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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(17): 4211-4220, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164406

RESUMO

To prepare Cangyi nanoemulsion in situ gel and study its nasal mucosa release mechanism in vitro. After proper treatment of different drugs in the compound, the prescription of nanoemulsion was determined by pseudo-ternary phase diagram method. With the ratio of mixed emulsifier to oil phase [(S+COS)/O], the ratio of mixed emulsifier(K_m), the ratio of water phase to mixed emulsifier and oil phase[W/(S+COS+O)] as investigation factors and the normalized value(OD) as evaluation index, the prescription of Cangyi nanoemulsion was optimized by central composite design-response surface method. With the ratio of poloxamer 407(P407) and poloxamer 188(P188) as the investigation factors and the gelation temperature as the evaluation index, the in situ gel prescription of Cangyi nanoemulsion was optimized. The improved Franz diffusion cell was used to explore the nasal mucosa drug-release mechanism of Cangyi nanoemulsion in situ gel with oxymatrine, ferulic acid and salvianolic acid B content as indexes. The optimal prescription of Cangyi nanoemulsion in situ gel was as follows: 6.862% castor oil polyoxyl(EL), 4.262% absolute ethanol, 1.392% ethyl oleate, 7% P407 and 6% P188. The average pH was 5.55 and the average gelation temperature was 32.8 ℃. In vitro release studies showed that oxymatrine, ferulic acid and salvianolic acid B were released simultaneously and the drug release behavior was consistent with that in Higuchi model. The preparation process of Cangyi nanoemulsion in situ gel is stable, with suitable pH value, gelation temperature and viscosity. It has a certain slow-release effect, and can meet the needs of local nasal drug use.


Assuntos
Mucosa Nasal , Poloxâmero , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Emulsões/metabolismo , Géis , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Temperatura , Viscosidade
2.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081421

RESUMO

To address the expression pattern of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 and the viral priming protease TMPRSS2 in the respiratory tract, this study investigated RNA sequencing transcriptome profiling of samples of airway and oral mucosa. As shown, ACE2 has medium levels of expression in both small airway epithelium and masticatory mucosa, and high levels of expression in nasal epithelium. The expression of ACE2 is low in mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells and cannot be detected in alveolar macrophages. TMPRSS2 is highly expressed in small airway epithelium and nasal epithelium and has lower expression in masticatory mucosa. Our results provide the molecular basis that the nasal mucosa is the most susceptible locus in the respiratory tract for SARS-CoV-2 infection and consequently for subsequent droplet transmission and should be the focus for protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/biossíntese , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/biossíntese , Internalização do Vírus , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/virologia , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Mucosa Nasal/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5139, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046696

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2, an emerging virus that utilizes host proteins ACE2 and TMPRSS2 as entry factors. Understanding the factors affecting the pattern and levels of expression of these genes is important for deeper understanding of SARS-CoV-2 tropism and pathogenesis. Here we explore the role of genetics and co-expression networks in regulating these genes in the airway, through the analysis of nasal airway transcriptome data from 695 children. We identify expression quantitative trait loci for both ACE2 and TMPRSS2, that vary in frequency across world populations. We find TMPRSS2 is part of a mucus secretory network, highly upregulated by type 2 (T2) inflammation through the action of interleukin-13, and that the interferon response to respiratory viruses highly upregulates ACE2 expression. IL-13 and virus infection mediated effects on ACE2 expression were also observed at the protein level in the airway epithelium. Finally, we define airway responses to common coronavirus infections in children, finding that these infections generate host responses similar to other viral species, including upregulation of IL6 and ACE2. Our results reveal possible mechanisms influencing SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and COVID-19 clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interferons/metabolismo , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Mucosa Nasal/patologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Inflamação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus
4.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 49(11): 728-732, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) have some of the highest rates of mortality from COVID-19 among healthcare workers. SARS-CoV-2 has unique properties that place GPs at particular risk. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to discuss the nose-related features of SARS-CoV-2 that place GPs at risk, and to make recommendations pertinent to the safety and protection of primary healthcare physicians. DISCUSSION: The highest viral load of SARS-CoV-2 is in the nose and nasopharynx. It is often highest early in the illness, before the development of symptoms. Further, SARS-CoV-2 replicates and continues to shed in the nasopharynx long after the virus is no longer detectable in the lower respiratory tract. This places any physician performing examinations on, or procedures involving, the upper respiratory tract at risk for contracting COVID-19. New-onset hyposmia and dysgeusia are indicators for COVID-19 and should be included in screening protocols.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Infecções , Cavidade Nasal/virologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Austrália , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/instrumentação , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Gestão de Riscos , Carga Viral
5.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(10): 1253-1261, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909934

RESUMO

Introduction. Staphylococcus aureus is a skin and mucous commensal bacterium of warm-blooded animals. In humans, the nose is the main ecological niche of S. aureus, and nasal carriage is a risk factor for developing an endogenous infection. S. aureus nasal colonization is a multifactorial process, involving inter-species interactions among the nasal microbiota.Aims. The objectives of this study were to characterize the microbiota of carriers and non-carriers of S. aureus and to demonstrate the importance of inter-species relationships in the adhesion of S. aureus, a key step in nasal colonization.Methodology. First, we characterized the nasal microbiota from 30 S. aureus carriers and non-carriers by a culturomic approach. We then evaluated the adhesion of S. aureus, first alone and then along with other bacteria of the nasal microbiota. To do that, we used an in vitro model to measure the interactions among bacteria in the presence of epithelial cells.Results. Analysis of the nasal microbiota of the carriers and non-carriers of S. aureus made it possible to observe that each microbiota has specific features in terms of composition. However, this composition differs significantly between carriers and non-carriers mainly through two bacterial groups: coagulase-negative staphylococci and corynebacteria. In a second part, adhesion of S. aureus to epithelial cells showed competition between S. aureus and these bacteria, suggesting a limitation of nasal colonization by S. aureus.Conclusion. These findings demonstrate the existence of a negative correlation between S. aureus and other species which inhibits adhesion and could limit nasal colonization.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Adulto , Bactérias , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Cavidade Nasal/microbiologia , Mucosa Nasal/microbiologia , Nariz/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade
6.
Cell Rep ; 32(12): 108175, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946807

RESUMO

To predict the tropism of human coronaviruses, we profile 28 SARS-CoV-2 and coronavirus-associated receptors and factors (SCARFs) using single-cell transcriptomics across various healthy human tissues. SCARFs include cellular factors both facilitating and restricting viral entry. Intestinal goblet cells, enterocytes, and kidney proximal tubule cells appear highly permissive to SARS-CoV-2, consistent with clinical data. Our analysis also predicts non-canonical entry paths for lung and brain infections. Spermatogonial cells and prostate endocrine cells also appear to be permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting male-specific vulnerabilities. Both pro- and anti-viral factors are highly expressed within the nasal epithelium, with potential age-dependent variation, predicting an important battleground for coronavirus infection. Our analysis also suggests that early embryonic and placental development are at moderate risk of infection. Lastly, SCARF expression appears broadly conserved across a subset of primate organs examined. Our study establishes a resource for investigations of coronavirus biology and pathology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Receptores Virais/genética , Tropismo Viral/genética , Internalização do Vírus , Células A549 , Animais , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células Caliciformes/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Túbulos Renais Proximais/citologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Mucosa Nasal/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Células Vero
7.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 63(5): 707-709, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857620
8.
Toxicol Lett ; 333: 33-41, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687961

RESUMO

Recent studies have revealed that increased reactive oxidative stress (ROS) induced by particulate matter (PM) affects tight junction (TJ) functions; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect have not been evaluated fully. Cultured human epithelial cells obtained from inferior turbinate tissues were exposed to an urban PM (UPM) standard reference material (SRM 1648a). Intracellular ROS level and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and TJ proteins were examined. Expression level of phosphorylated (p)-Akt, p38, p65 were compared between exposed and unexposed cells. Cells were pretreated with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or Akt inhibitor MK-2206 before exposure to determine whether the changes in cellular ROS and TJ protein expression could be reversed. Exposure to UPM significantly increased ROS levels and inflammatory cytokine expression levels, and decreased expression of TJ proteins zonula occludins (ZO)-1, occludin, claudin-1, and E-cadherin. UPM exposure increased p-Akt, p-p38, and p65 expression levels, and NAC pretreatment reversed these effects. Akt inhibition decreased UPM-induced ROS formation and p38 and p65 protein phosphorylation, and restored the decreased ZO-1 and E-cadherin expression. Akt inhibition and ROS scavenging may provide targets for maintaining epithelial integrity by restoring decreased TJ protein expression during exposure to UPM.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Nasal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Conchas Nasais/efeitos dos fármacos , Conchas Nasais/metabolismo , Urbanização
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234731, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544181

RESUMO

Airborne fungi are associated with upper and lower airway inflammatory diseases. Alternaria is commonly found in nasal secretions and induces the production of chemical mediators from sinonasal mucosa. This study aimed to establish an Alternaria-induced chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) mouse model and determine the influence of host allergic background on the immunopathological characteristics of CRS. BALB/c mice were used for establishing the CRS model. Alternaria was intranasally instilled for 8 or 16 weeks with or without ovalbumin (OVA) presensitization. Total serum IgE and Alternaria-specific IgE levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) and splenocytes were measured by ELISA and their mRNAs and levels of associated transcription factors in sinonasal mucosa were determined with quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hematoxylin-eosin staining and periodic acid-Schiff staining were performed to evaluate histological changes. Total serum IgE was increased in both allergic and non-allergic CRS. IL-4 was strongly expressed in NLF in both allergic and non-allergic CRS at 16 weeks and not only eosinophils but also neutrophils were increased in NLF of non-allergic CRS mice. The levels of Th1, Th2, and Treg cytokines and transcription factor mRNAs were significantly increased in sinonasal mucosa of non-allergic CRS mice. Both inflammatory cell infiltration and goblet cell hyperplasia were increased in CRS mice. Repeated intranasal instillation of Alternaria results in sinonasal inflammation with inflammatory cell infiltration. The sinonasal mucosal immune responses against Alternaria were shown to differ depending on the host allergic background.


Assuntos
Alternaria/patogenicidade , Rinite/patologia , Sinusite/patologia , Alternaria/imunologia , Animais , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Interleucina-10/análise , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/análise , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Líquido da Lavagem Nasal/química , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Mucosa Nasal/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Rinite/imunologia , Sinusite/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/microbiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
11.
Cell ; 182(2): 429-446.e14, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526206

RESUMO

The mode of acquisition and causes for the variable clinical spectrum of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain unknown. We utilized a reverse genetics system to generate a GFP reporter virus to explore severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogenesis and a luciferase reporter virus to demonstrate sera collected from SARS and COVID-19 patients exhibited limited cross-CoV neutralization. High-sensitivity RNA in situ mapping revealed the highest angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression in the nose with decreasing expression throughout the lower respiratory tract, paralleled by a striking gradient of SARS-CoV-2 infection in proximal (high) versus distal (low) pulmonary epithelial cultures. COVID-19 autopsied lung studies identified focal disease and, congruent with culture data, SARS-CoV-2-infected ciliated and type 2 pneumocyte cells in airway and alveolar regions, respectively. These findings highlight the nasal susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 with likely subsequent aspiration-mediated virus seeding to the lung in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. These reagents provide a foundation for investigations into virus-host interactions in protective immunity, host susceptibility, and virus pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Genética Reversa/métodos , Idoso , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Fibrose Cística/patologia , DNA Recombinante , Feminino , Furina/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Mucosa Nasal/patologia , Mucosa Nasal/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Células Vero , Virulência , Replicação Viral
13.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(7): 962-972, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459537

RESUMO

Rationale: Puerto Ricans have the highest childhood asthma prevalence in the United States (23.6%); however, the etiology is uncertain.Objectives: In this study, we sought to uncover the genetic architecture of lung function in Puerto Rican youth with and without asthma who were recruited from the island (n = 836).Methods: We used admixture-mapping and whole-genome sequencing data to discover genomic regions associated with lung function. Functional roles of the prioritized candidate SNPs were examined with chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, RNA sequencing, and expression quantitative trait loci data.Measurements and Main Results: We discovered a genomic region at 1q32 that was significantly associated with a 0.12-L decrease in the lung volume of exhaled air (95% confidence interval, -0.17 to -0.07; P = 6.62 × 10-8) with each allele of African ancestry. Within this region, two SNPs were expression quantitative trait loci of TMEM9 in nasal airway epithelial cells and MROH3P in esophagus mucosa. The minor alleles of these SNPs were associated with significantly decreased lung function and decreased TMEM9 gene expression. Another admixture-mapping peak was observed on chromosome 5q35.1, indicating that each Native American ancestry allele was associated with a 0.15-L increase in lung function (95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.21; P = 5.03 × 10-6). The region-based association tests identified four suggestive windows that harbored candidate rare variants associated with lung function.Conclusions: We identified common and rare genetic variants that may play a critical role in lung function among Puerto Rican youth. We independently validated an inflammatory pathway that could potentially be used to develop more targeted treatments and interventions for patients with asthma.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Asma/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5/genética , Volume Expiratório Forçado/genética , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Asma/fisiopatologia , Brônquios/citologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Mucosa Esofágica/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Pulmão/fisiologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Porto Rico , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 318(5): L1056-L1062, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233789

RESUMO

Air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures are ex vivo models that are used extensively to study the epithelium of patients with chronic respiratory diseases. However, the in vitro conditions impose a milieu different from that encountered in the patient in vivo, and the degree to which this alters gene expression remains unclear. In this study we employed RNA sequencing to compare the transcriptome of fresh brushings of nasal epithelial cells with that of ALI-cultured epithelial cells from the same patients. We observed a strong correlation between cells cultured at the ALI and cells obtained from the brushed nasal epithelia: 96% of expressed genes showed similar expression profiles, although there was greater similarity between the brushed samples. We observed that while the ALI model provides an excellent representation of the in vivo airway epithelial transcriptome for mechanistic studies, several pathways are affected by the change in milieu.


Assuntos
Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Idoso , Ar , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Meios de Cultura/química , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Mucosa Nasal/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Conchas Nasais/metabolismo , Conchas Nasais/patologia
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(15): 8616-8623, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229571

RESUMO

In the adult brain, vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGFD) is required for structural integrity of dendrites and cognitive abilities. Alterations of dendritic architectures are hallmarks of many neurologic disorders, including stroke-induced damage caused by toxic extrasynaptic NMDA receptor (eNMDAR) signaling. Here we show that stimulation of eNMDARs causes a rapid shutoff of VEGFD expression, leading to a dramatic loss of dendritic structures. Using the mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model, we have established the therapeutic potential of recombinant mouse VEGFD delivered intraventricularly to preserve dendritic architecture, reduce stroke-induced brain damage, and facilitate functional recovery. An easy-to-use therapeutic intervention for stroke was developed that uses a new class of VEGFD-derived peptide mimetics and postinjury nose-to-brain delivery.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/prevenção & controle , Dendritos/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Fator D de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
16.
Pharm Res ; 37(4): 74, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215749

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Zonisamide clinical indications are expanding beyond the classic treatment of epileptic seizures to Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. However, the systemic safety profile of zonisamide may compromise its use as a first-line drug in any clinical condition. Since zonisamide is marketed as oral formulations, the present study aimed at exploring the potential of the intranasal route to centrally administer zonisamide, evaluating the systemic bioavailability of zonisamide and comparing its brain, lung and kidney pharmacokinetics after intranasal, oral and intravenous administrations. METHODS: In vitro cell studies demonstrated that zonisamide and proposed thermoreversible gels did not affect the viability of RPMI 2650 or Calu-3 cells. Thereafter, male CD-1 mice were randomly administered with zonisamide by oral (80 mg/kg), intranasal or intravenous (16.7 mg/kg) route. At predefined time points, animals were sacrificed and plasma and tissues were collected to quantify zonisamide and describe its pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: Intranasal route revealed a low absolute bioavailability (54.95%) but the highest value of the ratio between the area under the curve (AUC) between brain and plasma, suggesting lower systemic adverse events and non-inferior effects in central nervous system comparatively to intravenous and oral routes. Furthermore, drug targeting efficiency and direct transport percentage into the brain were 149.54% and 33.13%, respectively, corroborating that a significant fraction of zonisamide suffers direct nose-to-brain transport. Lung and kidney exposures obtained after intranasal administration were lower than those observed after intravenous injection. CONCLUSIONS: This pre-clinical investigation demonstrates a direct nose-to-brain delivery of zonisamide, which may be a promising strategy for the treatment of central diseases.


Assuntos
Administração Intranasal , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Zonisamida/farmacocinética , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Zonisamida/administração & dosagem
17.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 21, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093748

RESUMO

Sialoadhesin (Sn) and CD163 have been recognized as two important mediators for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in host macrophages. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the highly virulent Lena strain has a wider macrophage tropism than the low virulent LV strain in the nasal mucosa. Not only CD163+Sn+ macrophages are infected by Lena but also CD163+Sn- macrophages. This suggests that an alternative receptor exists for binding and internalization of PRRSV Lena in the CD163+Sn- macrophages. Further investigation to find the new entry receptor was hampered by the difficulty of isolating these macrophages from the nasal mucosa. In the present study, a new population of CD163+Sn- cells has been identified that is specifically localized in the nasal lamina propria and can be isolated by an intranasal digestion approach. Isolated nasal cells were characterized using specific cell markers and their susceptibility to two different PRRSV-1 strains (LV and Lena) was tested. Upon digestion, 3.2% (flow cytometry)-6.4% (confocal microscopy) of the nasal cells were identified as CD163+ and all (99.7%) of these CD163+ cells were Sn-. These CD163+Sn- cells, designated as "nasal surface macrophages", showed a 4.9 times higher susceptibility to the Lena strain than to the LV strain. Furthermore, the Lena-inoculated cell cultures showed an upregulation of CD163. These results showed that our new cell isolation system is ideal for the further functional and phenotypical analysis of the new population of nasal surface macrophages and further research on the molecular pathogenesis of PRRSV in the nose.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/fisiologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Mucosa Nasal/imunologia , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Lectina 1 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/imunologia , Suínos
18.
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) ; 68(1): 6, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076842

RESUMO

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an IgE-mediated inflammation which causes olfactory dysfunction. Antihistamines have been widely used to treat AR while few studies have investigated the effect of antihistamines on improving the sense of smell. In addition, the underlying mechanisms are not well elucidated. We established the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis rat model and administrated desloratadine to AR rats. The AR symptoms, serum level of OVA-specific IgE and IL-17, and expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in nasal mucosa were measured. The olfactory dysfunction was monitored by buried food test and the expression of GluR1 was measured. Desloratadine treatment alleviated AR symptoms, decreased serum level of OVA-specific IgE and IL-17 in AR rats. Desloratadine decreased IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 expression in nasal mucosa of AR rats. Desloratadine ameliorated olfactory dysfunction in AR rats and decreased GluR1 expression in AR rats. Desloratadine treatment alleviated AR symptoms and ameliorated olfactory dysfunction in AR rats. The expression of AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 in olfactory bulb was associated with olfactory disorder.


Assuntos
Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1 não Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Loratadina/análogos & derivados , Transtornos do Olfato/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Rinite Alérgica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Loratadina/uso terapêutico , Mucosa Nasal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Bulbo Olfatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Bulbo Olfatório/metabolismo , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de AMPA/genética , Rinite Alérgica/induzido quimicamente , Rinite Alérgica/fisiopatologia
19.
Cell Immunol ; 351: 104035, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) is commonly used as a spice and traditional medicine in many countries. It has been reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, anti-mutagenic, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the protective role of P. nigrum on epithelial function of upper respiratory tract injury in an allergic rhinitis (AR) mouse model has been unclear. This study aims to investigate the effects of P. nigrum fruit extract (PNE) on the nasal epithelial barrier function of the upper respiratory tract in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR model. METHODS: AR mouse model was established by intraperitoneal injection with 200 µL saline containing 50 µg OVA adsorbed to 1 mg aluminum hydroxide, and intranasal challenge with 20 µL per nostril of 1 mg/ml OVA. Besides, mice were orally administrated once daily with PNE and dexamethasone (Dex) in 13 days. The nasal symptoms, inflammatory cells, OVA-specific immunoglobulins, cytokines, nasal histopathology, and immunohistochemistry were evaluated. RESULTS: The PNE oral administrations inhibited allergic responses via reduction of OVA-specific antibodies levels and mast cells histamine release, accordingly, the nasal symptoms in the early-phase reaction were also clearly ameliorated. In both nasal lavage fluid and nasal tissue, PNE suppressed the inflammatory cells accumulation, specifically with eosinophils. The intravenous Evans blue injection illustrated the epithelial permeability reduction of nasal mucosa layer in PNE-treated mice. Also; PNE treatments protected the epithelium integrity by preventing the epithelial shedding from nasal mucosa; as a result of enhancing the strong expression of the E-cadherin tight junction protein in cell-to-cell junctions, as well as inhibiting the degraded levels of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin into the nasal cavity. Additionally, PNE protected against nasal epithelial barrier dysfunction via enhancing the expression of Nrf2 activated form which led to increasing synthesis of the anti-inflammation enzyme HO-1. CONCLUSIONS: These obtained results suggest that PNE has a promising strategy for epithelial barrier stabilization in allergic rhinitis treatment.


Assuntos
Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Mucosa Nasal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rinite Alérgica/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Piper nigrum , Rinite Alérgica/induzido quimicamente , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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