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1.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 26-30, dic.2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117896

RESUMO

Este estudio se sustentó en el paradigma cuantitativo orientado bajo una investigación de tipo descriptivo cuyo propósito fue describir el conocimiento sobre saberes populares del personal sanitario que labora en el Servicio de Atención Médica Inmediata del Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Universitario Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga. La muestra estuvo conformada por 10 médicos y 8 enfermeras a quienes se les aplicó una encuesta a través de un cuestionario con escala tipo Likert el cual fue validado por la técnica de juicio de expertos. Los resultados indican que los encuestados manifiestan una tendencia positiva en cuanto a que a la consulta llegan pacientes cuyas madres usan las creencias y costumbres de sus ancestros para tratar las enfermedades que padecen, respetando y reconociendo el saber popular que poseen las madres de los pacientes. Existe una tendencia negativa en la utilización de los saberes populares en la práctica médica, así como en la combinación del saber popular y el saber científico para tratar la enfermedad y en la posibilidad de integrar de manera pedagógica los saberes populares en la educación para la salud. Por otra parte expresan una marcada tendencia positiva en cuanto a que las madres utilizan los saberes populares por sus condiciones socioeconómicas y en el hecho de que la educación o valores recibidos por ellas influyen en el uso de dichas creencias; de igual forma, la mayoría expresa una tendencia positiva en que las creencias y costumbres maternales puedan generar intoxicaciones en los pacientes y una tendencia negativa en su habilidad para curar la enfermedad(AU)


This study was based on a quantitative paradigm oriented under descriptive field research. The purpose of this study was to describe knowledge on popular beliefs of patient's parents of the medical staff who work in the Servicio de Atención Médica Inmediata of the Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Universitario Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga. The sample consisted of 10 doctors and 8 nurses who were given a Likert-scale questionnaire which was validated by the expert judgment technique. The results demonstrate that respondents show a positive view in regards to the fact that patients mothers with beliefs and customs of their ancestors attend the consult, respecting and recognizing their popular belief system; there is a negative view in the use of popular beliefs in medical practice, combination of popular and scientific knowledge and the possibility of integration of popular beliefs into health education. On the other hand, they express a marked positive view in regards to the use of popular belief based on socioeconomic conditions and that the education or values received by them influence the use of these beliefs; similarly, most respondents express a positive view in relation to beliefs and customs leading to poisoning in patients and a negative view in the possibility that these beliefs cure disease(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Educação , Capacitação Profissional , Cultura Popular , Mudança Social , Participação da Comunidade
2.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(11): 1446-1456, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135433

RESUMO

AIMS: Gender bias and sexual discrimination (GBSD) have been widely recognized across a range of fields and are now part of the wider social consciousness. Such conduct can occur in the medical workplace, with detrimental effects on recipients. The aim of this review was to identify the prevalence and impact of GBSD in orthopaedic surgery, and to investigate interventions countering such behaviours. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline, EMCARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library Database in April 2020, and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to which we adhered. Original research papers pertaining to the prevalence and impact of GBSD, or mitigating strategies, within orthopaedics were included for review. RESULTS: Of 570 papers, 27 were eligible for inclusion. These were published between 1998 and 2020. A narrative review was performed in light of the significant heterogeneity displayed by the eligible studies. A total of 13 papers discussed the prevalence of GBSD, while 13 related to the impact of these behaviours, and six discussed mitigating strategies. GBSD was found to be common in the orthopaedic workplace, with all sources showing women to be the subjects. The impact of this includes poor workforce representation, lower salaries, and less career success, including in academia, for women in orthopaedics. Mitigating strategies in the literature are focused on providing female role models, mentors, and educational interventions. CONCLUSION: GBSD is common in orthopaedic surgery, with a substantial impact on sufferers. A small number of mitigating strategies have been tested but these are limited in their scope. As such, the orthopaedic community is obliged to participate in more thoughtful and proactive strategies that mitigate against GBSD, by improving female recruitment and retention within the specialty. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(11):1446-1456.


Assuntos
Ortopedia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Emprego/economia , Emprego/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Mão de Obra em Saúde/economia , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Ortopedia/economia , Ortopedia/educação , Ortopedia/normas , Papel do Médico , Prevalência , Sexismo/economia , Mudança Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 73-76, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152190

RESUMO

Amid the global pandemic crisis, international concern has centered on the control and prevention measures aimed at reducing the speed of the virus transmission while a more radical sanitary measure, such as vaccines, is achieved. Governmental and social efforts have had great impact on various sectors of society and their consequences have exceeded the sphere of health. This essay discusses the scope of specific measures in the sense of the appropriation of risk control measures and proposes the epidemiological method as an alternative that goes beyond the quantification of risks and the attribution of responsibilities. To conclude, the emphasis is placed on the need to promote information about socialization processes to better understand the consequences of individual acts favoring alternatives other than pandemic control based on the use of coercive measures.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Autocuidado , Mudança Social , Responsabilidade Social , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(12): 2409-2428, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974870

RESUMO

While formal youth mentoring can positively influence youth connectedness, little research has studied the specific approaches mentors engage in that support mentee social development. This study examines how mentors' specific approaches are uniquely associated with youth connection outcomes in formal community-based mentoring. Participants were 766 youth, ranging in age from 11 to 14 (M = 12.29), 56.7% female, and racially/ethnically diverse (41.0% Black/African American, 21.4% Hispanic/Latinx, 20.0% White, 10.2% Multiracial/Multiethnic, 5.9% Native American, 1.2% other race, and 0.4% Asian/Pacific Islander). Person-centered analyses revealed three mentoring profiles which were differentially associated with youth outcomes: "Status Quo Mentors," who reported low-to-moderate levels of closeness within the mentor-mentee dyad, low levels of connecting their mentees with programs and people in their community, and low levels of mediating for their mentees; "Close Connectors," who reported moderate-to-high levels of closeness, moderate-to-high levels of connecting, and low levels of mediating; and "Connector-Mediators," who reported moderate levels of closeness, connecting, and mediating. Youth mentored by "Close Connectors" demonstrated the greatest benefit, with significant improvements in parent-child relationship quality, extracurricular activity involvement, and help-seeking. Results suggest that community-based mentoring programs that emphasize connecting youth within their communities may be more effective in enhancing youth support networks.


Assuntos
Tutoria , Adolescente , Criança , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Grupos Minoritários , Mudança Social
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872589

RESUMO

For many centuries, hunter-gatherer societies relied on subsistence practices and traditional diets. However, forces of globalization have increased market involvement, thereby fueling the nutrition transition of hunter-gatherer societies. We review the academic literature on market involvement of hunter-gatherer societies in the Western Amazon and its consequences on diet, health and well-being. First, we elaborate on four main determinants of market involvement (accessibility, monetary income, wild meat trade and social capital), showing how each determinant draws individuals toward or away from markets. Thereafter, we discuss how these determinants alter diet, health and well-being. Our results add to the understanding of the complex relations between market involvement, dietary change, health and well-being of indigenous societies. Furthermore, they bring to light that additional research is needed on the topic to support decision-makers and help preserve indigenous values.


Assuntos
Dieta , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Povos Indígenas , Estado Nutricional , Aculturação , Animais , Comércio , Dieta/tendências , Dieta Paleolítica , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Mudança Social
7.
Hum Factors ; 62(7): 1095-1101, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mandatory rules for social distancing to curb the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic require individuals to maintain a critical interpersonal distance above 1.5 m. However, this contradicts our natural preference, which is closer to 1 m for non-intimate encounters, for example, when asking a stranger for directions. OBJECTIVE: This review addresses how humans typically regulate interpersonal distances, in order to highlight the challenges of enforcing atypically large interpersonal distances. METHOD: To understand the challenges posed by social distancing requirements, we integrate relevant contributions from visual perception, social perception, and human factors. RESULTS: To date, research on preferred interpersonal distances suggests that social distancing could induce discomfort, heighten arousal, and decrease social signaling in the short term. While the protracted effects of social distancing are unclear, we propose hypotheses on the mid- to long-term consequences of violating preferred norms of interpersonal distances. CONCLUSION: We suggest that enforcing a physical distance of 1.5-2 m presents a serious challenge to behavioral norms. APPLICATION: We address how notifications, architectural design, and visualizations could be effectively applied to promote interpersonal distance requirements.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Programas Obrigatórios , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Distância Social , Ciências do Comportamento , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Espaço Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Comportamento Social , Mudança Social , Percepção Visual
8.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(3): 187-193, sept. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1120890

RESUMO

Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto psicosocial de la pandemia por COVID-19 en los cirujanos de columna de Argentina. Material y métodos: Se envió un cuestionario diseñado específicamente a los cirujanos de columna de Argentina entre el 4-6 de abril del 2020. Las preguntas incluyeron variables demográficas, económicas, laborales y la escala de depresión PHQ-9. Las variables fueron comparadas y analizadas y las diferencias estadísticamente significativas remarcadas. Resultados: Respondieron en forma completa la encuesta 122 cirujanos de columna de Argentina, la mayoría hombres (97%), la edad promedio fue de 44 años; la mitad (n: 61) eran traumatólogos y la otra mitad neurocirujanos. La mayoría respondieron estar solo haciendo cirugías de emergencia (84%, n: 102). La preocupación promedio respecto a la situación financiera fue de 7.8 en una escala de 1 al 10. El 20% (n: 24) tenía un score superior a 10 en la escala de PHQ-9. Los cirujanos más jóvenes y los neurocirujanos tenían estadísticamente scores de PHQ-9 más altos. Conclusión: Se evaluó el impacto durante la pandemia por COVID-19 en la situación laboral y financiera de los cirujanos de columna encuestados. El impacto psicológico en el largo plazo debe ser considerado, para evitar secuelas en este grupo de profesionales de la salud.


Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the psycho-social impact of the COVID-19 outbreak in spine surgeons in Argentina. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to Argentina spine surgeons from April 4-6th, 2020. Questions regarding demographics, economic, working status and the PHQ-9 score were included. All variables were compared, analyzed and statistically significant differences were recorded. Results: 122 surgeons from Argentina answered the complete survey, most of them were male (97 %), the average age was 44 years; half (n: 61) of them were orthopedic surgeons and half neurosurgeons. Most of the surgeons reported performing emergency procedures only during the pandemic (84 %, n: 102). The average concern about the financial situation due to the pandemic was 7.8 in a scale of 1 to 10. Twenty percent (n: 24) of the surgeons had a score over 10 in the PHQ-9. Young age and neurosurgery as a specialty were statistically related with higher PHQ-9 scores. Conclusions: COVID-19 impact ́s in working practice and financial situation of Argentina ́s spine surgeons that answered this survey was evaluated. The long-term psychological impact should be taken into consideration to avoid a heavier burden for health care providers.


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Mudança Social , Coluna Vertebral , Impacto Psicossocial , Depressão , Pandemias , Cirurgiões , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente
11.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000860, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960891

RESUMO

Engagement with scientific manuscripts is frequently facilitated by Twitter and other social media platforms. As such, the demographics of a paper's social media audience provide a wealth of information about how scholarly research is transmitted, consumed, and interpreted by online communities. By paying attention to public perceptions of their publications, scientists can learn whether their research is stimulating positive scholarly and public thought. They can also become aware of potentially negative patterns of interest from groups that misinterpret their work in harmful ways, either willfully or unintentionally, and devise strategies for altering their messaging to mitigate these impacts. In this study, we collected 331,696 Twitter posts referencing 1,800 highly tweeted bioRxiv preprints and leveraged topic modeling to infer the characteristics of various communities engaging with each preprint on Twitter. We agnostically learned the characteristics of these audience sectors from keywords each user's followers provide in their Twitter biographies. We estimate that 96% of the preprints analyzed are dominated by academic audiences on Twitter, suggesting that social media attention does not always correspond to greater public exposure. We further demonstrate how our audience segmentation method can quantify the level of interest from nonspecialist audience sectors such as mental health advocates, dog lovers, video game developers, vegans, bitcoin investors, conspiracy theorists, journalists, religious groups, and political constituencies. Surprisingly, we also found that 10% of the preprints analyzed have sizable (>5%) audience sectors that are associated with right-wing white nationalist communities. Although none of these preprints appear to intentionally espouse any right-wing extremist messages, cases exist in which extremist appropriation comprises more than 50% of the tweets referencing a given preprint. These results present unique opportunities for improving and contextualizing the public discourse surrounding scientific research.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados como Assunto , Publicações , Ciência , Mudança Social , Mídias Sociais , Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Academias e Institutos/normas , Academias e Institutos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso à Informação , Bases de Dados como Assunto/organização & administração , Bases de Dados como Assunto/normas , Bases de Dados como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/organização & administração , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/normas , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Competência em Informação , Internet/organização & administração , Internet/normas , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Ativismo Político , Publicações/classificação , Publicações/normas , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações/provisão & distribução , Ciência/organização & administração , Ciência/normas , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/organização & administração , Mídias Sociais/normas , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1337, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who are houseless (also referred to as homeless) perceive high stigma in healthcare settings, and face disproportionate disparities in morbidity and mortality versus people who are housed. Medical students and the training institutions they are a part of play important roles in advocating for the needs of this community. The objective of this study was to understand perceptions of how medical students and institutions can meet needs of the self-identified needs of the houseless community. METHODS: Between February and May 2018, medical students conducted mixed-methods surveys with semi-structured qualitative interview guides at two community-based organizations that serve people who are houseless in Portland, Oregon. Medical students approach guests at both locations to ascertain interest in participating in the study. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis rooted in an inductive process. RESULTS: We enrolled 38 participants in this study. Most participants were male (73.7%), white (78.9%), and had been houseless for over a year at the time of interview (65.8%). Qualitative themes describe care experiences among people with mental health and substance use disorders, and roles for medical students and health-care institutions. Specifically, people who are houseless want medical students to 1) listen to and believe them, 2) work to destigmatize houselessness, 3) engage in diverse clinical experiences, and 4) advocate for change at the institutional level. Participants asked healthcare institutions to use their power to change laws that criminalize substance use and houselessness, and build healthcare systems that take better care of people with addiction and mental health conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Medical students, and the institutions they are a part of, should seek to reduce stigma against people who are houseless in medical systems. Additionally, institutions should change their approaches to healthcare delivery and advocacy to better support the health of people who are houseless.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Transtornos Mentais , Defesa do Paciente , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Estigma Social , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Comportamento Aditivo , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oregon , Saúde da População , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Mudança Social , Apoio Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Oral Dis ; 26 Suppl 1: 28-33, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862533

RESUMO

HIV incidence is still increasing in parts of Indonesia and in several Asian Countries. New cases of HIV in Indonesia have risen from 7,000 per year in 2006 to 48,000 per year in 2017. In spite of this increase, the number of newly diagnosed cases of AIDS has decreased from a peak of over 12,000 in 2013 to a little over 9,000 in 2017. The mean prevalence of HIV in Indonesia is 0.41% but there is a ten-fold difference in the prevalence in different regions with the highest in Papua (5%). Women represent over 35% of new infections per year and of the total (640,000) in Indonesia. Over 50% of HIV diagnoses are made when patients already have AIDS. Stigma and discrimination are still strong barriers in prevention and treatment but also there are considerable challenges in access to appropriate anti-retroviral therapy. There is a need for further investment in HIV Programs in Indonesia so that prevention can be enhanced, and diagnosis made at an earlier stage. Health Professionals including dentists should be readily willing to provide joint prevention efforts and care to people at risk and with HIV and other infectious diseases to help meet the WHO aims of 2030. Public health programmes are needed to make certain that the general public is aware of HIV testing and the role of dental healthcare workers in facilitating this, thereby further normalising attitudes to people living with HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Mudança Social , Estigma Social , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino
16.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827364

RESUMO

Despite attempts of improving actual system of morbidity and mortality accounting, the study research established significant real data distortion. These differences do not allow to assess in fullness complete picture of actual morbidity and mortality. Hence, improvement of approaches to increasing efficiency of indices data registration. The study was carried out in 2017-2019 on the bases of medical organizations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. The study assessed quality of encoding of morbidity of 28 061 case histories/out-patient records. The size needed to obtain reliable results was determined using the Lopez-Jimenez formula. The statistical data was processed by MS Excel and Statistica-6 software. The most common errors were associated with non-rubricated and incorrectly rubricated diagnoses (53.2%, n = 2860). The second most common error in the structure of incorrectly formulated diagnosis was associated with using non-informative terms (14.6%, n = 785). The errors regarding non-observance of the ICD 10 revision requirements followed resulting in using and wordings not corresponding to modern classification (10.6%, n = 568). A number of errors was associated with unspecified localization of process (3.6%, n = 195) and other rarely occurring causes (2.6%, n = 139). The results of study permitted to conclude that one of the most promising directions of modernization of the encoding system is the automated encoding system.


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Humanos , Morbidade , Federação Russa , Mudança Social
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237945, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Movement behaviours (e.g., sleep, sedentary behaviour, and physical activity) in isolation have demonstrated benefits to preschool-aged children's development. However, little is known on the integrated nature of movement behaviours and their relationship to healthy development in this age range. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the relationships between accelerometer-derived movement behaviours and indicators of physical, cognitive, and social-emotional development using compositional analyses in a sample of preschool-aged children. METHODS: Children (n = 95) were recruited in Edmonton, Canada. Movement behaviours were measured with ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometers worn 24 hours/day. Physical (i.e., body mass index [BMI] z-scores, percent of adult height, and motor skills), cognitive (i.e., working memory, response inhibition, and vocabulary), and social-emotional (i.e., sociability, externalizing, internalizing, prosocial behaviour, and cognitive, emotional, and behavioural self-regulation) development were assessed. Objective height and weight were measured for BMI z-scores and percent of adult height, while the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 was used to assess motor skills. The Early Years Toolbox was used to assess all cognitive and social-emotional development indicators. Compositional linear regression models and compositional substitution models were conducted in R. RESULTS: Children accumulated 11.1 hours of sleep, 6.1 hours of stationary time, 5.1 hours of light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and 1.8 hours of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) per day. Movement behaviour compositions were significantly associated with physical (i.e., locomotor skills, object motor skills, and total motor skills) and cognitive (i.e., working memory and vocabulary) development (R2 range: 0.11-0.18). In relation to other movement behaviours in the composition, MVPA was positively associated with most physical development outcomes; while stationary time had mixed findings for cognitive development outcomes (i.e., mainly positive associations in linear regressions but non-significant in substitution models). Most associations for LPA and sleep were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: The overall composition of movement behaviors appeared important for development. Findings confirmed the importance of MVPA for physical development. Mixed findings between stationary time and cognitive development could indicate this sample engaged in both beneficial (e.g., reading) and detrimental (e.g., screen time) stationary time. However, further research is needed to determine the mechanisms for these relationships.


Assuntos
Cognição , Emoções , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Movimento , Mudança Social , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sedentário
19.
J Environ Manage ; 274: 111235, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823084

RESUMO

Conserving biodiversity in the long term will depend in part on the capacity of Protected Areas (PAs) to cope with cross-scale, social-ecological disturbances and changes, which are becoming more frequent in a highly connected world. Direct threats to biodiversity within PAs and their interactions with broader-scale threats are both likely to vary with PA spatial and management characteristics (e.g., location, dependence on ecotourism revenues, governmental support). Private Land Conservation Areas (PLCAs) are interesting case study systems for assessing cross-scale threats to PAs and their determinants. Despite the growing number of PLCAs around the world, there is considerable uncertainty regarding the long-term capacity of these privately owned areas to conserve biodiversity. Their potential impermanence is commonly raised as a key concern. To better understand the threats to which different types of PLCAs are likely to be vulnerable, we asked 112 PLCA landholders in South Africa what they perceived as the top threats to their PLCAs. Landowners identified direct threats to the biodiversity within their PLCAs (e.g., poaching, extreme weather, inappropriate fire regimes, alien species) as well as describing broader socio-economic threats (e.g., regional crime, national legislation and politics, global economic recessions), which were noted to interact across scales. We found support for the hypothesis that patterns in the perceived multi-scale threats to a PLCA correspond with its management and spatial characteristics, including its remoteness, dependence on ecotourism or hunting revenues, and richness of megafaunal species. Understanding the threats to which different PLCAs may be vulnerable is useful for developing more nuanced, targeted strategies to build PLCA resilience to these threats (for example, by strengthening the capacity of self-funded PLCAs to cope with the threat of economic downturns through more innovative financial instruments or diversified revenue streams). Our findings highlight the importance of considering interactions between broad-scale socio-economic changes and direct threats to biodiversity, which can influence the resilience of PAs in ways that are not anticipated by more traditional, discipline-specific consideration of direct threats to the biodiversity within their boundaries.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Mudança Social , África do Sul
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