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2.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): 342-347, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114904

RESUMO

La Leishmaniasis es un grupo de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores y causada por la Leishmania, un parásito intracelular, que se presenta de preferencia en regiones tropicales y subtropicales. Se manifiesta mediante un amplio rango de formas clínicas como la cutánea, mucocutánea, y visceral, dependiendo de la especie y respuesta inmunológica del paciente. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 35 años que acudió derivado a Unidad de Estomatología del Hospital Señor del Milagro, Salta, Argentina, presentando en la cavidad oral lesión, granulomatosa, ulcerada, dolorosa a la palpación, única, en paladar blando, de tres meses de evolución. Se realizaron estudios serológicos, parasitológicos y PCR. Los ELISAs lisados, PCRs y cultivos de materiales de lesiones fueron positivos, confirmando diagnóstico de leishmaniasis mucocutánea. El paciente fue derivado al Servicio de Dermatología donde recibió tratamiento con Antimoniato de Meglumina, con repuesta clínica favorable. El conocimiento de las manifestaciones orales puede llevar al diagnóstico clínico de leishmaniasis mucocutánea por parte del odontólogo, pudiendo entregar un tratamiento oportuno y a la vez ayudar al paciente, evitando complicaciones de esta enfermedad.


Leishmaniasis is a group of vector-borne diseases caused by Leishmania, an intracellular parasite, which occurs preferentially in tropical and subtropical regions. It manifests itself through a wide range of clinical forms such as cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral, depending on the species and the patient's immune response. We present a case of a 35-year-old man who was referred to the Stomatology Unit of the Señor del Milagro Hospital, Salta, Argentina, presenting in the oral cavity lesion, granulomatous, ulcerated, painful on palpation, unique, soft palate with three months of evolution. Serological, parasitological and PCR studies were performed. Lysed ELISAs, PCRs and cultures of lesion materials were positive, confirming diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The patient was referred to the Dermatology Service where he received treatment with Meglumine Antimony, with favorable clinical response. The knowledge of the oral manifestations can lead to the clinical diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis by the dentist, being able to provide timely treatment and at the same time help the patient, avoiding complications of this disease.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/parasitologia , Doenças da Boca/diagnóstico , Doenças da Boca/parasitologia , Paracoccidioidomicose/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Histoplasmose/diagnóstico , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Mucosa Bucal/parasitologia
3.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 3061-3066, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502076

RESUMO

The burden of HIV/AIDS in Iran is not as high as in the other countries with high prevalence; however, the number of cases of HIV/AIDs is increasing in this region. According to a recent report, Iran had 5000 (1400-13,000) new cases of HIV infection with 4000 (2500-6200) AIDS-related deaths. Individuals affected by HIV/AIDS are highly susceptible for developing opportunistic infections, e.g. the cerebral complications related to pathogenic free-living amoebae and colonization of free-living amoebae (FLA) can be a serious hazard for patients living with HIV/AIDS. In the present study, a total of 70 oral and nasal mucosal samples were obtained from HIV/AIDS patients referred to the reference hospitals in Iran and tested for the presence of potentially pathogenic FLA using culture and PCR/sequencing-based methods. To discern the taxonomic status of Acanthamoeba genotypes a maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed and tolerance assays were performed for the positive Acanthamoeba strains. Among the patients with HIV/AIDS referred to the reference hospitals from 2017 to 2019, 7.1% were found positive for pathogenic free-living amoebae. Three strains (HA3, HA4, and HA5) belonged to the T4 genotype, one strain (HA1) was related to the T5 genotype assigned as A. lenticulata, and another strain (HA2) had high homology to Vermamoeba vermiformis. The tolerance assay used for Acanthamoeba strains (HA1, HA3, and HA4) classified these amoebae as highly pathogenic strains. For the most part, the encephalitis cases occurring in HIV/AIDS patients in Iran remain undiagnosed due to lack of awareness of the practitioners on the available diagnostic tools for this lethal infection; therefore, the true incidence of GAE in this region is unknown. A possible colonization with FLA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of suspected cases of CNS infections among HIV/AIDS patients. This study is the first worldwide comprehensive study attempting to isolate and identify the FLA colonization in HIV/AIDS patients. This study highlights the fact that clinicians should be aware of the differential diagnosis of cerebral disease related to FLA in patients with HIV/AIDS.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/parasitologia , Acanthamoeba/classificação , Acanthamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Amebíase/parasitologia , Mucosa Bucal/parasitologia , Filogenia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Acanthamoeba/genética , Acanthamoeba/patogenicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Amebíase/complicações , Amebíase/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Nasal/parasitologia
4.
Parasitol Int ; 73: 101960, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442663

RESUMO

When presented in unusual manner, human dirofilariosis is hard to recognize and often leads to misdiagnosis and unjustified use of various medications. Herein, we report a rare case of Dirofilaria infection localized in buccal mucosa. A 45-year-old male, residing in the Central Serbia, developed striking edema of buccal mucosa followed by leucocytosis, with both neutrophylia and eosinophylia. Thirty days after first symptoms occurred, nodule was formed along the lateral edge of right maxilla. Therefore, patient underwent surgical extirpation and subsequent histopathological analysis of the specimen revealed the presence of a nematode. Based on morphological characteristics of detected parasite, the diagnosis of submucosal Dirofilaria repens-like infection was made. The diagnosis was confirmed, being the first case in the world analyzed by molecular methods. So far, only 13 such cases have been reported worldwide and our paper brings attention to rare form of this zoonosis and updates the data about human dirofilariosis in buccal mucosa.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Mucosa Bucal/parasitologia , Animais , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sérvia , Zoonoses/diagnóstico
7.
Parasitol Res ; 117(7): 2171-2185, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730726

RESUMO

We recently engaged in a two-part study of Clinostomum Leidy, 1856 across a geographic range comprising central Mexico southwards to Costa Rica, in Central America. In the first study, we investigated the species boundaries by using DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers, implementing several analytical tools and species delimitation methods. The result of that approach revealed five highly divergent genetic lineages that were interpreted as independent evolutionary units, or species. Here, we present the second part of the study, where we describe three of the five species for which we have sexually mature adult specimens obtained from the mouth cavity of fish-eating birds. Additionally, we characterise morphologically the metacercariae of the other two species, collected from freshwater fishes; these species cannot be formally described since no adults were found in their definitive hosts. We further discuss the characters that are more reliable for species identification within Clinostomum, such as the cirrus sac shape and relative position with respect to testes and ovary, the shape of the reproductive organs, and the diverticulated condition of the caeca.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Esôfago/parasitologia , Mucosa Bucal/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Aves , Costa Rica , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes , Água Doce/parasitologia , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Metacercárias/genética , México , Filogenia , Trematódeos/genética , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Estados Unidos
8.
Neth J Med ; 76(1): 40-42, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29380732

RESUMO

This case report shows an atypical presentation of mucosal leishmaniasis infantum in the oral cavity resulting in severe stomatitis and periodontitis. The patient was immunocompromised because of rheumatoid arthritis for which he used prednisone and methotrexate. He was treated with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B and recovered within four weeks.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose/complicações , Periodontite/parasitologia , Estomatite/parasitologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal/parasitologia
9.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 32(1): 117-124, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28776770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is underestimated in Spain as in other European countries due to the polymorphism of its clinical manifestations and histopathological features discouraging doctors from suspecting leishmaniasis. Mucosal manifestations (ML) are misdiagnosed due to the fact that they often mimic cancer. OBJECTIVES: Given that leishmaniasis may be masked as different granulomatous diseases in Leishmania infantum endemic areas, the aim of this study was to verify this misdiagnosing and contributes to the improvement of CL/ML diagnosis. METHODS: A retrospective study involving formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue biopsies with histopathological features of granulomatous lesions of unknown origin (GLUO) detected in 17 patients. This study included 13 patients with CL that was used as positive controls, nine patients with other confirmed diseases used as negative controls and seven patients with histological features suggestive of CL or ML without confirmation. Molecular analysis was blindly performed using two different PCR techniques. RESULTS: The PCR detected 15 CL cases in which the diagnosis was neither clinically nor histologically suspected. Leishmaniasis was confirmed in seven suspected patients in whom the classical techniques failed to detect the parasite. L. infantum was identified in all cases. A systematic review of CL cases in GLUO patients from European countries identified 45 reported cases. CONCLUSIONS: In L. infantum endemic areas, a high percentage of GLUO are due to Leishmania infection. The main consequences are delayed diagnosis and underestimation of the real incidence. PCR performed on paraffin-embedded tissue proved to be a reliable tool for diagnosis of CL/ML and must be performed routinely in any granulomatous dermatitis, even when the morphological features are no stereotypical of leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Granuloma/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leishmania infantum/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Doenças da Boca/diagnóstico , Doenças da Boca/parasitologia , Mucosa Bucal/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Head Neck Pathol ; 10(4): 533-537, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27260217

RESUMO

A case of oral leishmaniasis without cutaneous involvement affecting the upper alveolar ridge mucosa/gingiva and the hard palate is reported in a 41-year-old Brazilian man. Microscopic examination disclosed scarce amastigotes and the definitive diagnosis was facilitated by immunohistochemical analysis. The clinical presentation of this lesion is unusual and underlies the importance of considering leishmaniasis in the differential diagnosis of oral lesions, especially in endemic areas. A literature review of the cases of mucosal leishmaniasis with exclusive primary lesions of the oral mucosa was also performed.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Doenças da Boca/diagnóstico , Adulto , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal/parasitologia , Palato Duro/parasitologia
12.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol ; 122(6): e199-e203, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27234853

RESUMO

Mucosal leishmaniasis is a chronic infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and/or the oral mucosa caused by Leishmania protozoan parasites. We present two cases of oral leishmaniasis and discuss the different diagnostic strategies and treatment. In both cases, the patients were male, 60 and 94 years of age, and presented with lesions on the soft palate. In the first patient, the final diagnosis was made on the basis of histopathologic examination. In the second case, polymerase chain reaction and Montenegro skin test were necessary to confirm the diagnosis. The first patient was treated with meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime), and the lesions healed after 2 months. In the second case, the patient received treatment with liposomal amphotericin B but later died as a result of generalized infection. Mucosal leishmaniasis is a highly disfiguring disease. Early diagnosis is important to prevent a lethal outcome.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/diagnóstico , Mucosa Bucal/parasitologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Antimoniato de Meglumina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Testes Cutâneos
14.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 53(4): 396-8, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25701438

RESUMO

Primary mucosal leishmaniasis is a rare infectious disease, particularly in immunocompetent patients. We present a 50-year-old patient with a 6-week history of a painful lesion of the left buccal mucosa that mimicked cancer. The exophytic lesion looked invasive, and we took an incisional biopsy specimen to exclude cancer. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was unexpected, and the patient was successfully treated with amphotericin B for five weeks. After five months the patient had a visceral recurrence. Chronic exophytic and ulcerated mucosal lesions that do not heal within 3-4 weeks should be regarded as the first signs of oral cancer, but primary oral leishmaniasis can easily mimic it.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/diagnóstico , Doenças da Boca/parasitologia , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Bucal/parasitologia , Recidiva
16.
Biomedica ; 34(4): 631-41, 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25504253

RESUMO

Many cases of infection caused by the oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi have been reported during the last decade. These have been due to the contamination of food by faeces from sylvatic triatomines or by leakage from reservoirs in areas where domiciliated vectors have been controlled or where there has been no prior background of domiciliation. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have used epidemiological, clinical and socioeconomic criteria for ranking parasites transmitted by the contamination of food in different areas of the world; T. cruzi was placed tenth in importance amongst a group of 24 parasites in such ranking. Environmental changes such as deforestation and global warming have affected ecotopes and the behaviour of T. cruzi vectors and reservoirs so that these have become displaced to new areas, thereby leading to such new transmission scenario caused by the contamination of food, which requires evaluation in Colombia. The current review deals with the oral transmission of Chagas' disease, emphasising studies aimed at identifying the pertinent risk factors, the triatomine species involved, the physiopathology of oral infection, the parasite's genotypes implicated in this type of transmission in Colombia and other Latin American regions, as well as the need for ongoing epidemiological surveillance and control policies.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Fezes/parasitologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Frutas/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Carne/parasitologia , Rhodnius/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Tatus/parasitologia , Bebidas/parasitologia , Doadores de Sangue , Doença de Chagas/congênito , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Colômbia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/parasitologia , Genótipo , Habitação , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/parasitologia , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Parasitemia/transmissão , Peptídeo Hidrolases/fisiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/parasitologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Proteínas de Protozoários/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Reação Transfusional , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade , Trypanosoma cruzi/fisiologia , Glicoproteínas Variantes de Superfície de Trypanosoma/química , Glicoproteínas Variantes de Superfície de Trypanosoma/fisiologia
17.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(4): 631-641, oct.-dic. 2014. ilus, mapas, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-730947

RESUMO

Durante la última década se han reportado numerosos casos de infección por Trypanosoma cruzi por vía oral, debidos a la contaminación de alimentos con heces de triatominos silvestres o con secreciones de reservorios en áreas donde los vectores domiciliados han sido controlados o no hay antecedentes de domiciliación. Con base en criterios epidemiológicos, clínicos y socioeconómicos, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación (FAO) y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) establecieron una clasificación de los parásitos transmitidos por contaminación de alimentos en diferentes regiones del mundo, en la cual T. cruzi ocupó el décimo lugar de importancia en un grupo de 24 parásitos. Los cambios ambientales, como la deforestación y el calentamiento global, han afectado los ecotopos y el comportamiento de los vectores y de los reservorios de T. cruzi , de manera que estos se han desplazado a nuevas zonas, generando una nueva forma de transmisión por contaminación de alimentos que requiere su evaluación en el país. La presente revisión aborda la transmisión oral de la enfermedad de Chagas con énfasis en los estudios orientados a identificar los factores de riesgo, las especies de triatominos involucrados, la fisiopatología de la infección oral y los genotipos del parásito que están implicados en esta forma de transmisión en Colombia y en otras regiones de América Latina, así como la necesidad de adoptar políticas para su control y vigilancia epidemiológica.


Many cases of infection caused by the oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi have been reported during the last decade. These have been due to the contamination of food by faeces from sylvatic triatomines or by leakage from reservoirs in areas where domiciliated vectors have been controlled or where there has been no prior background of domiciliation. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have used epidemiological, clinical and socioeconomic criteria for ranking parasites transmitted by the contamination of food in different areas of the world; T. cruzi was placed tenth in importance amongst a group of 24 parasites in such ranking. Environmental changes such as deforestation and global warming have affected ecotopes and the behaviour of T. cruzi vectors and reservoirs so that these have become displaced to new areas, thereby leading to such new transmission scenario caused by the contamination of food, which requires evaluation in Colombia. The current review deals with the oral transmission of Chagas´ disease, emphasising studies aimed at identifying the pertinent risk factors, the triatomine species involved, the physiopathology of oral infection, the parasite´s genotypes implicated in this type of transmission in Colombia and other Latin American regions, as well as the need for ongoing epidemiological surveillance and control policies.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Frutas/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Carne/parasitologia , Rhodnius/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Tatus/parasitologia , Doadores de Sangue , Bebidas/parasitologia , Transfusão de Sangue/efeitos adversos , Colômbia , Doença de Chagas/congênito , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Genótipo , Mucosa Gástrica/parasitologia , Habitação , Mucosa Bucal/parasitologia , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Parasitemia/transmissão , Peptídeo Hidrolases/fisiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/parasitologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Proteínas de Protozoários/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade , Trypanosoma cruzi/fisiologia , Glicoproteínas Variantes de Superfície de Trypanosoma/química , Glicoproteínas Variantes de Superfície de Trypanosoma/fisiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 9(11): e109790, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25386857

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) can affect the skin or mucosa (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis - MCL) including the oral cavity. MCL oral lesions are often confused with other oral diseases, delaying diagnosis and specific treatment, and increasing the likelihood of sequelae. Thus, increasing the knowledge of the evolution of ATL oral lesions can facilitate its early diagnosis improving the prognosis of healing. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the frequency of ATL oral lesion and describe its clinical, laboratory and therapeutic peculiarities. METHODS: A descriptive transversal study was carried out, using data from medical records of 206 patients with MCL examined at the outpatient clinics-IPEC-Fiocruz between 1989 and 2013. Proportions were calculated for the categorical variables and the association among them was assessed by the Pearson's chi-square test. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were used for the continuous variables and their differences were assessed by both parametric (t test) and non parametric (Mann-Whitney) tests. P-values <0.05 were considered as significant. RESULTS: The most affected site was the nose, followed by the mouth, pharynx and larynx. Seventy eight (37.9%) have oral lesions and the disease presented a lower median of the evolution time than in other mucous sites as well as an increased time to heal. The presence of oral lesion was associated with: the presence of lesions in the other three mucosal sites; a smaller median of the leishmanin skin test values; a longer healing time of the mucosal lesions; a higher recurrence frequency; and a smaller frequency of treatment finishing and healing. When the oral lesion was isolated, it was associated with an age 20 years lower than when the oral lesion was associated with other mucosal sites. CONCLUSION: Considering the worst therapy results associated with the presence of oral lesions, we suggest that lesions in this location represent a factor of worse prognosis for MCL.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/parasitologia , Doenças da Boca/patologia , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Doenças Nasais/patologia , Nariz/patologia , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Laringe/parasitologia , Laringe/patologia , Leishmania braziliensis/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Antimoniato de Meglumina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Boca/parasitologia , Mucosa Bucal/parasitologia , Nariz/parasitologia , Doenças Nasais/parasitologia , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Faringe/parasitologia , Faringe/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
J Clin Microbiol ; 52(4): 1238-41, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24478413

RESUMO

Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) coinfection is challenging. Specific diagnosis of VL in HIV-coinfected patients was evaluated by molecular methods in desquamated buccal swab samples, demonstrating 86.3% sensitivity and 98.3% specificity in controls. This test holds significant potential for development as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for VL in HIV-coinfected patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Mucosa Bucal/parasitologia , Humanos , Parasitologia/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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