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1.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(9): 680-689, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106213

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of c-fos gene silencing on differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells after exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5). Methods: HBE cells and c-fos-silenced HBE cells were exposed to 50 µg/mL PM 2.5, LC-MS/MS and tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling methods were combined with bioinformatics methods, and DEPs and interaction networks were identified. Results: In the HBE group, 414 DEPs were screened, of which 227 were up-regulated and 187 down-regulated. In the c-fos silenced HBE group, 480 DEPs were screened, including 240 up-regulated proteins and 240 down-regulated proteins. KEGG annotations showed that DEPs in the HBE group are mainly concentrated in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and those in the c-fos silenced group are concentrated mainly in endoplasmic reticulum and the processing of proteins. Additionally, the abnormal expression of GPRC5C, DKK4, and UBE2C was identified in top 15 DEPs. After constructing the protein interaction network, 20 Hub proteins including HNRNPA2B1, HNRNPL, RPS15A, and RPS25 were screened from the HBE group and the c-fos silenced HBE group. Conclusion: c-fos gene affected the expression of cancer-related proteins. Our results provided a scientific basis for further study of PM 2.5-induced carcinogenesis mechanism.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Brônquios/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Genes fos/genética , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Brônquios/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Proteômica , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo
2.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3719-3728, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955617

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of early-life exposure to different extracts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) on airway inflammation in an allergic asthma model. The total soluble extract (TE) and the soluble extracts of the digestive (AcD), reproductive (AcR), and cuticle (AcC) systems of A. cantonensis were used for immunisation before ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitisation/challenge in an OVA-induced allergic asthma model. The initial hypothesis of the study was that some soluble extract of the systems (AcD, AcR, or AcC) could be more potent to the modulation of inflammation than the TE. Our data, however, shows that immunisation with the TE is more promising because it decreased the high influx of inflammatory cells on airways and promoted an increase of interferon-γ (IFN-ɣ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. Besides this, the immunisation with the TE also led to a reduction of goblet cells and mucus overproduction in the lung tissue of asthmatic mice. We believe that the extracts have a distinct capacity to modulate the immune system, due to the TE possessing a greater variability of molecules, which together leads to control of airway inflammation. In conclusion, this is the first study to reveal that the TE of A. cantonensis adult worms has a greater potential for developing a novel therapeutic for allergic asthma.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis/metabolismo , Asma/imunologia , Imunomodulação , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunização , Inflamação , Pulmão/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(40): 24620-24626, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883878

RESUMO

The reduced development of COVID-19 for children compared to adults provides some tantalizing clues on the pathogenesis and transmissibility of this pandemic virus. First, ACE2, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor, is reduced in the respiratory tract in children. Second, coronavirus associated with common colds in children may offer some protection, due to cross-reactive humoral immunity and T cell immunity between common coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2. Third, T helper 2 immune responses are protective in children. Fourth, surprisingly, eosinophilia, associated with T helper 2, may be protective. Fifth, children generally produce lower levels of inflammatory cytokines. Finally, the influence of the downturn in the global economy, the impact of living in quarters among families who are the most at risk, and factors including the openings of some schools, are considered. Those most disadvantaged socioeconomically may suffer disproportionately with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Células Th2/fisiologia
4.
Redox Biol ; 36: 101615, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863223

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide. While the majority of people with COVID-19 won't require hospitalization, those who do may experience severe life-threatening complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 infects human cells by binding to the cellular surface protein angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2); in addition, the cellular transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) is needed for priming of the spike (S) protein of the virus. Virus entry may also depend on the activity of the endosomal/lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsin B, L (CTSB, CTSL) although their activity is likely dispensable. Given that the uncertainty of how COVID-19 kills, hampers doctors' ability to choose treatments the need for a deep understanding of COVID-19 biology is urgent. Herein, we performed an expression profiling meta-analysis of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and CTSB/L genes (and proteins) in public repository databases and found that all are widely expressed in human tissues; also, the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes tend to be co-regulated. The ACE2 and TMPRSS genes expression is (among others) suppressed by TNF, and is induced by pro-inflammatory conditions including obesity, Barrett's esophagus, stomach infection by helicobacter pylori, diabetes, autoimmune diseases and oxidized LDL; by exercise, as well as by growth factors, viruses' infections, cigarette smoke, interferons and androgens. Regarding currently investigated therapies interferon-beta induced ACE2 gene expression in bronchial epithelial cells, while chloroquine tends to upregulate CTSB/L genes. Finally, we analyzed KEGG pathways modulated by ACE2, TMPRSS2 and CTSB/L and probed DrugBank for drugs that target modules of the affected pathways. Our data indicate possible novel high-risk groups for COVID-19; provide a rich resource for future investigations of its pathogenesis and highlight the therapeutic challenges we face.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Catepsinas/genética , Catepsinas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/farmacologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(4): L670-L674, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878480

RESUMO

The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is linked to an increasing number of risk factors, including exogenous (environmental) stimuli such as air pollution, nicotine, and cigarette smoke. These three factors increase the expression of angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a key receptor involved in the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-the etiological agent of COVID-19-into respiratory tract epithelial cells. Patients with severe COVID-19 are managed with oxygen support, as are at-risk individuals with chronic lung disease. To date, no study has examined whether an increased fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) may affect the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors and co-receptors, including ACE2 and the transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS1, TMPRSS2, and TMPRSS11D. To address this, steady-state mRNA levels for genes encoding these SARS-CoV-2 receptors were assessed in the lungs of mouse pups chronically exposed to elevated FiO2, and in the lungs of preterm-born human infants chronically managed with an elevated FiO2. These two scenarios served as models of chronic elevated FiO2 exposure. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 receptor expression was assessed in primary human nasal, tracheal, esophageal, bronchial, and alveolar epithelial cells, as well as primary mouse alveolar type II cells exposed to elevated oxygen concentrations. While gene expression of ACE2 was unaffected, gene and protein expression of TMPRSS11D was consistently upregulated by exposure to an elevated FiO2. These data highlight the need for further studies that examine the relative contribution of the various viral co-receptors on the infection cycle, and point to oxygen supplementation as a potential risk factor for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Serina Proteases/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/análise , Pandemias , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Proteases/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1337, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733448

RESUMO

Autophagy is a cellular recycling system found in almost all types of eukaryotic organisms. The system is made up of a variety of proteins which function to deliver intracellular cargo to lysosomes for formation of autophagosomes in which the contents are degraded. The maintenance of cellular homeostasis is key in the survival and function of a variety of human cell populations. The interconnection between metabolism and autophagy is extensive, therefore it has a role in a variety of different cell functions. The disruption or dysfunction of autophagy in these cell types have been implicated in the development of a variety of inflammatory diseases including asthma. The role of autophagy in non-immune and immune cells both lead to the pathogenesis of lung inflammation. Autophagy in pulmonary non-immune cells leads to tissue remodeling which can develop into chronic asthma cases with long term effects. The role autophagy in the lymphoid and myeloid lineages in the pathology of asthma differ in their functions. Impaired autophagy in lymphoid populations have been shown, in general, to decrease inflammation in both asthma and inflammatory disease models. Many lymphoid cells rely on autophagy for effector function and maintained inflammation. In stark contrast, autophagy deficient antigen presenting cells have been shown to have an activated inflammasome. This is largely characterized by a TH17 response that is accompanied with a much worse prognosis including granulocyte mediated inflammation and steroid resistance. The cell specificity associated with changes in autophagic flux complicates its targeting for amelioration of asthmatic symptoms. Differing asthmatic phenotypes between TH2 and TH17 mediated disease may require different autophagic modulations. Therefore, treatments call for a more cell specific and personalized approach when looking at chronic asthma cases. Viral-induced lung inflammation, such as that caused by SARS-CoV-2, also may involve autophagic modulation leading to inflammation mediated by lung resident cells. In this review, we will be discussing the role of autophagy in non-immune cells, myeloid cells, and lymphoid cells for their implications into lung inflammation and asthma. Finally, we will discuss autophagy's role viral pathogenesis, immunometabolism, and asthma with insights into autophagic modulators for amelioration of lung inflammation.


Assuntos
Asma/complicações , Asma/patologia , Autofagia/imunologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Animais , Asma/imunologia , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
7.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008691, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764743

RESUMO

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is characterized by chronic airway disease, reduced fertility, and randomization of the left/right body axis. It is caused by defects of motile cilia and sperm flagella. We screened a cohort of affected individuals that lack an obvious axonemal defect for pathogenic variants using whole exome capture, next generation sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis assuming an autosomal recessive trait. We identified one subject with an apparently homozygous nonsense variant [(c.1762C>T), p.(Arg588*)] in the uncharacterized CFAP57 gene. Interestingly, the variant results in the skipping of exon 11 (58 amino acids), which may be due to disruption of an exonic splicing enhancer. In normal human nasal epithelial cells, CFAP57 localizes throughout the ciliary axoneme. Nasal cells from the PCD patient express a shorter, mutant version of CFAP57 and the protein is not incorporated into the axoneme. The missing 58 amino acids include portions of WD repeats that may be important for loading onto the intraflagellar transport (IFT) complexes for transport or docking onto the axoneme. A reduced beat frequency and an alteration in ciliary waveform was observed. Knockdown of CFAP57 in human tracheobronchial epithelial cells (hTECs) recapitulates these findings. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CFAP57 is highly conserved in organisms that assemble motile cilia. CFAP57 is allelic with the BOP2/IDA8/FAP57 gene identified previously in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Two independent, insertional fap57 Chlamydomonas mutant strains show reduced swimming velocity and altered waveforms. Tandem mass tag (TMT) mass spectroscopy shows that FAP57 is missing, and the "g" inner dyneins (DHC7 and DHC3) and the "d" inner dynein (DHC2) are reduced, but the FAP57 paralog FBB7 is increased. Together, our data identify a homozygous variant in CFAP57 that causes PCD that is likely due to a defect in the inner dynein arm assembly process.


Assuntos
Axonema/metabolismo , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Dineínas/metabolismo , Proteínas/genética , Células 3T3 , Adulto , Animais , Axonema/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , Cílios/metabolismo , Cílios/fisiologia , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/patologia , Sequência Conservada , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo
8.
Exp Cell Res ; 395(2): 112204, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV2, the agent responsible for the current pandemic, is also causing respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), hyperinflammation and high mortality. It is critical to dissect the pathogenetic mechanisms in order to reach a targeted therapeutic approach. METHODS: In the present investigation, we evaluated the effects of SARS-CoV2 on human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC). We used RNA-seq datasets available online for identifying SARS-CoV2 potential genes target on human bronchial epithelial cells. RNA expression levels and potential cellular gene pathways have been analyzed. In order to identify possible common strategies among the main pandemic viruses, such as SARS-CoV2, SARS-CoV1, MERS-CoV, and H1N1, we carried out a hypergeometric test of the main genes transcribed in the cells of the respiratory tract exposed to these viruses. RESULTS: The analysis showed that two mechanisms are highly regulated in HBEC: the innate immunity recruitment and the disassembly of cilia and cytoskeletal structure. The granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (CSF3) and dynein heavy chain 7, axonemal (DNAH7) represented respectively the most upregulated and downregulated genes belonging to the two mechanisms highlighted above. Furthermore, the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 7 (CEACAM7) that codifies for a surface protein is highly specific of SARS-CoV2 and not for SARS-CoV1, MERS-CoV, and H1N1, suggesting a potential role in viral entry. In order to identify potential new drugs, using a machine learning approach, we highlighted Flunisolide, Thalidomide, Lenalidomide, Desoximetasone, xylazine, and salmeterol as potential drugs against SARS-CoV2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, lung involvement and RDS could be generated by the activation and down regulation of diverse gene pathway involving respiratory cilia and muscle contraction, apoptotic phenomena, matrix destructuration, collagen deposition, neutrophil and macrophages recruitment.


Assuntos
Brônquios/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Brônquios/patologia , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/genética , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Dineínas/genética , Dineínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/genética , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Aprendizado de Máquina , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
9.
Mol Syst Biol ; 16(7): e9841, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715628

RESUMO

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) leads to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which poses an unprecedented worldwide health crisis, and has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. The angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been suggested to be the key protein used by SARS-CoV-2 for host cell entry. In their recent work, Lindskog and colleagues (Hikmet et al, 2020) report that ACE2 is expressed at very low protein levels-if at all-in respiratory epithelial cells. Severe COVID-19, however, is characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome and extensive damage to the alveoli in the lung parenchyma. Then, what is the role of the airway epithelium in the early stages of COVID-19, and which cells need to be studied to characterize the biological mechanisms responsible for the progression to severe disease after initial infection by the novel coronavirus?


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Betacoronavirus , Túnica Conjuntiva/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Humanos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/enzimologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
11.
Eur Respir J ; 56(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675206

RESUMO

In December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged, causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. SARS-CoV, the agent responsible for the 2003 SARS outbreak, utilises angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) host molecules for viral entry. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 have recently been implicated in SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. Additional host molecules including ADAM17, cathepsin L, CD147 and GRP78 may also function as receptors for SARS-CoV-2.To determine the expression and in situ localisation of candidate SARS-CoV-2 receptors in the respiratory mucosa, we analysed gene expression datasets from airway epithelial cells of 515 healthy subjects, gene promoter activity analysis using the FANTOM5 dataset containing 120 distinct sample types, single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) of 10 healthy subjects, proteomic datasets, immunoblots on multiple airway epithelial cell types, and immunohistochemistry on 98 human lung samples.We demonstrate absent to low ACE2 promoter activity in a variety of lung epithelial cell samples and low ACE2 gene expression in both microarray and scRNAseq datasets of epithelial cell populations. Consistent with gene expression, rare ACE2 protein expression was observed in the airway epithelium and alveoli of human lung, confirmed with proteomics. We present confirmatory evidence for the presence of TMPRSS2, CD147 and GRP78 protein in vitro in airway epithelial cells and confirm broad in situ protein expression of CD147 and GRP78 in the respiratory mucosa.Collectively, our data suggest the presence of a mechanism dynamically regulating ACE2 expression in human lung, perhaps in periods of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and also suggest that alternative receptors for SARS-CoV-2 exist to facilitate initial host cell infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia Viral , Serina Endopeptidases , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/virologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores Virais/classificação , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110956, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atmospheric pollutants could induced over-expression of Muc5ac, which is a major pathological feature in acute exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and fatal asthma. Notch signaling pathway could promote mucus cell proliferation and mucus secretion. However, the effects of Notch signaling pathway on the airway mucus secretion induced by PM2.5 remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the Notch signaling pathway on Muc5ac by atmospheric PM2.5 in Beas-2B cell. METHODS: The mRNA and protein levels of the Notch1-4, downstream target gene Hes1 and Muc5ac in the Notch signaling pathway were detected by qPCR and western after Beas-2B cells were exposed to PM2.5 of different concentrations for 12h, 24h, and 48h. RESULTS: The longer the exposure time and the higher the concentration of PM2.5, the lower the survival rate of Beas-2B cells. The expressions of Hes1 and Muc5ac in mRNA and protein were significantly increased after PM2.5 exposure. Correlation analysis indicated that there was a positive correlation between the expression of Muc5ac and Hes1 in mRNA and protein. CONCLUSION: Atmospheric PM2.5 can induce the express of Muc5ac, the Notch signaling pathway may be involved in the regulation of Muc5ac by Hes1.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucina-5AC/biossíntese , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110066, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629204

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has not spared any continent. The disease has affected more than 7,500,000 individuals globally and killed approximately 450,000 individuals. The disease is caused by a very small virus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus with a spike-like structure on its envelope that can interact with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor after cleavage. ACE2 receptors are present in the human lungs and other organs. SARS-CoV-2 is a new virus that belongs to the subgenus Sarbecovirus; viruses in this subgenus have spread widely in the previous years and caused outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndromes.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Modelos Imunológicos , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Ageusia/etiologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Expectorantes/uso terapêutico , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/virologia , Muco/metabolismo , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-487805

RESUMO

Mucociliary clearance, mediated by a coordinated function of cilia bathing in the airway surface liquid (ASL) on the surface of airway epithelium, protects the host from inhaled pathogens and is an essential component of the innate immunity. ASL is composed of the superficial mucus layer and the deeper periciliary liquid. Ion channels, transporters, and pumps coordinate the transcellular and paracellular movement of ions and water to maintain the ASL volume and mucus hydration. microRNA (miRNA) is a class of non-coding, short single-stranded RNA regulating gene expression by post-transcriptional mechanisms. miRNAs have been increasingly recognized as essential regulators of ion channels and transporters responsible for ASL homeostasis. miRNAs also influence the airway host defense. We summarize the most up-to-date information on the role of miRNAs in ASL homeostasis and host-pathogen interactions in the airway and discuss concepts for miRNA-directed therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronaviridae/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , MicroRNAs/genética , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Absorção pelo Trato Respiratório , Animais , Infecções por Coronaviridae/genética , Infecções por Coronaviridae/virologia , Homeostase , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia
17.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(2): L256-L265, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521165

RESUMO

Most quantitative PCR (qPCR) experiments report differential expression relative to the expression of one or more reference genes. Therefore, when experimental conditions alter reference gene expression, qPCR results may be compromised. Little is known about the magnitude of this problem in practice. We found that reference gene responses are common and hard to predict and that their stability should be demonstrated in each experiment. Our reanalysis of 15 airway epithelia microarray data sets retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) identified no common reference gene that was reliable in all 15 studies. Reanalysis of published RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data in which human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) were exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed that minor experimental details, including bacterial strain, may alter reference gene responses. Direct measurement of 32 TaqMan reference genes in primary cultures of HBEC exposed to P. aeruginosa (strain PA14) demonstrated that choosing an unstable reference gene could make it impossible to observe statistically significant changes in IL8 gene expression. We found that reference gene instability is a general phenomenon and not limited to studies of airway epithelial cells. In a diverse compendium of 986 human microarray experiments retrieved from the NCBI, reference genes were differentially expressed in 42% of studies. Experimentally induced changes in reference gene expression ranged from 21% to 212%. These results highlight the importance of identifying adequate reference genes for each experimental system and documenting their response to treatment in each experiment. This will enhance experimental rigor and reproducibility in qPCR studies.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Mucosa Respiratória/microbiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , RNA/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481719

RESUMO

Mucociliary clearance, mediated by a coordinated function of cilia bathing in the airway surface liquid (ASL) on the surface of airway epithelium, protects the host from inhaled pathogens and is an essential component of the innate immunity. ASL is composed of the superficial mucus layer and the deeper periciliary liquid. Ion channels, transporters, and pumps coordinate the transcellular and paracellular movement of ions and water to maintain the ASL volume and mucus hydration. microRNA (miRNA) is a class of non-coding, short single-stranded RNA regulating gene expression by post-transcriptional mechanisms. miRNAs have been increasingly recognized as essential regulators of ion channels and transporters responsible for ASL homeostasis. miRNAs also influence the airway host defense. We summarize the most up-to-date information on the role of miRNAs in ASL homeostasis and host-pathogen interactions in the airway and discuss concepts for miRNA-directed therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronaviridae/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , MicroRNAs/genética , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Absorção pelo Trato Respiratório , Animais , Infecções por Coronaviridae/genética , Infecções por Coronaviridae/virologia , Homeostase , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia
19.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(1): L115-L120, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493030

RESUMO

COVID-19 can be divided into three clinical stages, and one can speculate that these stages correlate with where the infection resides. For the asymptomatic phase, the infection mostly resides in the nose, where it elicits a minimal innate immune response. For the mildly symptomatic phase, the infection is mostly in the pseudostratified epithelium of the larger airways and is accompanied by a more vigorous innate immune response. In the conducting airways, the epithelium can recover from the infection, because the keratin 5 basal cells are spared and they are the progenitor cells for the bronchial epithelium. There may be more severe disease in the bronchioles, where the club cells are likely infected. The devastating third phase is in the gas exchange units of the lung, where ACE2-expressing alveolar type II cells and perhaps type I cells are infected. The loss of type II cells results in respiratory insufficiency due to the loss of pulmonary surfactant, alveolar flooding, and possible loss of normal repair, since type II cells are the progenitors of type I cells. The loss of type I and type II cells will also block normal active resorption of alveolar fluid. Subsequent endothelial damage leads to transudation of plasma proteins, formation of hyaline membranes, and an inflammatory exudate, characteristic of ARDS. Repair might be normal, but if the type II cells are severely damaged alternative pathways for epithelial repair may be activated, which would result in some residual lung disease.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/virologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/virologia , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia
20.
Nat Immunol ; 21(7): 756-765, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572240

RESUMO

The molecular basis for the propensity of a small number of environmental proteins to provoke allergic responses is largely unknown. Herein, we report that mite group 13 allergens of the fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) family are sensed by an evolutionarily conserved acute-phase protein, serum amyloid A1 (SAA1), that promotes pulmonary type 2 immunity. Mechanistically, SAA1 interacted directly with allergenic mite FABPs (Der p 13 and Blo t 13). The interaction between mite FABPs and SAA1 activated the SAA1-binding receptor, formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2), which drove the epithelial release of the type-2-promoting cytokine interleukin (IL)-33 in a SAA1-dependent manner. Importantly, the SAA1-FPR2-IL-33 axis was upregulated in nasal epithelial cells from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. These findings identify an unrecognized role for SAA1 as a soluble pattern recognition receptor for conserved FABPs found in common mite allergens that initiate type 2 immunity at mucosal surfaces.


Assuntos
Asma/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Dermatophagoides/imunologia , Asma/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Imunidade Inata , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/metabolismo , Receptores de Lipoxinas/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Rinite Alérgica/patologia , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/genética , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem
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