Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 21.862
Filtrar
1.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 146: 29-39, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498608

RESUMO

One of the major drivers of amphibian population declines is Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We sought to identify the major environmental drivers of Bd prevalence in Texas, USA, by drawing results from museum specimens. We sampled one of the largest museum collections in Texas, the Biodiversity Research and Teaching Collections at Texas A&M University. Our sampling focused on the 9 amphibian species with the widest geographical distribution within the state, where we sub-sampled 30% of each species per decade from 1930 to present via skin swabs, totaling 1501 independent sampling events, and used quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect pathogen presence. We analyzed several geo-referenced variables describing climatic conditions to identify potential factors influencing the likelihood of presence of Bd using boosted regression trees. Our final model suggests the most influential variables are mean temperature of driest quarter, annual mean temperature, temperature annual range, and mean diurnal range. The most likely suitable range for Bd is currently found in the Blackland Prairie and Cross Timbers ecoregions. Results of our future (to the year 2040) projections suggest that Bd could expand its current distribution. Our model could play an important role when developing an integrated conservation plan through (1) focusing future field work on locations with a high likelihood of presence, (2) assisting in the choice of locations for restoration, and (3) developing future research plans including those necessary for projecting reactions to climate change. Our model also could integrate new presence data of Bd when they become available to enhance prediction precision.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos , Anfíbios , Animais , Batrachochytrium , Mudança Climática , Texas/epidemiologia
2.
Horm Metab Res ; 53(9): 575-587, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496408

RESUMO

Global warming and the rising prevalence of obesity are well described challenges of current mankind. Most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic arose as a new challenge. We here attempt to delineate their relationship with each other from our perspective. Global greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels have exponentially increased since 1950. The main contributors to such greenhouse gas emissions are manufacturing and construction, transport, residential, commercial, agriculture, and land use change and forestry, combined with an increasing global population growth from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.8 billion in 2020 along with rising obesity rates since the 1980s. The current Covid-19 pandemic has caused some decline in greenhouse gas emissions by limiting mobility globally via repetitive lockdowns. Following multiple lockdowns, there was further increase in obesity in wealthier populations, malnutrition from hunger in poor populations and death from severe infection with Covid-19 and its virus variants. There is a bidirectional relationship between adiposity and global warming. With rising atmospheric air temperatures, people typically will have less adaptive thermogenesis and become less physically active, while they are producing a higher carbon footprint. To reduce obesity rates, one should be willing to learn more about the environmental impact, how to minimize consumption of energy generating carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, and to reduce food waste. Diets lower in meat such as a Mediterranean diet, have been estimated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 72%, land use by 58%, and energy consumption by 52%.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Obesidade/etiologia , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/tendências , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , Mudança Climática/história , Comorbidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Meio Ambiente , Exposição Ambiental/história , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/toxicidade , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5226, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471105

RESUMO

Marine phytoplankton and zooplankton form the basis of the ocean's food-web, yet the impacts of climate change on their biodiversity are poorly understood. Here, we use an ensemble of species distribution models for a total of 336 phytoplankton and 524 zooplankton species to determine their present and future habitat suitability patterns. For the end of this century, under a high emission scenario, we find an overall increase in plankton species richness driven by ocean warming, and a poleward shift of the species' distributions at a median speed of 35 km/decade. Phytoplankton species richness is projected to increase by more than 16% over most regions except for the Arctic Ocean. In contrast, zooplankton richness is projected to slightly decline in the tropics, but to increase strongly in temperate to subpolar latitudes. In these latitudes, nearly 40% of the phytoplankton and zooplankton assemblages are replaced by poleward shifting species. This implies that climate change threatens the contribution of plankton communities to plankton-mediated ecosystem services such as biological carbon sequestration.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Aquecimento Global , Biologia Marinha , Plâncton/classificação , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Fitoplâncton , Temperatura , Zooplâncton
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126193, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492957

RESUMO

In the last decades, the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and the average temperature have been increasing, and this trend is expected to become more severe in the near future. Additionally, environmental stresses including drought, salinity, UV-radiation, heavy metals, and toxic elements exposure represent a threat for ecosystems and agriculture. Climate and environmental changes negatively affect plant growth, biomass and yield production, and also enhance plant susceptibility to pests and diseases. Silicon (Si), as a beneficial element for plants, is involved in plant tolerance and/or resistance to various abiotic and biotic stresses. The beneficial role of Si has been shown in various plant species and its accumulation relies on the root's uptake capacity. However, Si uptake in plants depends on many biogeochemical factors that may be substantially altered in the future, affecting its functional role in plant protection. At present, it is not clear whether Si accumulation in plants will be positively or negatively affected by changing climate and environmental conditions. In this review, we focused on Si interaction with the most important factors of global change and environmental hazards in plants, discussing the potential role of its application as an alleviation strategy for climate and environmental hazards based on current knowledge.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Silício , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Plantas
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 654, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529161

RESUMO

The Himalaya, by virtue of its location and stupendous height, acts as a great climatic divide and regulates meteorological conditions in the subcontinent regions of South Asia. However, the associated complexities and their effects are yet to be resolved to understand the meteorology of the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). In this review volume, we synthesize the results and inferences of several studies carried out in the IHR using in situ data, remotely sensed data, and model-based meteorological observations. Results provide insights into climate change, scientific gaps, and their causes in deciphering meteorological observations from the last century to recent decades and envisage impacts of climate change on water reservoirs in the future. Warming trend of air temperature, in contrast to global temperature, has been projected in recent decades (after 1990) with a greater warming rate in the maximum temperature than the minimum temperature. This drifting of air temperature from the beginning of last century accelerates the diurnal temperature range of the Himalayas. An elevation-dependent warming trend is mostly perceived in the northwest Himalayan region, implicating an increased warming rate in the Greater Himalaya as compared to the lower and Karakoram Himalaya. No definite trends of precipitation have been observed over different regions of the IHR, suggesting heterogeneous cryosphere-climate interaction between western and central Himalaya. In this review, we have tried to emphasize to the scientific community and policy-makers for enhancing the knowledge of physical and dynamical processes associated with meteorological parameters in the Himalayan terrain.


Assuntos
Altitude , Meteorologia , Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Temperatura
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148499, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465050

RESUMO

The damaging effects of climate change on agricultural productivity are on the increase. Relevant adaptation strategies are important to cope with climate change risks and sustain agricultural productivity. This study employed descriptive statistics, multivariate probit (MVP) model and endogenous switching regression model (ESRM), to analyze the data collected using a survey questionnaire from four provinces in South Africa. The study estimated the determining factors influencing the adoption of climate change adaptation strategies and credit access among smallholder farmers in the study areas. The empirical results of the multivariate probit model showed that location, access to extension, non-farm income, farming experience, crop and livestock production, susceptibility, agricultural training and access to credit variables influenced the smallholder decision to adopt climate change adaptation strategies. On the other hand, the ESRM showed that location, age, marital status, gender among others, influenced the decision to adopt climate change adaptation strategies. The variables such as location, education, drought experience affected the smallholder farmers' access to credit. Thus, to improve the adaptive capacity of farmers, stakeholders and government must cooperate and collaborate to improve the conditions under which farmers can gain access to climate change information and suitable agricultural credit as well as policy incentives to ensure overall sustainability of the agricultural sector.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Fazendeiros , Agricultura , Fazendas , Humanos , África do Sul
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148370, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465055

RESUMO

Groundwater contributes to the socioeconomic development of the Thai capital Bangkok and its vicinity. However, groundwater resources are under immense pressure due to population growth, rapid urbanisation, overexploitation, and climate change. Therefore, evaluating the combined impact of climate change and land-use change on groundwater recharge can be useful for developing sound groundwater management systems. In this research, the future climate is projected using three Regional Climate Models (RCMs), namely ACCESS-CSIRO-CCAM, CNRM-CM5-CSIRO-CCAM, and MPI-ESM-LR-CSIRO-CCAM for three future periods: near future (2010-2039), mid future (2040-2069), and far future (2070-2099) under two Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 as suggested in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report. All RCMs project the temperature to rise incessantly, although future precipitation is predicted to fluctuate (increase and decrease) among the various RCMs and RCP scenarios. A Dyna-CLUE model is employed to analyse the future land-use change scenarios (low, medium, and high urbanisation), with the aim of expanding the built-up area and creating land-use maps covering the period to 2099. A hydrological model, WetSpass, is used to estimate groundwater recharge under future climate and land-use change. The findings reveal that groundwater recharge is expected to decrease in high and medium urbanisation areas, ranging from 5.84 to 20.91 mm/yr for the RCP 4.5 scenario and 4.07 to 18.72 mm/yr for RCP 8.5. In contrast, for the low urbanisation scenario, the model projects an increase in groundwater recharge ranging from 7.9 to 16.66 mm/yr for the RCP 4.5 scenario and 5.54 to 20.04 mm/yr for RCP 8.5.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Mudança Climática , Hidrologia , Tailândia , Urbanização
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1631, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hot weather leads to increased illness and deaths. The Heatwave Plan for England (HWP) aims to protect the population by raising awareness of the dangers of hot weather, especially for those most vulnerable. Individuals at increased risk to the effects of heat include older adults, particularly 75+, and those with specific chronic conditions, such as diabetes, respiratory and heart conditions. The HWP recommends specific protective actions which relate to five heat-health alert levels (levels 0-4). This study examines the attitudes to hot weather of adults in England, and the protective measures taken during a heatwave. METHODS: As part of a wider evaluation of the implementation and effects of the HWP, a survey (n = 3153) and focus groups, a form of group interview facilitated by a researcher, were carried out after the June 2017 level 3 heat-health alert. Survey respondents were categorised into three groups based on their age and health status: 'vulnerable' (aged 75+), 'potentially vulnerable' (aged 18-74 in poor health) and 'not vulnerable' (rest of the adult population) to hot weather. Multivariable logistic regression models identified factors associated with these groups taking protective measures. In-person group discussion, focused on heat-health, were carried out with 25 people, mostly aged 75 + . RESULTS: Most vulnerable and potentially vulnerable adults do not consider themselves at risk of hot weather and are unaware of the effectiveness of important protective behaviours. Only one-quarter of (potentially) vulnerable adults reported changing their behaviour as a result of hearing hot weather-related health advice during the level 3 alert period. Focus group findings showed many vulnerable adults were more concerned about the effects of the sun's ultra-violet radiation on the skin than on the effects of hot temperatures on health. CONCLUSIONS: Current public health messages appear to be insufficient, given the low level of (potentially) vulnerable adults changing their behaviour during hot weather. In the context of increasingly warmer summers in England due to climate change, public health messaging needs to convince (potentially) vulnerable adults of all the risks of hot weather (not just effects of sunlight on the skin) and of the importance of heat protective measures.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Temperatura Alta , Idoso , Atitude , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 649, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523031

RESUMO

The present study aims to assess the recent changes and trends in the extreme climate indices in the Kashmir basin using the observational records from 1980 to 2016. The extreme climate indices were computed using the ClimPACT2 software and a total of 39 indices were selected for the analysis having particular utility to various sectors like agriculture, water resources, energy consumption, and human health. Besides adopting the station scale analysis, regional averages were computed for each index. In terms of the mean climatology, an increase has been observed in the annual mean temperature with a magnitude of 0.024 °C/year. Further, differential warming patterns have been observed in the mean maximum and minimum temperatures with mean maximum temperature revealing higher increases than mean minimum temperature. On the other hand, the annual precipitation shows a decrease over most of the region, and the decreases are more pronouncing in the higher altitudes. The trend analysis of the extreme indices reveals that in consonance with the rising temperature there has been an increase in the warm temperatures and decrease in the cold temperatures across the Kashmir basin. Furthermore, our analysis suggests a decrease in the extreme precipitation events. The drought indices viz., Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI), and Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) manifest decreasing trends with the tendency towards drier regimes implying the need for better water resource management in the region under changing climate.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Secas , Humanos , Meteorologia , Temperatura
10.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(4): 359-364, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of environmental and climatic factors on the distribution of suitable habitats of Haemaphysalis longicornis, and to predict the potential distribution of H. longicornis under different climate patterns in China. METHODS: Data pertaining to the distribution of H. longicornis were retrieved from public literatures. The effects of 19 climatic factors (annual mean temperature, annual mean temperature difference between day and night, isothermality, standard deviation of seasonal variation of temperature, maximum temperature of the warmest month, minimum temperature of the coldest month, temperature annual range, mean temperature of the wettest season, mean temperature of the driest season, mean temperature of the warmest season, mean temperature of the coldest season, annual mean precipitation, precipitation of the wettest month, precipitation of the driest month, coefficient of variance of precipitation, precipitation of the wettest season, precipitation of the driest season, precipitation of the warmest season and precipitation of the coldest season) and 4 environmental factors (elevation, slope, slope aspect and vegetation coverage) on the potential distribution of H. longicornis were assessed using the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model based on the H. longicornis distribution data and climatic and environmental data, and the potential distribution of H. longicornis was predicted under the RCP 2.6 and 8.5 emissions scenarios. RESULTS: Among the environmental and climatic factors affecting the geographical distribution of H. longicornis in China, the factors contributing more than 10% to the distribution of H. longicornis mainly included the precipitation of the driest month (26.0%), annual mean temperature (11.2%), annual mean precipitation (10.0%) and elevation (24.2%). Under the current climate pattern, the high-, medium- and low-suitable habitats of H. longicornis are 1 231 900, 1 696 200 km2 and 1 854 400 km2 in China, respectively. The distribution of H. longicornis increased by 336 100 km2 and 367 300 km2 in 2050 and 2070 under the RCP 2.6 emissions scenario, and increased by 381 000 km2 and 358 000 km2 in 2050 and 2070 under the RCP 8.5 emissions scenario in China, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Climatic and environmental factors, such as precipitation, temperature and elevation, greatly affect the distribution of H. longicornis in China, and the suitable habitats of H. longicornis may expand in China under different climate patterns in future.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , China , Clima , Previsões , Temperatura
11.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(4): 365-372, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current distribution of ticks and predict the suitable habitats of ticks in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2017, so as to provide insights into tick control and management of tick-borne diseases in these areas. METHODS: All publications pertaining to tick and pathogen distribution in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration were retrieved, and the geographical location of tick distribution was extracted. The effects of 19 climatic factors on the distribution of ticks were examined using the jackknife method, including the mean temperature of the wettest quarter, precipitation of the coldest quarter, mean temperature of the driest quarter, maximum temperature of the warmest month, precipitation of the driest month, minimal temperature of the coldest month, annual precipitation, mean daily temperature range, precipitation seasonality, annual temperature range, temperature seasonality, annual mean temperature, mean temperature of the warmest quarter, precipitation of the wettest quarter, isothermality, mean temperature of the coldest quarter, precipitation of the wettest month, precipitation of the driest quarter and precipitation of the warmest quarter. The distribution of ticks was analyzed in 2020 using the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model, and the potential suitable habitats of ticks were predicted in 2070 using the MaxEnt model based on climatic data. RESULTS: A total of 380 Chinese and English literatures were retrieved, and 148 tick distribution sites were extracted, with 135 sites included in the subsequent analysis. There were 7 genera (Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Ixodes, Dermacentor, Boophilus, Hyalomma and Amblyomma) and 27 species of ticks detected in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration. The climatic factors affecting the distribution of ticks in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration mainly included the mean temperature of the wettest quarter and the precipitation of the coldest quarter, with 26.1% and 23.6% contributions to tick distributions. The high-, medium- and low-suitable habitats of ticks were 20 337.08, 40 017.38 km2 and 74 931.43 km2 in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2020, respectively. The climate changes led to south expansion of the suitable habitats of ticks in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2070, and the total areas of suitable habitats of ticks was predicted to increase by 18 100 km2. In addition, the high-, medium- and low-suitable habitats of ticks were predicted to increase to 24 317.84, 45 283.02 km2 and 83 766.38 km2 in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2070, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple tick species are widespread in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, and the future climate changes may lead to expansion of tick distribution in these areas.


Assuntos
Ixodes , Rios , Animais , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Temperatura
12.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113423, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526286

RESUMO

The Yellow River, with a developmental and historical significance to China, is now facing several emerging pressures, which are degrading the river status and creating challenges for high-quality development in the basin. Numerous studies on such emerging pressures, present scattered outcomes, and trigger uncertainties and deficient assumptions on the river's problems. This review integrated such scattered information and investigated the emerging pressures, their drivers and integrated impacts at the basin level. The study intended to prioritize those pressures needing expeditious consideration, and carried a discussion on the alternative pathways to the solution. To determine the critical emerging pressures, a literature review was conducted and experts' opinion was sought. The outcome further led to a comprehensive review, data collection, and analysis of three groups of emerging pressures. The review recognized 'Water Stress' in the lower reach, primarily caused by an abated flow, as the most distressing emerging pressure inflicting social, ecological, and economic consequences. Such decline in flow was mostly induced by a recent increase in 'Anthropogenic activities', such as intensive water withdrawal for irrigation (≥27 BCM), and construction of check dams in the Loess Plateau region (trapping~5 BCM water). The increasing 'Pollution' in the river, besides threatening public health and ecology, also contributed to the water stress by rendering certain stretches of the river biologically dead and unsuitable for any use. The 'Climate Change', with its key negative effect on precipitation in the middle sub-basin, overall contributed small (8-11 %) to the observed reduction in river flow. With increasing challenges for the adopted engineering solutions tackling the water stress, the study suggested the use of a demand management approach, employing adaptive policy measures, as an alternative or supplementary solution to the current approach. In addition, the study highlights that regular reviewing and reforming the key decisions based on evidence and updated information, and taking a participatory approach, may offer a sustainable pathway to the environment as well as socio-economic goals.


Assuntos
Rios , Movimentos da Água , Mudança Climática , Ecologia , Água
13.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-09-10. (PAHO/CDE/CE/21-0004).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54816

RESUMO

This publication presents the Agenda for the Americas on Health, Environment, and Climate Change 2021–2030 (the Agenda). The Agenda is a call to action to the health sector to lead the charge to address environmental determinants of health in the Americas. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) will work with Member States to achieve its goal and objective to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages using a sustainable and equitable approach that places a priority on reducing health inequity. The Agenda has been developed under the umbrella of the WHO Global Strategy on Health, Environment, and Climate Change, and builds upon the commitments set forth in the Sustainable Health Agenda for the Americas 2018–2030 and the PAHO Strategic Plan 2020–2025. The Agenda was developed in consultation with the Technical Advisory Group and through a consensus-driven decision-making process with Member States during the 2019–2020 period. Looking toward the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal 3, the Agenda focuses on: improving the performance of environmental public health programs and institutions; fostering environmentally resilient and sustainable health systems; and promoting environmentally healthy and resilient cities and communities. Its implementation will be context-specific, based on the needs and realities of the countries. It will benefit countries and territories by promoting good governance practices, strengthening the leadership and coordination roles of the health sector, fostering cross-sectoral action, focusing on primary prevention, and enhancing evidence and communication. It will facilitate access to human, technical, and financial resources necessary to address environmental determinants of health and ensure that the Region is fully engaged in global health, environment, and climate change processes and agreements. The objective of the Agenda is to strengthen the capacity of health actors in the health and non-health sectors to address and adapt to environmental determinants of health (EDHs), prioritizing populations living in conditions of vulnerability, in order to meet Outcome 18 of the PAHO Strategic Plan 2020–2025 directly and several other outcomes of the Plan indirectly. To address and adapt to the challenges of EDHs in the Region, an integrated and evidence-informed approach within the health sector and across sectors will be needed, one enabled, and supported by good governance practices, adequate management mechanisms, high-level political will, and adequate human, technical, technological, and financial resources.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Meio Ambiente e Saúde Pública , Sistemas de Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , América
14.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 439-453, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542103

RESUMO

National Veterinary Services (NVS) play a crucial role in animal health, production and welfare. They are also intimately involved with safeguarding global health security and the health of the planet. Climate change is just one of the nine planetary boundaries (PBs), i.e. Earth system processes, that can be used to monitor the vital signs of our living planet. In this paper, the authors identify the positive and negative impacts of humaninduced management of aquatic and terrestrial animals in relation to these PBs. In the context of NVS, the authors provide an overview of the real and potential impacts of NVS policies on Earth systems and offer suggestions as to how new sustainability paradigms may assist with reviewing and revising NVS mandates and facilitating stakeholder engagement. Opportunities are proposed for the World Organisation for Animal Health to contribute to the global debate on the role of aquatic and terrestrial animal agriculture and wildlife in sustainable development. In addition, the paper suggests that a wider debate is required in relation to recent significant increases in domestic animal populations and PBs. Intersectoral and interdisciplinary collaboration are required to achieve the transformation of the framework in which NVS operate. While such transformations cannot be driven by the veterinary profession alone, veterinarians have proven very effective operators in the One Health arena. By building on these intersectoral linkages, it will be possible for our profession and NVS to actively contribute to the crucial discussions and transformations required to pull Earth system metrics back within safe boundaries.


Assuntos
Planetas , Médicos Veterinários , Agricultura , Animais , Mudança Climática , Saúde Global , Humanos
15.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 431-438, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542104

RESUMO

Climate change due to increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is one of the most pressing issues facing society on a global scale. The growth of GHG emissions between 2000 and 2010 was higher than in each of the previous three decades, and each of the past four decades has been successively warmer than any preceding decades since 1850. Continued GHG emissions will cause further warming and changes in the climate system. Climate change affects livestock production in multiple ways, both directly and indirectly. Many of the impacts on the livestock sector result from increasing frequency and magnitude of weather and climate extremes such as droughts, flash floods, untimely rains, frost, hail and severe storms. This article describes some of the most vulnerable disaster communities in Asia, Africa, Australia, Europe and South America. It then describes the importance of meteorological information provided by national Meteorological and Hydrological Services to help Veterinary Services support sustainable management of livestock in vulnerable pastoral communities.


Assuntos
Desastres , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Animais , Mudança Climática , Secas , Efeito Estufa , Gado
16.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 421-430, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542106

RESUMO

Climate change due to increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is one of the most pressing issues facing society on a global scale. The growth of GHG emissions between 2000 and 2010 was higher than in each of the previous three decades, and each of the past four decades has been successively warmer than any preceding decades since 1850. Continued GHG emissions will cause further warming and changes in the climate system. Climate change affects livestock production in multiple ways, both directly and indirectly. Many of the impacts on the livestock sector result from increasing frequency and magnitude of weather and climate extremes such as droughts, flash floods, untimely rains, frost, hail and severe storms. This article describes some of the most vulnerable disaster communities in Asia, Africa, Australia, Europe and South America. It then describes the importance of meteorological information provided by national Meteorological and Hydrological Services to help Veterinary Services support sustainable management of livestock in vulnerable pastoral communities.


Assuntos
Desastres , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Animais , Mudança Climática , Secas , Efeito Estufa , Gado
17.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113502, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403922

RESUMO

The concept of nature-based solutions (NBSs) has become increasingly popular among urban policymakers and planners to help them tackle the urban challenges arising from urban expansion and climate change. Stakeholders' involvement is a fundamental step, and stakeholders' perceptions and preferences can affect the development of NBS projects. This study aims to identify stakeholders' perceptions of the most critical urban challenges, the priority interventions, the preferred NBSs and the benefits of the NBSs, and to identify the determinants of these perceptions. A survey was administered to assess stakeholders' perceptions and views on implementing NBSs in two Portuguese cities with distinct urban, geographical, and socio-economic contexts. A binary logistic regression model was used to understand the determinants of the likelihood of the stakeholders' answers. According to the stakeholders, climate change is one of the main concerns in the urban context. It is usually associated with the incidence of heatwaves and water scarcity. Additionally, stakeholders are concerned about the low quantity and poor management of green spaces (GSs). They believe that it will be necessary to increase the GS, to recover some degraded areas, and to increase mobility. The preferred NBSs were planting more urban trees, making green shaded areas, and rehabilitating riverbanks. The main expected benefits were benefits for leisure and relaxation, reductions in air temperature, purer air, and improvements in public health. The results showed mostly coherent connections between the main concerns/priorities of the stakeholders and the perceived NBS benefits; however, some stakeholders did not present coherent connections, indicating low awareness of the current policy for implementing NBSs to overcome existing and future urban challenges.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Percepção , Cidades
18.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113533, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411797

RESUMO

Among the many causes of habitat loss, urbanization coupled with climate change has produced some of the greatest local extinction rates and has led to the loss of many native species. Managing native vegetation in a rapidly expanding urban setting requires land management strategies that are cognizant of these impacts and how species and communities may adapt to a future climate. Here, we demonstrate how identifying climate refugia for threatened vegetation communities in an urban matrix can be used to support management decisions by local government authorities under the dual pressures of urban expansion and climate change. This research was focused on a local government area in New South Wales, Australia, that is undergoing significant residential, commercial and agricultural expansion resulting in the transition of native forest to other more intensive land-uses. Our results indicate that the key drivers of change from native vegetation to urban and agriculture classes were population density and the proximity to urban areas. We found two of the most cleared vegetation community types are physically restricted to land owned or managed by council, suggesting their long-term ecological viability is uncertain under a warming climate. We propose that land use planning decisions must recognize the compounding spatial and temporal pressures of urban development, land clearing and climate change, and how current policy responses, such as biodiversity offsetting, can respond positively to habitat shifts in order to secure the longevity of important ecological communities.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Florestas
19.
Biol Lett ; 17(8): 20210175, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343435

RESUMO

The consequences of climate change for biogeographic range dynamics depend on the spatial scales at which climate influences focal species directly and indirectly via biotic interactions. An overlooked question concerns the extent to which microclimates modify specialist biotic interactions, with emergent properties for communities and range dynamics. Here, we use an in-field experiment to assess egg-laying behaviour of a range-expanding herbivore across a range of natural microclimatic conditions. We show that variation in microclimate, resource condition and individual fecundity can generate differences in egg-laying rates of almost two orders of magnitude in an exemplar species, the brown argus butterfly (Aricia agestis). This within-site variation in fecundity dwarfs variation resulting from differences in average ambient temperatures among populations. Although higher temperatures did not reduce female selection for host plants in good condition, the thermal sensitivities of egg-laying behaviours have the potential to accelerate climate-driven range expansion by increasing egg-laying encounters with novel hosts in increasingly suitable microclimates. Understanding the sensitivity of specialist biotic interactions to microclimatic variation is, therefore, critical to predict the outcomes of climate change across species' geographical ranges, and the resilience of ecological communities.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Microclima , Animais , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Feminino , Herbivoria , Plantas , Temperatura
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...