vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivities equal to one), an anisotropic aquifer with the ratio less than one may produce a higher transient wellbore flux rate and lower steady-state wellbore flux rate. Moreover, the time required to achieve the steady-state wellbore flux rate can be substantially affected by anisotropy of the aquifer.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Anisotropia , Modelos Teóricos , Movimentos da Água , Poços de Água
8.
Ground Water ; 58(1): 56-69, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001811

RESUMO

Contaminated groundwater in fractured bedrock can expose ecosystems to undesired levels of risk for extended periods due to prolonged back-diffusion from rock matrix to permeable fractures. Therefore, it is key to characterize the diffusive mass loading (intrusion) of contaminants into the rock matrix for successful management of contaminated bedrock sites. Even the most detailed site characterization techniques often fail to delineate contamination in rock matrix. This study presents a set of analytical solutions to estimate diffusive mass intrusion into matrix blocks, it is recovered by pumping and concentration rebound when pumping ceases. The analytical models were validated by comparing the results with (1) numerical model results using the same model parameters and (2) observed chloride mass recovery, rebound concentration, and concentration in pumped groundwater at a highly fractured bedrock site in Alberta, Canada. It is also demonstrated that the analytical solutions can be used to estimate the total mass stored in the fractured bedrock prior to any remediation thereby providing insights into site contamination history. The predictive results of the analytical models clearly show that successful remediation by pumping depends largely on diffusive intrusion period. The results of initial mass from the analytical model was used to successfully calibrate a three-dimensional discrete fracture network numerical model further highlighting the utility of the simple analytical solutions in supplementing the more detailed site numerical modeling. Overall, the study shows the utility of simple analytical methods to support long-term management of a contaminated fractured bedrock site including site investigations and complex numerical modeling.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Alberta , Difusão , Ecossistema , Modelos Teóricos , Movimentos da Água
9.
Ground Water ; 58(1): 19-26, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001822

RESUMO

A new semi-analytical algorithm for generating the local groundwater velocity field within irregular three-dimensional grid cells (such as a Voronoi cell) is presented. The method supports particle tracking in the MODFLOW-USG software package for a variety of supported unstructured grid formats. It is shown to replicate the results from the fully analytical Pollock's method when used on a rectilinear grid, and is demonstrated for difficult test cases where there is high spatial variability in the flow field within individual cells. The method is now available as an option in the mod-PATH3DU software package and may be used with most MODFLOW-USG packages without additional intervention.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Movimentos da Água , Algoritmos , Modelos Teóricos
10.
Water Environ Res ; 92(1): 106-114, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344757

RESUMO

This study determines the exfiltration rates in six tree boxes with embedded sensors and analyzes their hydrologic performance for 2 years to quantify the effect of different parameters (i.e., water depth, temperature, and age) on the exfiltration rate. Each tree box is 1.5 m wide, 1.5 m long, and 1.8 m deep. A 46-cm-diameter shaft was drilled at the bottom of each tree box to reach the underlying permeable soil layer. The water level inside the shaft rose up to 500 cm. Exfiltration rate increased with water level and exfiltration rate in second year decreased significantly by 27%-37% compared with first year. Overall, in the second year, the decrease in geometric mean exfiltration rate was largest for moderate depths of the standing water inside the shaft, ranging between 100 and 130 cm from the bottom of the shaft. The exfiltration rate of the tree boxes was significantly larger for warmer season and significantly smaller for cooler season. The infiltration rate of the underlying soil is a controlling factor of the performance of tree box. PRACTITIONER POINTS: The study determines the exfiltration rates in six tree boxes and analyzes their performance over time. Exfiltration rate in second year decreased significantly by 27%-37% compared to first year. The exfiltration rate of the tree boxes was larger for warmer rain events and smaller for cooler rain events. Tree boxes with lower permeable underlying soil developed higher water level in the shaft.


Assuntos
Árvores , Movimentos da Água , Hidrologia , Chuva , Solo
11.
Water Environ Res ; 92(1): 5-10, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350936

RESUMO

The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago adopted the Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP) to reduce combined sewer overflow (CSO) events in the Chicago region. The Thornton Composite Reservoir (TCR) became operational in 2015 providing an additional 30 million m3 of CSO-impacted stormwater capacity. In the United States, no other mega reservoirs are in operation to provide as a reference to study the long-term impacts of biosolids operations in water resource recovery facilities. The mean daily volume pumped from the Calumet TARP system to the Calumet Plant increased 144-238 m3 from 2012-2014 to 273-360 m3 from 2016-2018. Overall annual digester feed solids for the 2016-2018 post-TCR period were 28,182 Mg, which was 11 percent less than the mean for the 2012-2014 period of 31,745 Mg. Annual digester draw solids for the 2016-2018 post-TCR period were 19,422 Mg, which were 4 percent less than the 2012-2014 pre-TCR period mean of 20,190 Mg. This paper demonstrated a decrease in digester feed loading to the Calumet Plant and, ultimately, a decrease in digester draw solids with an overall increase in plant and TARP flow in the years following operation of the TCR for the capture and treatment of CSO-impacted stormwater. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Reservoirs capturing combined sewer overflow-impacted stormwater improve water quality of local waterways. Mega reservoirs may impact solids loading to water resource recovery facilities. Hydraulic loading to water resource recovery facilities may be substantial with mega reservoirs.


Assuntos
Movimentos da Água , Esgotos , Água , Poluição da Água , Qualidade da Água
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134302, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522046

RESUMO

Quantifying the catchment water balance and the characterization of its water quality changes are effective tools for establishing the response of catchments to shifting land management practices. Here we assess long-term hydrological partitioning and stream water chemistry over a 30-year period in a rural mixed land use catchment in northern Germany undergoing riparian wetlands and widespread re-colonization by beavers (Castor fiber) along the river network. We used long-term spatially distributed stream discharge, groundwater levels and surface water quality data with a simple monthly water balance model, changes in the variability in discharge measurements, and statistical analysis of spatio-temporal changes in stream water quality to assess long-term changes. Water balance estimates indicated high proportions of evapotranspiration loss (~90% of total precipitation) and relatively low groundwater recharge (<5% of total precipitation) prior to riparian rehabilitation in 2000. Increasing groundwater levels from 2000 to 2017 and the relatively linear nature of the catchment storage - discharge relationship, indicate a gradual increase in groundwater recharge (buts still <10% of total precipitation). Wetland rehabilitation, greatly enhanced by increasing beaver populations, resulted in longer water transit times in the stream network, less linear storage-discharge relationship and a loss of daily stream variability, increased DOC concentrations, isotopic evaporative enrichment downstream, and moderated stream temperatures. There was limited long-term water quality improvements from wetland rehabilitation on either nitrate or total phosphorus concentrations, with unchanged seasonal summer and winter peak concentrations for phosphorus and nitrate, respectively. This likely reflects the long-term legacy of fertilizer use on nutrient reservoirs in the catchment's soils, aquifers, and stream network. These long-term changes in hydrology and stream chemistry resulting from riparian rehabilitation and changes in agricultural management practices provide invaluable insights into catchment functioning and an evidence base for future planning in relation to long-term climatic changes.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Roedores , Áreas Alagadas , Agricultura , Animais , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Alemanha , Água Subterrânea , Hidrologia , Nitratos , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Rios , Solo , Água , Movimentos da Água , Qualidade da Água
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134387, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670213

RESUMO

Riverbank filtration is a natural process that may ensure the cleaning of surface water for producing drinking water. For silver nanoparticles (AgNP), physico-chemical interaction with sediment surfaces is one major retention mechanism. However, the effect of flow velocity and the importance of biological retention, such as AgNP attachment to biomass, are not well understood, yet. We investigated AgNP (c = 0.6 mg L-1) transport at different spatial and temporal scales in pristine and previously pond water-aged sediment columns. Transport of AgNP under near-natural conditions was studied in a long-term riverbank filtration experiment over the course of one month with changing flow scenarios (i.e. transport at 0.7 m d-1, stagnation, and remobilization at 1.7 m d-1). To elucidate retention processes, we conducted small-scale lab column experiments at low (0.2 m d-1) and high (0.7 m d-1) flow rate using pristine and aged sediments. Overall, AgNP accumulated in the upper centimeters of the sediment both in lab and outdoor experiments. In the lab study, retention of AgNP by attachment to biological components was very effective under high and low flow rate with nearly complete NP accumulation in the upper 2 mm. When organic material was absent, abiotic filtration mechanisms led to NP retention in the upper 5 to 7 cm of the column. In the long-term study, AgNP were transported up to a depth of 25 cm. For the pristine sediment in the lab study and the outdoor experiments only erratic particle breakthrough was detected in a depth of 15 cm. We conclude that physico-chemical interactions of AgNP with sediment surfaces are efficient in retaining AgNP. The presence of organic material provides additional retention sites which increase the filtration capacity of the system. Nevertheless, erratic breakthrough events might transport NP into deeper sediment layers.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/análise , Prata/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Filtração , Rios , Movimentos da Água
14.
J Environ Manage ; 253: 109719, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666214

RESUMO

This study sought to evaluate the cumulative effect of the implementation of green space depressions to promote disconnection of impervious areas within residential lots on runoff generation and temporal patterns in a small urban area characterized by high imperviousness. Three hypothetical scenarios were proposed with variations in the disconnection rate (α) within the lot, the soil infiltration conditions, and the rainfall patterns. Simulations were performed using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) with the implementation of a high spatial resolution model which allowed the explicit representation of the routing runoff between distinct surfaces. The results revealed a linear relationship trend between the total amount of rainfall (P) and total runoff (q), with identification of a possible precipitation threshold above the point at which a more critical condition of runoff generation is established. The value of this threshold was shown to be dependent on the degree of efficiency of the receptor permeable areas, which is associated with the disconnection rate and infiltrability of the soil. The results also showed that for a very high disconnection rate and lower infiltrability, runoff can increase substantially, with significant changes in the hydrographs simulated for longer storm events.


Assuntos
Chuva , Movimentos da Água , Solo , Água
15.
Water Res ; 171: 115372, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865130

RESUMO

It is well known that rainwater harvesting (RWH) can augment water supply and reduce stormwater pollutant discharges. Due to the lack of continuous 2D modelling of urban flood coverage and its associated damage, the ability of RWH to reduce urban flood risks has not been fully evaluated. Literature suggests that small distributed storage spaces using RWH tanks will reduce flood damage only during small to medium flooding events and therefore cumulative assessment of their benefits is needed. In this study we developed a new integrated modelling framework that implements a semi-continuous simulation approach to investigate flood prevention and water supply benefits of RWH tanks. The framework includes a continuous mass balance simulation model that considers antecedent rainfall conditions and water demand/usage of tanks and predicts the available storage prior to each storm event. To do so, this model couples a rainfall-runoff tank storage model with a detailed stochastic end-use water demand model. The available storage capacity of tanks is then used as a boundary condition for the novel rapid flood simulation model. This flood model was developed by coupling the U.S. EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to the Cellular-Automata Fast Flood Evaluation (CA-ffé) model to predict the inundation depth caused by surcharges over the capacity of the drainage network. The stage-depth damage curves method was used to calculate time series of flood damage, which are then directly used for flood risk and cost-benefit analysis. The model was tested through a case study in Melbourne, using a recorded rainfall time series of 85 years (after validating the flood model against 1D-2D MIKE-FLOOD). Results showed that extensive implementation of RWH tanks in the study area is economically feasible and can reduce expected annual damage in the catchment by up to approximately 30 percent. Availability of storage space and temporal distribution of rainfall within an event were important factors affecting tank performance for flood reduction.


Assuntos
Inundações , Chuva , Cidades , Água , Movimentos da Água , Abastecimento de Água
16.
J Environ Manage ; 257: 109988, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868644

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) loss from intensive dairy farms is a pressure on water quality in agricultural catchments. At farm scale, P sources can enter in-field drains and open ditches, resulting in transfer along ditch networks and delivery into nearby streams. Open ditches could be a potential location for P mitigation if the right location was identified, depending on P sources entering the ditch and the source-sink dynamics at the sediment-water interface. The objective of this study was to identify the right location along a ditch to mitigate P losses on an intensive dairy farm. High spatial resolution grab samples for water quality, along with sediment and bankside samples, were collected along an open ditch network to characterise the P dynamics within the ditch. Phosphorus inputs to the ditch adversely affected water quality, and a step change in P concentrations (increase in mean dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) from 0.054 to 0.228 mg L-1) midway along the section of the ditch sampled, signalled the influence of a point source entering the ditch. Phosphorus inputs altered sediment P sorption properties as P accumulated along the length of the ditch. Accumulation of bankside and sediment labile extractable P, Mehlich 3 P (M3P) (from 13 to 97 mg kg-1) resulted in a decrease in P binding energies (k) to < 1 L mg-1 at downstream points and raised the equilibrium P concentrations (EPC0) from 0.07 to 4.61 mg L-1 along the ditch. The increase in EPC0 was in line with increasing dissolved and total P in water, demonstrating the role of sediment downstream in this ditch as a secondary source of P to water. Implementation of intervention measures are needed to both mitigate P loss and remediate sediment to restore the sink properties. In-ditch measures need to account for a physicochemical lag time before improvements in water quality will be observed.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Fósforo , Água , Movimentos da Água
17.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124674, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524614

RESUMO

Groundwater discharge from a water spring located along the southwest bank of Yangzonghai Lake, the largest deep plateau-lake with arsenic contamination in a typical karst landform, maybe a potential and on-going source of pollution, but seepage flux has not been investigated. This study applied temperature models to locate sites of groundwater discharge and quantify the magnitude and direction of seepage flux. The contaminant levels and spatial distributions, seasonal seepage flux distributions and the conductivity were investigated. The arsenic concentration of the water spring was 1481.9 µg L-1, and as the distance from the water spring increased, the arsenic concentration in the overlying water, pore-water and surface sediments decreased. Herein, the temperature models of McCallum and Bredehoeft were applied to estimate the lakebed vertical seepage flux in groundwater-surface water exchange systems during a period of 30-day in summer and winter. An upward flow of groundwater discharge was observed near the water spring, with the value of some sites over 10 cm day-1, and a downward flow was observed with increasing distance from the water spring in summer. Additionally, a slight upward flow was observed in winter. The arsenic levels, spatial distributions and the conductivity in monitoring sites were closely related to the seepage flux. The application provided a scientific basis for the prediction of groundwater-surface water exchange in deep plateau-lake and was a further development in temperature models.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Movimentos da Água , Arsênico/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos/química , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124987, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726603

RESUMO

The transport behavior of arsenic (As(V)) loaded by ferric humate (HA-Fe) colloid, denoted as HA-Fe/As(V), moving in a saturated quartz sand column, was tested in the laboratory under varying pH values, ionic strengths, and HA and Fe(III) content. The time-fractional advection-dispersion equation (fADE) model was then employed to analyze the observed migration of HA-Fe/As(V). Results showed that the stability of the HA-Fe colloid exhibited an upward trend with an increasing pH and HA content. An increasing HA content led to a decrease in the particle size of the HA-Fe colloid. However, the effect of Fe(III) concentration on colloidal particle size exhibited the opposite phenomenon. The ability of the HA-Fe colloid to load As(V) gradually increased with the increase of the Fe(III) concentration. During the co-transport of the HA-Fe/As(V) colloid, transport of As(V) was promoted with increasing pH, increasing HA and Fe(III) content, and decreasing ionic strength in the saturated porous medium. The transport behavior of As(V) can be well fitted by the fADE model. The model analysis revealed that sub-diffusion of As(V) was weakened in the HA-Fe/As(V) colloid with high HA content. Sub-diffusion of As(V) in the low pH colloid was stronger than that of the high-pH colloid, and the molecular diffusion and mechanical dispersion were more weakened in the high-pH colloid than that of the low-pH colloid. When observing varying ionic strengths, As(V) exhibited stronger sub-diffusion in the HA-Fe/As(V) colloid with a higher ionic strength. As for the Fe(III) content, transport of As(V) was mainly affected by sub-diffusion in the HA-Fe/As(V) colloid with a low Fe(III) content. These findings provided direct and necessary insights into the effects of the HA-Fe colloid on the migration of As(V) throughout saturated porous media under different hydrochemical conditions found in natural environments.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Coloides/química , Substâncias Húmicas , Difusão , Compostos Férricos/química , Concentração Osmolar , Tamanho da Partícula , Porosidade , Quartzo , Movimentos da Água
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 3, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797152

RESUMO

In this study, new analytical solutions were developed for 2D and 3D steady-state water seepage through dams with nonsymmetric boundary conditions. The nonsymmetric boundary conditions for the 2D cases were created with different unit step functions on a part and/or parts of the right boundary of dam plane. Six cases were investigated in 2D, where a constant hydraulic head is applied at the left boundary of the dam plane and rectangular, ramp, triangular, trapezoidal, tunnel, and piecewise rectangular distributions of hydraulic head are applied at the right boundary of the dam plane. Then, a 3D case with a constant hydraulic head at the upstream and a linearly distributed hydraulic head at the downstream of the dam was investigated. Subsequently, the performance of proposed analytical solutions was examined by comparison with numerical finite difference modeling. The results demonstrate reasonable accuracy of the developed equations. The developed analytical solutions can be utilized as a benchmark to verify numerical models with similar boundary conditions.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Movimentos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Subterrânea , Fenômenos Físicos
20.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(6): 449-457, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833315

RESUMO

The Sanriku-ria coast of Japan, a homing area for chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, is characterized by a large number of small closed bays into which one or multiple short rivers flow. The present behavioral investigation of chum salmon in this region was designed to gain deeper insight into the migration of chum salmon to their natal rivers. Eighty-three fish caught at the middle part of Otsuchi Bay were tracked using an acoustic transmitter in the narrow inlet into which flow three rivers: the Otsuchi, Koduchi, and Unosumai. The majority of 18 fish that entered the Unosumai River, which flows into the southwest side of the bay, directly approached the river along the southern coast. More than half of fish that entered the Otsuchi and Koduchi Rivers, which flow into the northwest side, also migrated into the inner bay via the southerly route, and then entered these rivers frequently after passing the mouth of the Unosumai River. In the inner bay, the salinity of sea surface water suggested that water from the three rivers circulates in a counterclockwise direction at a depth of less than 1.0 m, flowing eastwardly along the southern coast. The observed migratory paths of homing salmon in Otsuchi Bay thus correspond well with the counterflow of surface river water in the bay. The present results suggest that homing migration of salmon in the Sanriku narrow inlet is guided by natal river flows.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Oncorhynchus keta/fisiologia , Sistemas de Identificação Animal , Animais , Japão , Rios , Salinidade , Movimentos da Água
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