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1.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 251: 109-129, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289937

RESUMO

One of the fastest-growing global food sectors is the bivalve aquaculture industry. Bivalves particularly oysters, mussels and clams are important sources of animal protein (Tan and Ransangan 2016a, b). Bivalve aquaculture represents 14-16% of the average per capita animal protein for 1.5 billion people and supports over 200,000 livelihoods, mostly in developing countries (FAO 2018). Most of the bivalves produced around the world (89%) are from aquaculture (FAO 2016). To date, mollusc aquaculture have accounted for 21.42% (17.14 million tonnes) of the total aquaculture production, with Asia being the largest contributor (92.27%) (FAO 2018).


Assuntos
Bivalves , Mudança Climática , Animais , Aquicultura
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(suppl 3): e20190215, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460593

RESUMO

In the present context of concerns for biodiversity, the French Academy of Sciences produced in 2017 a report entitled "Mechanisms of adaptation of biodiversity to climate change and their limits". We briefly review here the production process and structure of the report, and summarize its conclusions and recommendations. The conclusions emphasize the role of habitat fragmentation in the expected impact of climate change on biodiversity, in particular for organisms with limited dispersal abilities, and the disparities in species responses which must be taken to understand the future of species assemblages ("communities") under different scenarios of climate change. The recommendations cover the organization of biodiversity research and monitoring (development of observatories, key role of embedded time scales and modeling, integration of Human and Social Sciences), as well as critical domains such as Human, animal and plant health, agriculture and forestry policies, and management of the Environment.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Academias e Institutos , Animais , Humanos
8.
Br J Gen Pract ; 69(686): 430, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467005
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180414, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411255

RESUMO

The deep sea remains the least known biome. Despite this fact, anthropic activities have affected these regions in various ways. The objective of this study was to outline the scientific production scenario based on deep sea research and to analyze trends present in the literature. For this, the bibliographical resources available from the Web of Science (WoS) were surveyed. Between 1987 and 2016, 11,079 articles on the deep sea were published. Growth was over 100% from the first to second decade and 75% from the second to third. The most productive countries were the USA, Germany, France, England and Japan. Of the 404 journals that published articles on the deep sea, 10% accounted for approximately 60% of the total published articles. The keyword with the highest occurrence was "diversity". In the first two decades, the keywords with the greatest "strength" were related to research on mining, especially for hydrocarbons. The description of new species and the analysis of the effects of climate change appear to be emerging trends in deep sea research. Mining continues to be primarily responsible for driving the development of deep sea research.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Oceanos e Mares , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Biodiversidade , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Mudança Climática , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Alemanha , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Água do Mar , Estados Unidos
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2165-2170, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418218

RESUMO

Combined with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset, vegetation type data, and meteorological data, we revealed the variation of vegetation growth responses to air temperature in the growing-season during 1982-2015 in Xinjiang, using the moving-windows based partial correlation analysis, the unitary linear regression analysis and GIS spatial analysis. Results showed that, in the whole growing-seasons of study period, there was a significant downturn trend in the responses of vegetation growth to temperature. At the seasonal scale, the downturn trend was obvious especially in summer and autumn, while it was in adverse in spring. During the whole gro-wing season, the responses of different vegetation types to air temperature change showed a decreasing trend. Seasonally, the responses of grassland and forest to temperature change showed a significant increase, while that of shrubland and desert were exactly the opposite in spring. The responses of all natural vegetation (grassland, shrubland, desert and forest) to temperature change showed a significant decreasing trend in summer, whereas their responses in autumn had no significant statistical characteristics. Spatially, the decreasing influence of temperature on the vegetation growth during the growing season in Xinjiang was universal, which might be due to the change in precipitation and solar radiation.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , China , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2181-2190, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418220

RESUMO

We used the mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation data during 1961 and 2017 of 101 national meteorological stations in Yunnan Province to calculate three climate-induced potential productivity in Yunnan Province by Miami model and the Thornthwaite Memorial model. The abrupt test was carried out by Mann-Kendell method. The spatial and temporal distribution characteristics and future trends of the three climate-induced potential productivities were analyzed. Results showed that the average values of the temperature potential productivity (Yt), precipitation potential productivity (Yr) and evapotranspiration potential productivity (Ye) during the study period was 1968, 1477 and 1434 g·m-2·a-1, respectively. The value of Yt was rising in Yunnan Province. For the value of Yr /Yt, there was a large difference in water-heat ratio among regions, as well as the binding conditions. There was an abrupt change in climate-induced potential productivity, with Yt began to abrupt change significantly in 2001. There was no abrupt change in Yr, but Ye had abrupt change in 2002-2004. The spatial distribution of climate production potential and climate tendency were uneven. The annual average value of Yt, Yr and Ye was 1030-2465, 927-2341 and 832-1995 g·m-2·a-1, respectively. The climate-induced potential productivity was the lowest in the northwestern and northeastern Yunnan and the highest in the southwestern and southern Yunnan. Most of the climatic propensity rates of Yt, Yr and Ye showed increase, decrease and increase trends respectively. Eight schemes simulating future climate change (i.e., temperature increased by 1 ℃, precipitation increased by 10%, temperature decreased by 1 ℃, precipitation decreased by 10%, temperature increased by 1 ℃ and precipitation decreased by 10%, temperature increased by 1 ℃ and precipitation increased by 10%, the temperature decrease by 1 ℃ and the precipitation increased by 10%, the temperature decrease by 1 ℃ and precipitation decreased by 10%) would lead to Ye changes of 6-45, 13-77.2, 15-67, -87 to -17, -74-46, 58-96, -54-57, -101 to -59 g·m-2·a-1, respectively. On the whole, if the climate tends to be "warm and wet" in the future, it will be beneficial for crop production. However, if it tends to be "cold and dry", it will be unfavorable to crop production in the study area.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , China , Temperatura Ambiente , Água
12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2201-2210, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418222

RESUMO

Under global change scenario, precipitation pattern has significantly changed, mainly in the aspects of annual precipitation amount, precipitation seasonal distribution and precipitation event characteristics (size of individual precipitation event, periods length between two precipitation events, and number of precipitation events in a year), which combined to affect various processes of terrestrial ecosystems, especially productivity. Grassland ecosystem is one of the most sensitive ecosystems to the changes of precipitation regime. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the responses of productivity to altered precipitation regime in grasslands. In this study, I firstly reviewed the responses of grassland productivity to each characteristic of the altered precipitation regime. Then, I summarized the methods that employed in the study of productivity-precipitation relationship, including long-term observations, manipulative field experiments, and modelling. Finally, I came up with several theoretical and methodological problems that needed to be solved in the future. This work would facilitate the understanding of how grasslands response to the global climate change, with implications for grassland management in the context of climate change.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Chuva
13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2218-2230, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418224

RESUMO

Quercus mongolica and Phellodendron amurense are two important broad-leaved species in temperate forests of Northeast China. It is critical to explore their responses to climate change for supporting management, protection, and restoration of the broad-leaved forest in Northeast China under the future climate change scenario. Three sampling sites along a longitude gradient, Heilun, Tieli and Yichun, were set up in the Xiaoxing'an Mountains. Dendrochronological methods were used to establish standard chronologies for Q. mongolica and P. amurense. Correlation analyses were conducted between these chronologies and local climatic factors to establish the spatial and temporal variations in growth-climate relationship of Q. mongolica and P. amurense. The results showed that the radial growth of P. amurense was sensitive to temperature, while that of Q. mongolica was limi-ted by both temperature and precipitation. The temperature sensitivities of these two species were different. High spring temperature inhibited the radial growth of Q. mongolica, but promoted that of P. amurense. The limiting effect of high maximum temperature in summer on radial growth of Q. mongolica was significantly higher than that of P. amurense. With the increases of longitude (water availability), the correlation coefficients between radial growth of Q. mongolica and precipitation gradually weakened, while P. amurense didn't change. The physiological characteristics of those tree species was the key factors affecting their growth-climate relationship. With the significant warming since the 1976, the growth trend of P. amurense increased, whilst that of Q. mongolica decreased. Deteriorated drought stress caused by warming and difference in the species' ability to cope with water deficits might be the main reasons for different responses of two species, and for the divergence phenomenon occurring for Q. mongolica. If warming continues or worsens in the future, the growth of Q. mongolica may decline due to the intensified drought stress, while that of P. amurense may be less affected or be slightly enhanced.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Phellodendron/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quercus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Florestas , Árvores
14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2231-2240, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418225

RESUMO

With dendrochronology method, standard and residual chronologies of Pinus massoniana were established at low altitude (260 m), middle altitude (460 m), high altitude (690 m), sunny slope (270 m), and shady slope (265 m). Relationships between the tree-ring width and the climatic factors were quantified using correlation analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA). The optimal multiple regression models for the radial growth of P. massoniana and the climatic factors were established. We analyzed the change rule of radial growth and its relationship with the climatic factors along with the altitude and slope. The results showed that the radial growth of P. massoniana was significantly affected by precipitation and temperature across the altitude gradient and the slope level, respectively. Among the 120 climatic variables, precipitation in December of last year and the extreme minimum temperature in February of current year had the most significant negative effects on the radial growth at different altitudes and slopes, respectively. This study quantitatively described the impacts of climate change on the radial growth of P. massoniana in the subtropical region, and provided a scientific basis for the planting and management of P. massoniana forest in Jiangle Country under the climate warming background.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Pinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Altitude , Florestas , Temperatura Ambiente , Árvores
15.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2309-2319, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418234

RESUMO

We estimated grassland NPP using CASA model in the Loess Plateau during 2000-2015 and further analyzed the spatiotemporal dynamics, stability and persistence of grassland NPP. The driving factors of grassland NPP were analyzed from four aspects, i.e., vegetation types, topographic factors, climate change, and human activities. The results showed that the average NPP was 202.93 g C·m-2·a-1. The grassland NPP showed an increasing trend with an average increase rate of 2.43 g C·m-2·a-1. The distribution of NPP in grassland had obvious spatial heterogeneity, which was generally high in the south and low in the north. 91.2% of the total grassland area showed an increasing trend, mainly distributed in most areas of Shaanxi Province, Longdong and Longzhong areas of Gansu Province, and most parts of Qinghai Province. The regions with a stable growth condition of grassland NPP mainly located in the south of Ordos, northern Shaanxi, and Gansu. The future change trend of grassland NPP would be consistent with that of the past in most areas. The grassland NPP would continue to increase in most areas of Shaanxi Province, Longzhong and Longdong areas in Gansu Province. The average NPP of slope grassland was 703.37 g C·m-2·a-1, while that of alpine and subalpine grassland was 57.28 g C·m-2·a-1. The grassland NPP was higher in high altitude area and relative low in plain and hilly area. The increased precipitation promoted the increase of grassland NPP during the study period. Human activities such as improvement of overgrazing and returning cropland to grassland also played an important role in the increase of grassland NPP in the Loess Plateau.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Modelos Teóricos , China , Mudança Climática , Atividades Humanas
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2426-2436, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418246

RESUMO

Based on catch data from the bottom trawl survey by eight cruises in offshore of northern South China Sea during 2014-2017, we analyzed the stock density distribution and explored its probability distribution with statistical method, which was further used to estimate the mean stock density in this region. The results showed that the coefficient of variation (CV) for stock density ranged from 0.67 to 1.03 for all the periods, indicating a highly uneven spatial distribution of stock density. The frequency distribution of fishery resource density was characterized by obvious right-skewed, which was dominated by stock density of 0-1000 kg·km-2. The results of one sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicated that three probability distribution patterns were suitable for stock density in this region, including Lognormal, Gamma and Weibull distributions. In terms of the mean stock density estimation, the values from Lognormal showed no statistically significant difference from those from others, but the opposite result was obtained between Gamma and Weibull distributions. Compared with 1960s-1970s, the appropriate probability distribution pattern of stock density has changed from single to multiple types. Variation of the proportion of low catch resulted from the changes in the structure of fishery resources, fishing effort and climate change might cause the alte-ration of probability distribution.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Probabilidade
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2457-2469, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418249

RESUMO

To clarify the impacts of climate change on the potential distribution of six crane species in the Great Xing'an Mountains region, and promote the effective protection of these species, we selected key environmental variables such as climate, topography, and vegetation type based on Pearson correlation and Jackknife analysis, and modeled the potential distribution of six crane species in the Great Xing'an Mountains using MaxEnt with the current and the future climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). We identified the priority protection areas (PPAs) and the target PPAs by zonation and ArcGIS. The results showed that with the current climate condition, the sui-table habitats of these species were mainly distributed in the central and the northwest part of the Great Xing'an Mountains. With RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, the suitable habitats of Grus monacha, Grus japonensis, Grus vipio, Grus grus and Anthropoides virgo would decrease, while that of Grus leucogeranus would expand by 5.4%-6.3%. With current and the future climate change scenarios, the PPAs of these species were mainly distributed in the northwest, southeast and west-central parts of the Great Xing'an Mountains. The protect rate could reach about 20.1%-23.8% of the target PPAs conserved by protected areas (PAs). The protection gaps were mainly distributed in the west of Mohe County, the north-central of Ergun, the central and east of Genhe, the northeast of Yakeshi, and the south of Oroqen Autonomous Banner. We proposed to expand PAs to provide a strong guarantee for the effective protection of cranes species.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Animais , Aves , China
19.
Global Health ; 15(1): 52, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The adverse health impacts of climate change are increasing on a global level. However, knowledge about climate change and health is still unavailable to many global citizens, in particular on adaptation measures and co-benefits of health mitigation. Educational technologies, such as massive open online courses (MOOCs), may have a high potential for providing access to information about climate change links to health for a global audience. MAIN BODY: We developed three MOOCs addressing the link between climate change and health to take advantage of the methodology's broad reach and accelerate knowledge dissemination on the nexus of climate change and health. The primary objective was to translate an existing face-to-face short course that only reached a few participants on climate change and health into globally accessible learning opportunities. In the following, we share and comment on our lessons learned with the three MOOCs, with a focus on global teaching in the realm of climate change and health. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the three MOOCs attracted a global audience with diverse educational backgrounds, and a large number of participants from low-income countries. Our experience highlights that MOOCs may play a part in global capacity building, potentially for other health-related topics as well, as we have found that our MOOCs have attracted participants within low-resource contexts. MOOCs may be an effective method for teaching and training global students on health topics, in this case on the complex links and dynamics between climate change and health and may further act as an enabler for equitable access to quality education.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Educação a Distância , Saúde Ambiental/educação , Saúde Global/educação , Humanos
20.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 773-774, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433926
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