Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 18.176
Filtrar
1.
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 30(1): 66-74, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional metrics have been extensively used to evaluate the scientific performance. Despite being widespread accepted, citation-based metrics are not able to describe the social impact of research. A diverse metric, Altmetric, was proposed to overcome those limitations. AIM: This study aims to analyse the social impact of research in the field of paediatric dentistry and to assess if a correlation exists between the JCR citations, the AAS score, and the recently released Dimensions citation count. DESIGN: A bibliometric study was conducted on the four journals related to Paediatric Dentistry listed in the JCR from 2014 to 2017. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the articles and the journals. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to explore the relationship among JCR citations, AAS, and Dimensions. RESULTS: The percentage of articles with an AAS presents a huge variability and was significantly higher in the International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. In our sample, the correlation between the JCR citation count and the AAS was poor in the years 2014, 2015, and 2016 and low in 2017. The correlation between JCR citation and Dimensions citation count was strong. CONCLUSIONS: The social impact of research in paediatric dentistry can be increased. Dimensions could be an alternative to the JCR. Both the editors and the researcher should change their vision and facilitate the access to research information to scholar and non-scholar audiences.


Assuntos
Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Bibliometria , Criança , Humanos , Odontopediatria , Mudança Social
2.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 305-314, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335583

RESUMO

Increasingly popular in the neoliberal university, community-engaged service-learning (CESL) courses offer rich yet contradictory opportunities for LGBTQ studies students to synthesize queer critiques of community and identity with experiences in LGBTQ communities. Much CESL scholarship has focused on the tensions between benefits to community and to students, prioritizing either radical social change or student satisfaction. Beside such debates, I propose the queer ethical, pedagogical, and political value of disappointment in the tedium and contradictions of community itself. Such queer disappointment, I contend, might enable students to cultivate the emotional and critical capacities to engage in community work on sustainable, dedramatized, and unentitled terms.


Assuntos
Satisfação Pessoal , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Características de Residência , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/educação , Mudança Social
3.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109777, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733476

RESUMO

Psychosocial factors determine individual and collective behaviours, and there is growing evidence of their influence on land management behaviours. Native vegetation management encompasses biophysical, economic, political, and cultural dimensions that are immensely complex, and a more thorough understanding of the personal and cultural dimensions of deforestation activity is required. We emphasise this interdisciplinary imperative using Queensland, Australia, as an exemplar case study, where the controversial Vegetation Management Act1999 has been met with significant scrutiny over its effects on private landholders and its ability to curb deforestation behaviours. We surveyed landholders across Queensland in order to identify different landholder typologies based upon (1) their recent tree clearing behaviours and (2) their psychosocial characteristics, mapped their distribution in the landscape, and determined the unique demographic and psychosocial factors associated with typology membership. We identified a heterogeneous mosaic of landholders in the clearing landscape, composed of four clearing typologies and five psychosocial typologies. Social norms, identity, trust, and security played crucial roles in distinguishing different types of landholders. The two most contrasting clearing typologies-active and inactive clearers-were primarily located in hot- and cold-spots of deforestation, respectively; in contrast, most psychosocial typologies could be found throughout the landscape, highlighting the potential benefit of complementing generalised state-wide psychosocial targets with localised behavioural targets. We discuss how conservation policy instruments can be regionally tailored, and relevant strategies for effective communication and engagement can be developed to create behaviour change by understanding the characteristics and distribution of these types of landholders. If modified top-down efforts (e.g. strategic messages, community-based communication) can be supplemented with more bottom-up approaches (e.g. collective learning, building network support), sustainable land management in deforestation hotspots around the world may be achievable.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Mudança Social , Austrália , Queensland , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Ambio ; 49(1): 156-164, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771206

RESUMO

The political economy of dam development in South America is changing as a result of a resurgence in water infrastructure investments. The arrival of Chinese-funded projects in the region has altered a context traditionally dominated by multilateral development banks. Tensions are escalating around new dam projects and the environmental impact assessment process is increasingly the site of politicization around water in the region. In this perspective, we examine the most recent surge in dam development in South America, the resulting environmental and social impacts, and the mobilization of civil society and environmental groups that have developed in response to these projects. In the absence of regionally shared standards for environmental assessment and regional mechanisms to mitigate the emerging conflicts-primarily occurring between companies, states, and civil society-we argue there is a risk of a race to the bottom to finance infrastructure projects with laxer environmental and social standards.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Abastecimento de Água , Mudança Social , América do Sul , Água
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 1, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792605

RESUMO

This paper defines five criteria and identifies 21 indicators for the modernization level of a province or a city in modern China. It collects raw index data from 31 provinces in China, between 2007 and 2017, and introduces formula for its dimensionless processing. An improved entropy method (IEM) is proposed for the evaluation of the modernization in urban areas, based on the five criteria and 21 indicators. A practical study was implemented in Anhui province employing the said IEM. The results demonstrate that the IEM is being effective in evaluating the modernization level in urban areas.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades/métodos , Entropia , Mudança Social , China , Cidades
6.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25043, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048337

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo foi validar uma escala para a análise das percepções dos moradores sobre o impacto social de um centro esportivo. Se recolheu uma amostra de 406 moradores do município de Moncada (Valência) com erro de amostragem de ± 4,82. Os moradores responderam a um questionário de 31 itens que incluíram possíveis impactos sociais derivados da presença do complexo esportivo na localidade. A aplicação da análise fatorial exploratória e confirmatória reduziu a escala para 28 indicadores distribuídos em sete dimensões de impacto: impacto sociocultural, impacto socioeconômico, impacto na imagem e promoção do município, impacto no desenvolvimento e infraestruturas urbanas, impacto na coesão social, igualdade e equidade, impacto na saúde e impacto nos hábitos e níveis de atividade física. Os resultados permitiram verificar a validade e confiabilidade da escala proposta para o objeto de estudo


La finalidad de este estudio es validar una escala para el análisis de las percepciones de los residentes sobre el impacto social de un centro deportivo. Se recogió una muestra de 406 residentes del municipio de Moncada (Valencia), con un error de muestreo de ±4,82, que contestaron a una encuesta de 31 ítems que recogían posibles impactos sociales derivados de la presencia del centro deportivo en la localidad. La aplicación de análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio redujo la escala a 28 indicadores distribuidos en siete dimensiones de impacto: impacto sociocultural, impacto socioeconómico, impacto en la imagen y la promoción del municipio, impacto en el desarrollo urbano y las infraestructuras, impacto en la cohesión social, igualdad y equidad, impacto sobre la salud e impacto sobre los hábitos y niveles de actividad física. Los resultados permitieron comprobar la validez y fiabilidad de la escala propuesta para el objeto de estudio


The purpose of this study is to validate a scale to analyse residents' perceptions of the social impact of a sports centre. A sample of 406 residents of Moncada, Valencia, was collected with sampling error of ±4.82. They responded to a 31-item survey on potential social impacts of the presence of the sports centre in that town. Exploratory and confirmatory factorial analysis reduced the scale to 28 indicators distributed in seven impact dimensions: sociocultural; socioeconomic; image and promotion of the town; urban development and infrastructures; social cohesion; equality and equity; health; and physical activity habits and levels. The results made it possible to check the validity and reliability of the scale proposed for the object of study


Assuntos
Humanos , Mudança Social , Percepção Social , Academias de Ginástica , Estudos de Validação
7.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 17(2): 240-261, jul.-dic. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043051

RESUMO

Resumen (analítico) Analizamos los factores que promueven la incursión de menores de edad a mercados laborales ilícitos en la frontera norte de México. Se analiza el caso de los niños, niñas y adolescentes de circuito. Llevamos a cabo una revisión bibliográfica, hemerográfica, así como desarrollamos y aplicamos indicadores de desarrollo social en una de las regiones de mayor incidencia del fenómeno y realizamos entrevistas a actores clave en la atención institucional a esta población. Concluimos que este fenómeno tiene un origen multifactorial, pero con un trasfondo geográfico y de deficiencias en desarrollo social con una visión incluyente de la niñez y la adolescencia.


Abstract (analytical) In this study the authors explore the factors that promote the involvement of children and adolescences in illicit labor markets in Mexico's northern border region. The study analyses cases from the population known as circuit children and adolescents. The research includes bibliographic, hemerographic, and statistical analyses, as well as the application of social development indicators in one of the regions that has the highest concentration of cases. The study also included interviews with key informants who provide institutional assistance to this population. The authors conclude that there are multiple factors that contribute to the insertion of minors in illicit labor markets. These can be traced to geographic conditions and a lack of social development that has an inclusive vision for children and adolescents.


Resumo (analítico) Este artigo analisa a relação entre as condições de desenvolvimento social e a incursão de menores de idade em mercados de trabalho ilícitos na fronteira norte do México. Analisa-se o caso de meninos, meninas e adolescentes de circuito. Realizou-se uma revisão bibliográfica, hemerográfica, desenvolveram-se e aplicaram-se indicadores de desenvolvimento social em uma das regiões com maior incidência do fenômeno, e realizaram-se entrevistas com atores-chave no atendimento institucional dessa população. Concluiu-se que esse fenômeno tem origem geográfica e multifatorial, mas com um pano de fundo de deficiências no desenvolvimento social com visão inclusiva da infância e adolescência.


Assuntos
Humanos , Mudança Social , Adolescente , Emigração e Imigração
8.
J Law Med ; 26(4): 786-799, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682357

RESUMO

In 2004 legislators in New South Wales relied on Australia's National Competition Policy to change the reason for determining alcohol outlet approvals from a "needs" to a "harm minimisation" basis. This was predicated on the application of a rational social impact assessment (SIA) process. Within a short time, however, the volume of liquor licence applications began to erode that intention and the delays that applicants encountered placed politicians under pressure to fast-track the process. Subsequent liquor legislation retained the statutory obligation on decision-makers to ensure no overall detrimental social impact associated with the approval of an alcohol outlet licence. However, legislative amendments to the approval process reduced the number and kinds of licences and authorisations to which the social impact test applied and encouraged other shortcuts which undermine the validity of these assessments. The resulting statutory approval system in practice relegates SIA to an exception rather than the rule and has revealed the relative weakness of SIA as a public health safeguard.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Mudança Social , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Austrália , Comércio , New South Wales
10.
Nature ; 575(7781): 119-129, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695203

RESUMO

Vaccination against infectious diseases has changed the future of the human species, saving millions of lives every year, both children and adults, and providing major benefits to society as a whole. Here we show, however, that national and sub-national coverage of vaccination varies greatly and major unmet needs persist. Although scientific progress opens exciting perspectives in terms of new vaccines, the pathway from discovery to sustainable implementation can be long and difficult, from the financing, development and licensing to programme implementation and public acceptance. Immunization is one of the best investments in health and should remain a priority for research, industry, public health and society.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/economia , Vacinação/tendências , Vacinas/imunologia , Vacinas/provisão & distribução , Animais , Humanos , Mortalidade , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Mudança Social , Vacinação/economia , Vacinas/economia
12.
J Environ Manage ; 252: 109659, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610447

RESUMO

This study scrutinizes the impacts of efficiency innovations as well as affluence on residential energy consumption, which is a major driver of greenhouse gas emissions. The study draws on the ecological-modernization perspective, which is optimistic about how technological innovations and affluence can help societies overcome environmental challenges associated with production and consumption, and the political-economy perspective, which raises doubts about whether these factors are beneficial to the environment, given their tendency to drive more consumption. Analysis of nationally representative longitudinal data reveals mixed relationships between efficiency innovations and residential energy consumption: while some measures of efficiency innovations, generally those not requiring human-technology interactions, are negatively related to residential energy consumption, others are either unrelated to it or drive more consumption. These findings suggest efficiency innovations offer only minimal opportunities for conserving energy, and may depend on the nature of the innovation. Raising doubts about the potential for rising affluence to promote environmental protection, this study reveals positive relationships between our measures of affluence and residential energy consumption.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Habitação , Eficiência , Humanos , Mudança Social , Tecnologia
15.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 227-230, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488731

RESUMO

Today, the concepts of health and illness require a global vision of man; the suffering of the person places the entire environment in great difficulty: health professionals, family, society. It is important not to simplify the response to a purely health-focused view of the disorder, because fragile people possess a deep need to feel welcomed, listened to, understood and accepted. Service provision that is respectful of the dignity of the person is an important challenge both for those who are responsible for providing services to individuals and their families as well as for the entire community. Therefore in providing care the human qualities of the health professional and not only his technical skills come into play: blending together science and humanitarian ethos. The provision of care therefore "forces" us to broaden our horizons and requires us to face the challenge of responsibility towards the Other, the human condition of being-for. However, ethical capacity cannot be born solely out of sharing standards or adhering to regulations and respecting prohibitions: it stems from high and unconditional moral values and meanings. The ME-YOU relationship represents the primary ethical factor of the human being: my responsibility towards the Other is unconditional. In the book of Genesis when the Lord asks Cain: "... where is Abel, your brother?" He responds with another question: "Am I my brother's keeper?" In this biblical passage Cain kills Abel: the rejection of brotherhood and the care of the other only leads to the death of the Other. "Where is your brother?" This question is crucial in today's day and age and must be taken seriously: it is the decisive question that forces us to decide how to place ourselves in relationship with the other and with the world: do we choose proximity or distance, connection or indifference?


Assuntos
Cuidadores/ética , Cuidadores/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Princípios Morais , Comportamento Social , Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Irmãos/psicologia , Mudança Social
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 697: 134103, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476500

RESUMO

The thinking of landscape sustainability discussed the win-win goal of landscape management for both ecological conservation and social development. The China-proposed Belt and Road Initiative has a pathway of green development towards sustainability, which could be benefited from a corporation on transnational landscape management. Although previous remote sensing observations showed that the ecosystem improvement and social development can coexist in most of the Belt and Road region, whether the change tendencies can be sustained have been neglected. Based on the continuous vegetation index, nighttime light and landcover datasets between 1980s-2010s, a detailed observation of the landscape evolution was obtained in this study. Depending on the identifications of temporal breakpoints, the time series was separated to identify the former and latter tendencies, and the evolution score were evaluated. The results showed that the vegetation greening trend weakened in nearly half of the region, and the arid region mostly experienced vegetation browning lately. The evolution patterns of ecological landscape and social landscape were coincided distributed in China and India, and in Southeast Asia was not scored high for both ecological conservation and social development. Consequently, we should not be overly optimistic about the synergy between ecosystem improvement and social development.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Mudança Social , Transportes , Ecologia
17.
Int J Biometeorol ; 63(12): 1693-1706, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385093

RESUMO

Adverse effects of occupational heat stress in the context of the changing climate on working populations are subtle but considerably harmful. However, social dimensions and impacts of climate change-related occupational heat concerns on workers' safety and health, productivity and well-being are often overlooked or relegated as minor issues in social impact analyses of occupational heat exposure due to climate change. This paper offers a conceptual framework based on an appraisal and synthesis of the literature on social impacts of climate change-related occupational heat exposure on workers' safety and health, productivity and social welfare and the quest to localise and achieve sustainable development goals. A sustained global, national, institutional and individual collaborative involvement and financial support for research, improved adaptation and social protection strategies, predominantly in the developing world, where a large number of people work outdoors, can reduce heat exposure and boost the resilience and adaptive capacity of workers to facilitate efforts to achieve sustainable development goals.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Exposição Ocupacional , Aclimatação , Mudança Climática , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Mudança Social
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405209

RESUMO

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) mortality remains high. The best survival rates are achieved when trained people provide OHCA victims with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); however, it is estimated that only 25% of victims receive CPR. This community health study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a training programme in basic CPR and in the use of an automatic external defibrillator (AED) on knowledge and skills for lay people, and its social impact. The training courses were based on Catalan Council of Resuscitation guidelines. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, evaluation of knowledge and practical skills at baseline and at the end of the training courses, and also on the social impact of the programme. A total of 36 training courses with 482 participants were carried out, and most participants achieved a qualification of suitable. The mean score in knowledge was 3.1 ± 1.1 at baseline and 3.8 ± 1.2 (p = 0.001) at the end of the programme. Participants rated the training courses as very satisfactory, considered the training useful, and felt more qualified to respond to an emergency. This study shows that a high percentage of participants acquired skills in basic CPR and use of an AED, which confirms the usefulness and effectiveness of training courses and its important social impact.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Participação da Comunidade , Desfibriladores , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Mudança Social
19.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465650

RESUMO

The article considers the need for a new model of health care. In the provision of patient care, individual needs and desired outcomes are the driving force behind all decisions in health and quality measurement. Medical care should correspond to individual preferences, needs and values of patients and take into account patient's wishes when making clinical decisions. This approach contributes to improving the quality of medical services and improving the economic well-being of the country, as evidenced by foreign research.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Mudança Social , Tomada de Decisões , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos
20.
Neuron ; 103(4): 559-562, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437452
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA