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1.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 201: 111633, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726378

RESUMO

In the present study, we assessed the oral mucosal irritation potential of antimicrobial chemotherapy involving hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) photolysis with a 405-nm laser device at an output power of ≥100 mW in hamsters. Twenty-four cheek pouches from 12 male Syrian hamsters received 7-min treatment with pure water (PW), 3% H2O2, laser irradiation of PW at 100 mW, laser irradiation of 3% H2O2 at 100 mW, laser irradiation of PW at 200 mW, or laser irradiation of 3% H2O2 at 200 mW (n = 4 each). The diameter of the irradiation area was set at 3 mm; accordingly, the calculated irradiances (optical power densities) of the 100- and 200-mW laser lights were approximately 1400 and 2800 mW/cm2, respectively. In addition, 12 cheek pouches from six animals received laser irradiation of 3% H2O2 at 100 mW for 1, 3, or 5 min (n = 4 each). Each treatment was repeated three times at 1-h intervals. Macroscopic and histological changes were evaluated 24 h after the last treatment. In addition, in vitro bactericidal activity of the treatment against periodontal pathogens was evaluated. We found that 405-nm laser irradiation of 3% H2O2 caused moderate to severe oral mucosal irritation when performed at powers of 100 and 200 mW for ≥3 min, while the same treatment performed at 100 mW for 1 min resulted in mild irritation. Moreover, 1-min H2O2 photolysis at 100 mW caused a >4-log decrease in viable bacterial counts. These findings suggest that 1-min H2O2 photolysis, which can effectively kill periodontal pathogens, may be acceptable when a 405-nm laser device is used at 100 mW. However, use of the laser at a lower power would be preferable for the prevention of unnecessary oral mucosal irritation.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Lasers , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Cricetinae , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Masculino , Camundongos , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos da radiação , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Fotólise/efeitos da radiação , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 16(9): 835-840, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393179

RESUMO

Background: Patients with multiple sclerosis spasticity (MSS) and upper limb/hand impairment who are taking 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol (THC:CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex®) may have difficulty self-administering their medication, possibly limiting adherence and treatment effectiveness. A Class I EU device is available to support the administration of THC:CBD spray. Pre-production testing was undertaken in a patient sample. Methods: Current users of THC:CBD spray were recruited to review the instruction leaflet and test the device. Patients and observing health-care professionals (HCP) completed a purpose-designed questionnaire which captured user experience and HCP opinion. Results: Fifteen patients participated. Mean treatment time with THC:CBD spray was 4 (range: 0.1-6.1) years. 87% of participants 'always', 'often' or 'sometimes' had hand impairment, and 53% reported difficulty administering THC:CBD spray. Participants reported better application using the device (73%), with less strength required (54%). Most participants (93%) considered the instruction leaflet to be clear and many (66%) expressed interest in using the device. Most HCPs (93%) did not foresee any difficulties in use of the device. Conclusion: The proposed adherence device was useful to address self-application difficulties with THC:CBD spray in our sample. Providing the device to MSS patients with upper limb/hand spasticity impairment may restore autonomy and support adherence to THC:CBD spray.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/administração & dosagem , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Dronabinol/administração & dosagem , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Espasticidade Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Sprays Orais , Adulto , Idoso , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 20-26, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465813

RESUMO

Health-care personnel handling antineoplastic drugs could be at risk for adverse health effects. We aimed to evaluate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of antineoplastic drug exposure of personnel preparing and administering such drugs in three Oncology Hospitals in Italy enrolling 42 exposed subjects and 53 controls. Furthermore, we aimed to study the possible influence of XRCC1 and hOGG1 DNA repair genes polymorphisms on genotoxicity induced on buccal cells. We performed workplace and personal monitoring of some drugs and used exposure diary informations to characterize the exposure. Urinary 5-FU metabolite (α-fluoro-ß-alanine) was measured. Buccal Micronucleus Cytome (BMCyt) assay was used to evaluate DNA damage and other cellular anomalies. GEM and 5-FU contamination was found in 68% and 42% of wipe/swab samples respectively. GEM deposition was found on workers' pads while no α-fluoro-ß-alanine was found. BMCyt-assay showed higher genotoxicity and cytotoxicity on nurses administering antineoplastics than on preparators and controls. Among micronucleus (MN) positive (with MN frequency higher than 1.5‰) exposed subjects, the percentage of those carrying XRCC1 mut/het genotype was higher than in MN positive-controls. Using the sensitive BMCyt assay, we demonstrated that handling antineoplastics still represents a potential occupational health risk for workers that should be better trained/informed regarding such risks.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Testes para Micronúcleos , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Enfermagem Oncológica , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/urina , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/urina , Feminino , Fluoruracila/urina , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Polimorfismo Genético , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Urinálise , Proteína 1 Complementadora Cruzada de Reparo de Raio-X/genética
4.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(6): 870-879, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340319

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the prevalence of medical and nonmedical use of psychiatric medication among undergraduate students of health sciences from a public university in Brasil. Another objective was to determine the frequency of nuclear morphological abnormalities in the buccal mucosa of students using psychiatric drugs. A cross-sectional study based on a Web survey was carried out with 375 health sciences undergraduate students from schools of Pharmacy, Physical Education, Nutrition, and Medicine. Additionally, spontaneous genetic damages in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa of 41 individuals by counting micronucleus (MN) and binucleated (BN) cells frequencies were evaluated. The results showed 76 (20.3%) of students reported the use of psychotropic drugs after enrolling in university. The majority of these students were from Pharmacy and Medicine programs, females, aged between 18-25 years old, nonsmokers, alcohol addicts, and with a family history of mental illness. In addition, Medical students, individuals with high-income, who live alone and are in the last period of the program are more likely to use psychotropic drugs. Moreover, exposure to psychiatric medication was able to increase the number of binucleated cells. These results provide evidence that the use of psychoactive drugs is increased in the academic context and may be related to the failure of the cell cycle.


Assuntos
Uso Indevido de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19676-19683, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079294

RESUMO

Since many different pesticides have been used occupationally, there have been inconsistent results regarding DNA damages among greenhouse workers. Thus, the aim of the study is to evaluate DNA damages, cell death, and chromosomal instability by using the buccal micronucleus cytome (BMcyt) assay in greenhouse workers and to compare those with a non-exposed group. The BMcyt assay was applied to the exfoliated buccal cell samples collected from 66 pesticide-exposed and 50 non-exposed individuals. We evaluated the frequency of micronucleus (MN), nuclear bud (NBUD), binucleated (BN) cells, and karyolitic (KL), pyknotic (PY), and karyorrhectic (KH) cells. The results showed that the MN, BN, PY, and KH frequencies of the pesticide-exposed group were significantly higher than those of the controls (P Ë‚ 0.05, P Ë‚ 0.05, P Ë‚ 0.01, and P Ë‚ 0.05, respectively). We observed that the MN, BN, PY, and KH frequencies in the autumn were statistically different compared with those in the control group (P = 0.037 for MN, P = 0.001 for BN, P = 0.016 for PY, and P = 0.033 for KH). The same comparison was done in the spring for the control, and there was a statistically significant difference for MN (P = 0.046) and PY (P = 0.014). We can conclude that pesticide exposure in greenhouse workers was one of the factors that altered DNA damages, cell death, and chromosomal instability in oral mucosa cells.


Assuntos
Instabilidade Cromossômica/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fazendeiros , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Adulto , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Testes para Micronúcleos , Mucosa Bucal/citologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Turquia
6.
Carbohydr Res ; 477: 51-57, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis being the most common chronic disease of the oral cavity affects 5-25% of the population. AIM: This study goals to develop a novel polymeric excipient based on alginate with enhanced mucoadhesion and controlled release for buccal therapy of aphthae. METHODS: Sulfhydryl groups of amino acid cysteine (SH) was anchored on the polymeric backbone of alginate (AL). Furthermore, mucoadhesiveness, stability and release profile as well as permeation of ambroxol through buccal mucosa were examined. RESULTS: Sulfhydryl anchored alginate was successfully synthesized. The stability was 3.52-fold improved in presence of sulfhydryl anchored alginate compared to alginate. Mucoadhesive studies revealed an 11.56-fold augmentation in adhesion time with AL-SH instead of AL. Ambroxol showed a 1.4-fold controlled release in presence of AL-SH and AL, respectively. The permeation profile of ambroxol was 1.89-fold higher in case of AL-SH compared to AL. CONCLUSION: The obtained AL-SH will pave the pathway for the aphthae therapy.


Assuntos
Alginatos/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estomatite Aftosa/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Sulfidrila/farmacologia , Adesividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Alginatos/química , Humanos , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934722

RESUMO

Chemotherapy and/or head and neck radiotherapy are frequently associated with oral mucositis. Oral pain, odynophagia and dysphagia, opioid use, weight loss, dehydration, systemic infection, hospitalization and introduction of a feeding tube should be mentioned as the main determinated effect of oral mucositis. Oral mucositis leads to a decreased quality of life and an increase in treatment costs. Moreover, oral mucositis is a life-threatening disease. In addition to its own direct life-threatening consequences, it can also lead to a reduced survival due to the discontinuation or dose reduction of anti-neoplasm therapy. There are numerous strategies for the prevention or treatment of oral mucositis; however, their effectiveness is limited and does not correspond to expectations. This review is focused on the ghrelin and obestatin as potentially useful candidates for the prevention and treatment of chemo- or/and radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis.


Assuntos
Hormônios Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Grelina/uso terapêutico , Estomatite/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/farmacologia , Grelina/farmacologia , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Estomatite/patologia
8.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(4): 1109-1112, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030482

RESUMO

Background and aim: Cigarettes, hookah, and tobacco are the most important etiologic factors for oral cancers and dysplastic lesions. This study was undertaken to determine the correlation between hookah use and the percentage of cells with micronucleus, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, and broken egg in the buccal mucosa; and secondly to compare hookah user and non-user in terms of repair index. Materials and methods: The present historical cohort study was carried out on 72 samples taken from 36 hookah users and 36 control subjects. Smear samples were obtained from participants' buccal mucosa for cytological evaluation using Papanicolaou technique. Then, the percentages of cells with micronucleus, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, and broken egg were recorded and the repair index was calculated. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: A total of 72 samples taken from 36 hookah users and 36 control subjects were evaluated. The means of micronucleus scores in the buccal mucosa cells of hookah users and controls were 10.7±2.6 and 5.8±2.0, the karyorrhexis scores in the hookah users and controls were 0.1±0.06 and 0.04±0.06, and the karyolysis scores in hookah users and controls were 0.16±0.05 and 0.08±0.06, respectively. These differences were statistically significant between hookah users and controls (P<0.001). The broken egg score was 0.66±0.07 for the hookah users and 0.03±0.04 for the control group, revealing a statistically significant difference (P<0.036). Finally, the repair index values were 0.03±0.01 and 0.05±0.13 in hookah users and controls, respectively. This difference was also significant (P<0.026). Conclusion: The percentages of cells with micronucleus, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, and broken egg in the buccal mucosa of hookah users were significantly higher than those in control group; in addition, the repair index of the buccal mucosa cells in hookah users was significantly lower than that in the control group.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/genética , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/induzido quimicamente , Cachimbos de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Prognóstico
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(4): e1007717, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009520

RESUMO

Infectious complications are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy due to increased risk of oral and gastrointestinal candidiasis, candidemia and septicemia. Interactions between C. albicans and endogenous mucosal bacteria are important in understanding the mechanisms of invasive infection. We published a mouse intravenous chemotherapy model that recapitulates oral and intestinal mucositis, and myelosuppression in patients receiving 5-fluorouracil. We used this model to study the influence of C. albicans on the mucosal bacterial microbiome and compared global community changes in the oral and intestinal mucosa of the same mice. We validated 16S rRNA gene sequencing data by qPCR, in situ hybridization and culture approaches. Mice receiving both 5Fu and C. albicans had an endogenous bacterial overgrowth on the oral but not the small intestinal mucosa. C. albicans infection was associated with loss of mucosal bacterial diversity in both sites with indigenous Stenotrophomonas, Alphaproteobacteria and Enterococcus species dominating the small intestinal, and Enterococcus species dominating the oral mucosa. Both immunosuppression and Candida infection contributed to changes in the oral microbiota. Enterococci isolated from mice with oropharyngeal candidiasis were implicated in degrading the epithelial junction protein E-cadherin and increasing the permeability of the oral epithelial barrier in vitro. Importantly, depletion of these organisms with antibiotics in vivo attenuated oral mucosal E-cadherin degradation and C. albicans invasion without affecting fungal burdens, indicating that bacterial community changes represent overt dysbiosis. Our studies demonstrate a complex interaction between C. albicans, the resident mucosal bacterial microbiota and the host environment in pathogenesis. We shed significant new light on the role of C. albicans in shaping resident bacterial communities and driving mucosal dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Candidíase Bucal/etiologia , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Animais , Antimetabólitos/efeitos adversos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/genética , Candidíase Bucal/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Bucal/patologia
10.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 53: 150-153, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910199

RESUMO

Boron (B) compounds are essential for plants and animals and beneficial for humans in nutritional amounts. I animals and humans increasing evidence have shown beneficial effects on B compounds on nutrition and on antioxidant status. The genotoxic effects of environmental B exposure in women living in boron-rich and boron-poor areas was examined in this study. For this purpose, the DNA damage in the lymphocytes and buccal cells of females were assessed by Comet and micronucleus (MN) assays respectively. No significant difference was observed in the DNA damage of the lymphocytes of B exposed groups of female volunteers in Comet assay. Even buccal micronucleus (MN) frequency observed in the high exposure group was significantly lower than the low exposure group (p < 0.05). The results of this study came to the same conclusions of the previous studies that boron does not induce DNA damage even under extreme exposure conditions.


Assuntos
Boro/administração & dosagem , Dano ao DNA , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Boro/efeitos adversos , Boro/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 18(5): 1020-1029, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a growing approach to treat skin and mucosal infections. Despite its effectiveness, investigators have explored whether aPDT can be further combined with antibiotics and antifungal drugs. OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess the in vivo studies on the effectiveness of combinations of aPTD plus antimicrobials in the treatment of cutaneous and mucosal infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Searches were performed in four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library databases, ClinicaTrials.gov) until July 2018. The pooled information was evaluated according to the PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: 11 full-text articles were finally evaluated and included. The best aPDT combinations involved 5-aminolevulinic acid or phenothiazinium dye-based aPDT. In general, the combination shows benefits such as reducing treatment times, lowering drug dosages, decreasing drug toxicity, improving patient compliance and diminishing the risk of developing resistance. The mechanism of action may be that first aPDT damages the microbial cell wall or membrane, which allows better penetration of the antimicrobial drug. LIMITATIONS: The number of studies was low, the protocols used were heterogeneous, and there was a lack of clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: The additive or synergistic effect of aPDT combined with antimicrobials could be promising to manage skin and mucosal infections, helping to overcome the microbial drug resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Boca/tratamento farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Doenças da Boca/microbiologia , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia
12.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal ; 24(2): e145-e155, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the frequency of micronuclei or other DNA damage in the oral mucosa of adults that have smokeless tobacco habits compared to adults that not have these habits. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, BBO and Cochrane Library and SIGLE. We also surveyed gray literature. We included only clinical trials that compare the frequency of micronuclei or other DNA damage in the oral mucosa of adults that have smokeless tobacco habits compared to adults that not have these habits. Quality assessments of the selected trials were evaluated by two independent reviewers, using the Effective Public Health Practice Project - (EPHPP) with modifications. RESULTS: After the database screening and removal of duplicates, 2574 studies were identified. After title screening, 172 studies remained, and this number was reduced to 25 after careful examination of the abstracts. The standardized mean difference of the frequency of micronuclei between groups was 1.88, with a 95% confidence interval of 1.40 to 2.36 (p < 0.00001). In all analyses heterogeneity was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the heterogeneity of studies, the frequency of micronuclei was significant bigger in adults who have the smokeless tobacco habit when compared to those not have this habit. The same occurred with the frequency of binucleated cells, karyolisis and karyorrhexis.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tabaco sem Fumaça/toxicidade , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Saúde Pública , Tabaco
13.
Mar Drugs ; 17(3)2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818790

RESUMO

Gingival recession (GR) potentially leads to the exposure of tooth root to the oral cavity microenvironment and increases susceptibility to dental caries, dentin hypersensitivity, and other dental diseases. Even though many etiological factors were reported, the specific mechanism of GR is yet to be elucidated. Given the species richness concerning marine biodiversity, it could be a treasure trove for drug discovery. In this study, we demonstrate the effects of a marine compound, (+)-rhodoptilometrin from crinoid, on gingival cell migration, wound healing, and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Experimental results showed that (+)-rhodoptilometrin can significantly increase wound healing, migration, and proliferation of human gingival fibroblast cells, and it does not have effects on oral mucosa fibroblast cells. In addition, (+)-rhodoptilometrin increases the gene and protein expression levels of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), fibronectin, and type I collagen, changes the intracellular distribution of FAK and F-actin, and increases OXPHOS and the expression levels of complexes I~V in the mitochondria. Based on our results, we believe that (+)-rhodoptilometrin might increase FAK expression and promote mitochondrial function to affect cell migration and promote gingival regeneration. Therefore, (+)-rhodoptilometrin may be a promising therapeutic agent for GR.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Equinodermos/química , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Proteína-Tirosina Quinases de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Gengiva/citologia , Gengiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengiva/fisiologia , Retração Gengival/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mucosa Bucal/citologia , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Bucal/fisiologia , Fosforilação Oxidativa/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Craniofac Surg ; 30(3): e189-e191, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882567

RESUMO

Ecstasy is an illicit drug that has been increasingly abused by young people. This synthetic drug has both stimulant and hallucinogenic effects and is usually consumed in a tablet. The side effects of ecstasy use include nausea, muscle cramping, fever, and symptoms mostly linked to muscular tension including jaw pain, facial pain, and headaches. There are few studies assessing the ecstasy effects on the oral mucosa, both clinically and histopathologically. The authors report 2 young women (22- and 27-year-old) who presented multifocal oral erosions and ulcerations. The lesions were painful and covered by a yellow-white pseudomembrane with a bright erythematous halo. By microscopy, it was observed superficial ulceration surrounded by acanthotic squamous epithelium with marked spongiosis, interstitial edema within the corion and perivascular lyphoid infiltrate, suggesting drug-induced oral mucositis. In conclusion, ecstasy use may be associated with the development of oral ulcers, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis when assessing multifocal oral ulcerations, especially in young people.


Assuntos
/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/efeitos adversos , Úlceras Orais/induzido quimicamente , Estomatite/induzido quimicamente , Doenças da Língua/induzido quimicamente , Administração Oral , Adulto , Dor Facial/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Alucinógenos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Mar Drugs ; 17(3)2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841540

RESUMO

The aim of the present work was to load a Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) hydroalcoholic extract into in situ gelling formulations for the treatment of oral mucositis and esophagitis. Such formulations, selected as the most promising options in a previous work of ours, were composed by κ-carrageenan (κ-CG), a sulfated marine polymer able to gelify in presence of saliva ions, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), used as mucoadhesive agent, and CaCl2, salt able to enhance the interaction κ-CG/saliva ions. HS extract, which is rich in phytochemicals such as polyphenols, polysaccharides and organic acids, was selected due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. For HS extraction, three different methodologies (maceration, Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE)) were compared in terms of extraction yield and extract antioxidant activity, revealing that MAE was the best procedure. Rheological and mucoadhesive properties of HS-loaded formulations were investigated. Such formulations were characterized by a low viscosity at 25 °C, guaranteeing an easy administration, a proper in situ gelation behavior and marked elastic and mucoadhesive properties at 37 °C, functional to a protective action towards the damaged mucosa. Finally, the biocompatibility and the proliferative effect of HS-loaded formulations, as well as their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, were proved in vitro on human dermal fibroblasts.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Carragenina/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Adesividade , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Mucosa Esofágica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Esofágica/patologia , Esofagite/tratamento farmacológico , Esofagite/patologia , Fibroblastos , Géis , Hibiscus/química , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Mucosite/tratamento farmacológico , Mucosite/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polímeros/química , Rodófitas/química , Alga Marinha/química
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(6)2019 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884781

RESUMO

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is an oral precancerous condition associated with the habit of areca nut chewing and the TGF-ß pathway. Currently, there is no curative treatment to completely heal OSF, and it is imperative to alleviate patients' symptoms and prevent it from undergoing malignant transformation. Arctigenin, a lignan extracted from Arctium lappa, has been reported to have a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-fibrosis. In the present study, we examined the effect of arctigenin on the cell proliferation of buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs) and fibrotic BMFs (fBMFs), followed by assessment of myofibroblast activities. We found that arctigenin was able to abolish the arecoline-induced collagen gel contractility, migration, invasion, and wound healing capacities of BMFs and downregulate the myofibroblast characteristics of fBMFs in a dose-dependent manner. Most importantly, the production of TGF-ß in fBMFs was reduced after exposure to arctigenin, along with the suppression of p-Smad2, α-smooth muscle actin, and type I collagen A1. In addition, arctigenin was shown to diminish the expression of LINC00974, which has been proven to activate TGF-ß/Smad signaling for oral fibrogenesis. Taken together, we demonstrated that arctigenin may act as a suitable adjunct therapy for OSF.


Assuntos
Furanos/administração & dosagem , Lignanas/administração & dosagem , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose Oral Submucosa/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Areca/química , Arecolina/química , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibrose Oral Submucosa/genética , Fibrose Oral Submucosa/patologia , Proteína Smad2/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/biossíntese
17.
Biomolecules ; 9(3)2019 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884918

RESUMO

Oral mucosal lesions have many etiologies, including viral or bacterial infections, local trauma or irritation, systemic disorders, and even excessive alcohol and tobacco consumption. Folk knowledge on medicinal plants and phytochemicals in the treatment of oral mucosal lesions has gained special attention among the scientific community. Thus, this review aims to provide a brief overview on the traditional knowledge of plants in the treatment of oral mucosal lesions. This review was carried out consulting reports between 2008 and 2018 of PubMed (Medline), Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Database, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. The chosen keywords were plant, phytochemical, oral mucosa, leukoplakia, oral lichen planus and oral health. A special emphasis was given to certain plants (e.g., chamomile, Aloe vera, green tea, and coffea) and plant-derived bioactives (e.g., curcumin, lycopene) with anti-oral mucosal lesion activity. Finally, preclinical (in vitro and in vivo) and clinical studies examining both the safety and efficacy of medicinal plants and their derived phytochemicals were also carefully addressed.


Assuntos
Aloe/química , Camomila/química , Café/química , Curcumina/farmacologia , Licopeno/farmacologia , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Chá/química , Curcumina/química , Humanos , Licopeno/química , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
18.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 130: 215-224, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716381

RESUMO

The present report demonstrates a quality by design approach to understand and optimize self-nanoemulsifying orodispersible films (SNEODF) of captopril for hypertension. A central composite experimental design was used to study the formulation parameters effects (primary emulsion, aqueous phase, and surfactant) on the film properties (globule size, film burst, adhesion, Young's moduli, disintegration time, tensile strength and dissolution). Principle component analysis (PCA) and principle component regression (PCR) were employed to identify and quantify the effects of formulation variables and physico-mechanical properties of the film on the drug permeability. PCA classified three distinct groups of film formulations based on their composition and properties. PCR quantified the impact of main variables, their interactions, and square effects on the drug permeability. The main effect of the aqueous phase exhibited a negative impact, while that of flux and tensile strength showed a positive impact on the permeability. Interactions of primary emulsions with disintegration time and tensile strength displayed a synergistic impact. Interactions of aqueous phase with flux, Young's moduli, and tensile strength, as well as between Young's moduli and tensile strength showed a significant positive effect on the permeability. A negative correlation of square effects of primary emulsion and flux, and a positive square effect of Young's moduli confirmed their non-linear influence on the drug permeability across porcine buccal mucosa. This research work demonstrates application of design of experiment and multivariate methods to achieve targeted product quality of captopril (SNEODF) having improved permeability and pH independent release profile.


Assuntos
Captopril/farmacocinética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Emulsificantes/farmacocinética , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Absorção pela Mucosa Oral/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacocinética , Animais , Captopril/administração & dosagem , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Emulsificantes/administração & dosagem , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Análise Multivariada , Absorção pela Mucosa Oral/fisiologia , Suínos
19.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211928, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735554

RESUMO

Osteonecrosis of the jaw induced by administration of bisphosphonates (BPs), BP-related osteonecrosis (BRONJ), typically develops after tooth extraction and is medically challenging. As BPs inhibit oral mucosal cell growth, we hypothesized that suppression of the wound healing-inhibiting effects could prevent BRONJ onset after tooth extraction. Since basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promotes wound healing, but has a short half-life, we examined whether the initiation of BRONJ could be prevented by applying a bFGF-containing gelatin hydrogel over the extraction sockets of BRONJ model rats. Forty-three rats, received two intravenous injections of zoledronic acid 60 µg/kg, once per week for a period of 2 weeks, underwent extraction of a unilateral lower first molar. The rats here were randomly assigned to the bFGF group (n = 15 rats, gelatin hydrogel sheets with incorporated bFGF applied over the sockets); the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group (n = 14 rats, gelatin hydrogel sheets without bFGF applied over the sockets); or the control group (n = 14 rats, nothing applied over the sockets). One rat in the bFGF group was sacrificed immediately after tooth extraction. Twenty-one rats were sacrificed at 3 weeks, and the remaining 21 rats were sacrificed at 8 weeks after tooth extractions. The harvested mandibles were analyzed using micro-computed tomography and sections were evaluated qualitatively for mucosal disruption and osteonecrosis. The incidence of osteonecrosis at 8 weeks after tooth extraction was 0% in the bFGF group, 100% in the PBS group, and 85.7% in the control group. The frequency of complete coverage of the extraction socket by mucosal tissue was significantly greater in the bFGF group than in the other groups. These results suggest that application of bFGF in the extraction socket promoted socket healing, which prevented BRONJ development. The growth-stimulating effects of bFGF may have offset the inhibition of wound healing by BP.


Assuntos
Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/farmacologia , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extração Dentária/efeitos adversos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/tratamento farmacológico , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/etiologia , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/patologia , Feminino , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/farmacocinética , Gelatina/química , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/efeitos dos fármacos , Mandíbula/patologia , Dente Molar/efeitos dos fármacos , Dente Molar/patologia , Dente Molar/cirurgia , Mucosa Bucal/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Alvéolo Dental/diagnóstico por imagem , Alvéolo Dental/efeitos dos fármacos , Alvéolo Dental/patologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Ácido Zoledrônico/administração & dosagem
20.
Mar Drugs ; 17(2)2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759831

RESUMO

Oral mucositis and esophagitis represent the most frequent and clinically significant complications of cytoreductive chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which severely compromise the patient quality of life. The local application of polymeric gels could protect the injured tissues, alleviating the most painful symptoms. The present work aims at developing in situ gelling formulations for the treatment of oral mucositis and esophagitis. To reach these targets, κ-carrageenan (κ-CG) was selected as a polymer having wound healing properties and able to gelify in the presence of saliva ions, while hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) was used to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the formulations. CaCl2 was identified as a salt able to enhance the interaction between κ-CG and saliva ions. Different salt and polymer concentrations were investigated in order to obtain a formulation having the following features: (i) low viscosity at room temperature to facilitate administration, (ii) marked elastic properties at 37 °C, functional to a protective action towards damaged tissues, and (iii) mucoadhesive properties. Prototypes characterized by different κ-CG, HPC, and CaCl2 concentrations were subjected to a thorough rheological characterization and to in vitro mucoadhesion and washability tests. The overall results pointed out the ability of the developed formulations to produce a gel able to interact with saliva ions and to adhere to the biological substrates.


Assuntos
Carragenina/química , Esôfago/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesivos Teciduais/química , Adesivos Teciduais/farmacologia , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Celulose/análogos & derivados , Composição de Medicamentos , Elasticidade , Géis , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Solubilidade , Viscosidade , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
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