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1.
Forensic Sci Int ; 307: 110104, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918163

RESUMO

When adult flies are collected at indoor crime scenes, the question of their origin arises, i.e., whether they originated from the outdoors, coming in to oviposit on the body, or if they developed through the larval and pupal stages from eggs laid on the body. This is particularly important if no empty puparia were collected, potentially because they were overlooked, with a consequent impact on the accuracy of the minimum post-mortem interval estimation. This study used two methods to determine if flies sampled in various experimental conditions and at an actual crime scene were wild flies attracted to the body or had developed on the body, i.e., through the assessment of: (1) wing fray and; (2) sex ratio. A template was created to measure the amount of wing fray damage quantitatively in a simple, rapid and efficient manner. The experiments demonstrated that by combining the two methods it is possible to establish the origin of a population of adult flies at a crime scene.


Assuntos
Dípteros/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Larva , Masculino , Microscopia , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Pupa , Razão de Masculinidade
2.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110055, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785512

RESUMO

Body fluid analysis has played a crucial role in ascertaining various characteristics and has greatly aided in reconstructing events during crime scene investigation. It is often presumed that crimes that involve violence and mental disturbances such as murder or sexual assault provide good sources of body fluids such as blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretions, urine and tears. Tears are secreted in response to any emotional or stressful situations and may be found deposited on surfaces such as bedding, tissue paper or cloth. In the absence of the commonly noted body fluids such as blood or saliva, tears can play an important role that can lead to personal identification by examining the biochemistry and molecular aspects to obtain a full DNA profile. Additionally, identification of an individual may be done by carefully observing certain unique eye characteristics such as heterochromia which is highly individualistic. Characteristics of eyewear such as spectacles and contact lenses have unique properties and prescription criteria for correcting an individual's eyesight that can provide vital clues in understanding the visual ability of an individual. In crime scene investigation, the presence or absence of eyewear provides immense evidentiary value that has greatly aided in solving cases such as Janet Abaroa's Murder. This paper provides a systematic review of the possibility of using tears and eyewear for the purpose of forensic investigation and to statistically support the inferences with prescription databases which may be initiated across different populations. Forensic Optometry is yet to get streamlined along with the routinely followed investigative techniques and scientifically explored although no standard protocols exist to analyse eyewear. The use of behavioural optometry is gaining attention in the context of driving laws of different countries and is a simple but powerful indicator of abnormal behaviour. It is speculated that the last seen image referred to as an 'Optogram' of an individual may be captured in the retina since our eyes functions like a camera. Although this claim is considerably unexplored, it is quite possible that the last seen image of a criminal, objects or a place may be noted that can positively help in linking individuals at the scene of crime or identify the primary crime location. In this review, the potential for new insights into the analysis of tears, eye and eyewear characteristics have been explored.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato , Impressões Digitais de DNA , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Óculos , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Lágrimas/química , Bases de Dados Factuais , Epitélio Anterior/química , Olho/patologia , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Prescrições , Manejo de Espécimes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Corpo Vítreo/química
3.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110079, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812084

RESUMO

The utility of biochemical marker analysis in forensic autopsy cases is still uncertain due to the postmortem changes which they undergo. Thus, research is required to elucidate alternative samples and biochemical markers which are less affected by postmortem changes. Levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are known to be elevated in congestive heart failure (CHF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and sepsis patients. Although NT-proBNP is reportedly excreted into the urine, no study has previously evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of urinary concentrations in a forensic setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of NT-proBNP concentration in urine obtained postmortem in a series of forensic autopsy cases. METHODS: Urinary NT-proBNP was measured in 36 AMI, 10 CHF, and 19 sepsis cases, and in 124 control cases (all with postmortem interval [PMI]<72h). RESULTS: Urinary NT-proBNP was significantly higher in AMI, CHF, and sepsis cases than in control cases. Cut-off values for diagnosing AMI, CHF, and sepsis-related fatalities were 98 (sensitivity, 55.6 %; specificity, 73.4 %), 1050 (sensitivity, 80.0 %; specificity, 94.4 %), and 363pg/mL (sensitivity, 84.2 %; specificity, 85.5 %), respectively. Furthermore, we subdivided the control cases according to the death process as either acute death (87 cases) or prolonged death cases (37 cases). Although urine NT-proBNP of CHF and sepsis cases were significantly higher compared with both cases, the concentration in the AMI cases were significantly high only when compared with the acute death cases. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to elucidate the diagnostic utility of NT-proBNP measurement in urine obtained postmortem in a series of causes of death. This study suggests the diagnostic efficacy for AMI, CHF, and sepsis-related fatality in cases in which the PMI was within 72h.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Medicina Legal , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/urina , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/urina , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte , Criança , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/metabolismo , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Líquido Pericárdico/metabolismo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/metabolismo , Troponina/sangue , Adulto Jovem
4.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110033, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812085

RESUMO

Three vehicles with trunks containing pig (Sus scrofa domesticus Erxleben) carcasses which had been allowed to decompose for 30 days, were set alight in controlled burns to determine whether forensically valuable insect evidence could still be recovered. Each car trunk contained the remains of a carcass, together with its associated carrion insect fauna. An insect collection was performed prior to the fires. Each car was then set alight using a small amount of gasoline as an accelerant, poured onto the driver's seat, lit by a burning stick. The fire was allowed to reach its peak before being extinguished. In all cases, the fires completely destroyed the vehicles. The vehicles were examined the following day and insect evidence was collected. In all cases, large amounts of burned, charred and undamaged insect evidence remained, including identifiable prepuparial 3rd instar larvae, live pupae inside intact puparia and empty puparial cases. As well bones and unburned clothing were also intact. One car did not burn as well as the others with the fire not involving the trunk area as much as in the other cars. Once the fire was extinguished, it was clear that the reason for this was the presence of a steel fire wall, between the passenger compartment and the trunk. This reduced the spread of the fire to the trunk and increased evidence survival. However, in all vehicles, insect evidence survived, which could still be used to estimate the period of insect colonization and thereby infer the minimum elapsed time since death. The evidence was also a clear indicator that the decedent had not died in the fire. After the fire, the carcass remains were still attractive to blow fly adults (Diptera: Calliphoridae). In car fire cases it is important to consider that entomological evidence may still be just as useful in the investigation as in non-burned cases.


Assuntos
Automóveis , Espaços Confinados , Fogo , Insetos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Queimaduras , Crime , Comportamento Alimentar , Larva , Modelos Animais , Pupa , Suínos
5.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110068, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816485

RESUMO

Evisceration following penetrating trauma or animal scavenging has the potential to affect the probative value of biological evidence and postmortem interval estimation. Autopsy presents an opportunity for controlled assessment of the rate of decomposition following evisceration. A balanced sample of twenty-six human cadavers was used to assess intergroup rate and trajectory of decomposition at the Forensic Investigation Research Station in Whitewater, Colorado. A linear mixed model using maximum likelihood estimates showed that the decomposition rate did not differ between autopsied and non-autopsied donors based on a comparison of slopes χ2(1)=0.223, p=0.637. The results demonstrate that penetrating trauma and the loss of systemic continuity following evisceration affect the pattern of decomposition, but not the rate. This suggests that the bloat phase may not be a major catalyst of decomposition, and that evisceration may not preclude the use of scopic methods for estimating postmortem interval, when sufficient peripheral tissue is retained.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Patologia Legal , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Cadáver , Colorado , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Larva , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110051, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751866

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The methods developed in recent years for the assessment of the Postmortem Submersion Interval (PMSI) have proven to be promising, but are strictly related to specific geographical areas or climates. The aim of this study is to assess the suitability of two of the most recent total aquatic decomposition scores (TADS) for the determination of the PMSI in bodies recovered from fresh water in an area of Mediterranean climate in the last 15 years. To do this, the correlation coefficient (r2) between PMSI and Accumulate Degrees Days (ADD) or PMSI and days was studied. METHODS: The correlation between PMSI (expressed in days or in ADD) and the TADS was evaluated considering: (a) bodies recovered during the entire period; (b) bodies recovered during the cold season; (c) bodies recovered during the warm season. A linear regression analysis was set comparing the statistical significance of a model plotting TADS versus ADD, and another model plotting TADS versus PMSI (expressed in days) for both scores. RESULTS: Scores were scarcely applicable when considering the entire casuistry, as regression models showed low r2 values, but both scores showed high correlations after dividing the cases into 2 groups. In fact, after performing the seasonal partition, we observed a strong correlation between PMSI and TADS, using either of the scores. CONCLUSION: This study helps increase the accuracy, reliability, and validity of PMI estimation in bodies recovered from freshwater in an area of temperate climate, such as Northern Italy, supporting the need to establish regionally-specific equations for estimating PMI in a forensic context.


Assuntos
Cadáver , Água Doce , Imersão , Modelos Estatísticos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Adulto , Clima , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Temperatura Ambiente
7.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110046, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734574

RESUMO

Murderers sometimes dispose of bodies in zipped suitcases in an attempt to conceal their crimes. In these cases, the species of insects found and their succession patterns are typically different from those found on exposed corpses due to hindrances or delays in colonization. Here we report a case in which an unidentified female corpse was found in a soft-shell suitcase in a wetland area among some reeds in Guangdong, China on 13 May 2018. The suitcase was unbroken and zippers were well-sealed. The victim was a young woman, naked, and curled up in the suitcase. The insect evidence we collected include (i) pupae and empty puparia of Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Muscidae), (ii) larvae, pupae and empty puparia of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) and Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). According to this insect evidence, we estimated the PMImin as 56 days. Bhadra et al. (2014) show that larvae of Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) can colonize carcasses concealed in zipped suitcases. Although the size of the zipper (7mm) in this case is larger than that described in Bhadra et al. (4mm), we did not find Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), or Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) which usually colonize fresh corpses in this area. Therefore, we deduced that the victim may have been killed in winter. After the crime was solved, the murderer confessed that he killed the victim on 5 January.


Assuntos
Cadáver , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , China , Homicídio , Humanos , Temperatura Ambiente
8.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 327-329, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397891

RESUMO

Skeletal remains were retrieved from a cave in an arid desert environment. The submitted material consisted of dried grass, soil, and malodorous skeletal remains wrapped in leather. After examination, it was revealed that the smell had not been due to recent decomposition but to adipocere. The cause of death was listed as "undetermined" and a suggested date of death as "unknown." Although adipocere usually requires a damp environment or submersion in water to develop, this case provides further evidence for the rare possibility of adipocere formation in an otherwise very dry environment. Wrapping of the body in leather material had produced an impermeable barrier which had sequestrated and preserved bodily fluids allowing anaerobic decay with fat hydrolysis and adipocere formation. Microenvironments may have potentially significant and quite idiosyncratic effects on decompositional processes which may initially confuse investigations.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais , Clima Desértico , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Antropologia Forense , Patologia Legal , Humanos
9.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 276-282, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305956

RESUMO

A body of an unknown adult female was found within a shallow burial ground in Malaysia whereas the skull was exposed and visible on the ground. During autopsy examination, nine insect larvae were recovered from the interior of the human skull and subsequently preserved in 70% ethanol. The larvae were greyish in appearance, each with a posterior elongated breathing tube. A week after the autopsy, more larvae were collected at the burial site, and some of them were reared into adults. Adult specimens and larvae from the skull and from the burial site were sequenced to obtain DNA barcodes. Results showed all adult flies reared from the burial site, as well as the larvae collected from the skull were identified as Eristalinus arvorum (Fabricius, 1787) (Diptera: Syrphidae). Here, we report the colonization of E. arvorum larvae on a human corpse for the first time.


Assuntos
Dípteros/genética , Dípteros/fisiologia , Crânio/patologia , Adulto , Animais , Sepultamento , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/fisiologia , Malásia , Mudanças Depois da Morte
10.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 134-143, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479524

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are by-products of cadaveric decomposition and are responsible for the odor associated with decomposing remains. The direct link between VOC production and individual postmortem microbes has not been well characterized experimentally. The purpose of this study was to profile VOCs released from three postmortem bacterial isolates (Bacillus subtilis, Ignatzschineria indica, I. ureiclastica) using solid-phase microextraction arrow (SPME Arrow) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Species were inoculated in headspace vials on Standard Nutrient Agar and monitored over 5 days at 24°C. Each species exhibited a different VOC profile that included common decomposition VOCs. VOCs exhibited upward or downward temporal trends over time. Ignatzschineria indica produced a large amount of dimethyldisulfide. Other compounds of interest included alcohols, aldehydes, aromatics, and ketones. This provides foundational data to link decomposition odor with specific postmortem microbes to improve understanding of underlying mechanisms for decomposition VOC production.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Gammaproteobacteria/metabolismo , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Animais , Medicina Legal , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Suínos
11.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 323-326, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381141

RESUMO

An 85-year-old man was found deceased floating in an irrigation ditch 18 days after his disappearance. During crime scene investigation, specimens of the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii were found in proximity of the body. The feeding activity of these nonendemic crayfishes contributed to the formation of specific injuries on the body and in the production of a large substance defects inside the corpse. The aim of this paper was to illustrate the scavenging activity of P. clarkii on a human body and highlight the potential postmortem artefacts caused by this species. This is the first report on a real case of postmortem injuries produced by P. clarkii crayfishes on a submerged human body. So far, crustaceans are not considered useful for the estimation of the minimum postmortem interval. However, the important modifications on the corpses deriving from the activity of these animals should be kept in consideration.


Assuntos
Astacoidea , Comportamento Alimentar , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Afogamento , Humanos , Imersão , Masculino , Mudanças Depois da Morte
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 551-559, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications. Currently, many postmortem protein phosphorylation studies in muscle have been related to meat quality such as tenderness and color stability. However, the effects of various storage temperatures (25, 15, 4 and -1.5 °C) on the phosphorylation level of protein are poorly understood. Changes in the protein phosphorylation levels in postmortem ovine muscle at various storage temperatures were determined in this study. RESULTS: The obtained data showed that pH decline rate was significantly inhibited at -1.5 °C from 12 h to 7 days postmortem (P < 0.05). The ATP consumption rate was higher at 25 °C than that at other three temperatures (P < 0.05). Analysis of the temperature, pH and ATP content revealed that the ATP content was related to the phosphorylation levels of individual protein bands. Phosphorylated myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins, such as myosin binding protein C, troponin T3, myosin light chain 1, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and pyruvate kinase, were mainly involved in glycolysis and muscle contraction. CONCLUSION: The global and specific protein phosphorylation levels can be influenced by the postmortem storage temperature of muscle. Phosphorylation of proteins was correlated with glycolysis and muscle contraction. Certain phosphorylated proteins, such as heat shock proteins, require further study to clarify their effects on meat traits. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/análise , Proteínas Musculares/química , Músculo Esquelético/química , Animais , Armazenamento de Alimentos/instrumentação , Glicólise , Fosforilação , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Ovinos , Temperatura Ambiente
13.
Forensic Sci Int ; 307: 110108, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877542

RESUMO

Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug, frequently found in post-mortem samples. The quantitative determination of active metabolites may help in the interpretation of the potential toxic effects of the parent drug and its role in death. A fully validated LC-MS/MS method was developed for the identification and quantification of quetiapine and two main metabolites (N-desalkylquetiapine and 7-hydroxyquetiapine) in blood, biological fluids and tissues. Then, the distribution of analytes in different matrices was evaluated. LODs of 0.9, 0.3 and 0.3ng/mL were calculated for quetiapine, N-desalkylquetiapine and 7-hydroxyquetiapine respectively; while a LOQ at the concentration of 10.0ng/mL was defined for the three analytes. 13 post-mortem positive real cases have been included in the experiment. The results revealed that quetiapine and N-desalkylquetiapine might undergo a significant post-mortem redistribution, while 7-hydroxyquetiapine is less affected by this factor. N-desalkylquetiapine could be found in blood in relatively high concentrations in comparison to those of quetiapine; therefore, it should be always advisable to measure both the analytes. The analysis of tissues could provide additional data on potential intoxication with quetiapine.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/farmacocinética , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Fumarato de Quetiapina/farmacocinética , Tecido Adiposo/química , Adulto , Idoso , Bile/química , Química Encefálica , Cromatografia Líquida , Dibenzotiazepinas/farmacocinética , Feminino , Toxicologia Forense , Humanos , Rim/química , Limite de Detecção , Fígado/química , Pulmão/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/química , Baço/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Distribuição Tecidual , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(6): 27-31, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825329

RESUMO

For the last thirty years, many scientific publications have been devoted to diagnostic capabilities of postmortem computer tomography (CT). Nevertheless, up to the present day, the expediency of the substitution of a traditional postmortem dissection with a postmortem CT is still not proved. Foreign countries develop methods improving visualization in case of postmortem CT, study the correlation between the time of death and artefacts encountered in the further CT of cadavers. The authors have performed a comparative analysis of the results of intravitam X-ray examinations and data of postmortem dissections basing on the data of the professional literature and authors' own research. Diagnostic capabilities of CT in case of multitrauma have been determined.


Assuntos
Traumatismo Múltiplo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Autopsia , Cadáver , Humanos , Traumatismo Múltiplo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mudanças Depois da Morte
15.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(5): 572-575, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833291

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To study the mechanism of change of the electrical conductivity (EC) of rat skeletal muscle impregnating solution that occurs with the change of postmortem interval (PMI). Methods Healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were killed and kept at about 25 ℃. Skeletal muscles were extracted at different PMI--immediate (0 d), 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 4 d, 5 d, 6 d, and 7 d, then mixed with deionized water to make impregnating solution with a mass concentration of 0.1 g/mL. The solution's EC and nine common chemicals in it, such as potassium ion, calcium ion, and chloride ion, were determined. Results EC increased gradually with the extending of PMI (P=0.024) during the 7 days after the rats' death. The content of uric acid (P=0.032), urea nitrogen (P=0.013) and phosphorus (P=0.022) also increased during the extension. However, the content of magnesium ions decreased with extending of PMI (P=0.047). The correlation between potassium ion, sodium ion, chlorine ion, calcium ion, creatinine and PMI were weak (P>0.05). Conclusion The molecular basis of skeletal muscle EC change in rats after their death is the changes of uric acid, urea nitrogen, inorganic phosphorus and other chemical components. Furthermore, combine use of various indicators can improve the accuracy of the EC method to infer PMI.


Assuntos
Condutividade Elétrica , Patologia Legal , Músculo Esquelético , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(5): 596-601, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833296

RESUMO

Abstract: In forensic pathology, the estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) has always been a difficult issue, and there is still lack of effective methods to estimate PMI of corpses in water. Microbial biofilm refers to the microbial population attached to non-biological or biological surfaces by microorganisms during microbial growth, that has a three-dimensional structure, surrounded by extracellular polymers and matrix networks created by itself. A series of community succession phenomena of microorganisms occur during the occurrence and development of microbial population. The microbial community and its succession process of this kind of biofilm attached to the surface of a corpse in water may become a new basis for estimation of the PMI of corpses in water. This review elucidates on the concept, classification, research methods, and influencing factors of biofilm and analyzes its application prospects in PMI estimation of corpses in water, which would provide new ideas for the researches in this field.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Biofilmes , Afogamento , Patologia Legal/métodos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Cadáver , Humanos , Água
17.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 40(4): 351-355, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687978

RESUMO

Postmortem tryptase is a useful biochemical test to aid the diagnosis of anaphylaxis. Multiple perimortem and postmortem factors have been documented to cause an elevation in postmortem tryptase level. One factor that was recently recognized to have an impact on postmortem tryptase level is correct sampling technique. A recent study recommended aspirating blood samples from a clamped femoral/external iliac vein to be used for reliable postmortem tryptase analysis. This study sampled 120 consecutive nonanaphylactic deaths in which all the peripheral bloods were sampled as recommended. Postmortem interval, resuscitation, different nonanaphylactic causes of death, sex, and age did not show any statistical significant relation to postmortem tryptase level in Student t test, Pearson correlation, and univariate and multivariate analyses. The mean (SD) postmortem tryptase level was 8.4 (5.2) µg/L (minimum, 1.0 µg/L; maximum, 36.1 µg/L; median, 7.3 µg/L). Using nonparametric methods, the postmortem tryptase reference range in nonanaphylactic death was established as <23 µg/L (97.5th percentile).


Assuntos
Mudanças Depois da Morte , Triptases/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Ressuscitação , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
18.
Forensic Sci Int ; 305: 109970, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629200

RESUMO

Our aim was to investigate the reason for relatively low detection rates for opioids and fentanyl in particular in post-mortem cases in the State of Hamburg. We re-analysed 822 blood samples from two different time periods, 2011/12 and 2016. These samples had been previously analysed in accordance with post-mortem routine by a case selected strategy. All samples were re-analysed with an LC-MS/MS method specific for prescription opioids. The main point in the evaluation was to determine whether the previous analysis strategy had led to underreporting of drug-related deaths (DRD), especially with regard to fentanyl. Another aim was to evaluate changes in prescribing prevalence of opiates and opioids. We compared pharmacy claims data in Hamburg with Germany. The analyses showed that the number of DRD remained unaffected by the new analytical strategy. Detection rates in DRD, however, increased for fentanyl 3.4-fold from 1.2% to 4.1%, buprenorphine from 5.9% to 7.6%, oxycodone from 0% to 1.8%, tilidine from 1.8% to 2.4%. The most frequently detected opioids in DRD cases were methadone (39.4%) and heroin (20%). Prescription rates between 2011-2017 decreased in Hamburg for nearly all opioids, morphine by - 43.5%, buprenorphine - 43%, codeine - 57%, fentanyl - 25%, tilidine -17%, tramadol - 31%, and hydromorphone -6%. Oxycodone, tapentadol, and piritramide prescription rates increased. For Germany, a decrease in the prescription rates for fentanyl was also found during this period (-12.9 %), although not as pronounced as in Hamburg. Prescription rates for methadone were three to greater than five times higher in Hamburg as compared to the German average due to the higher number of substituted persons per inhabitant. Conclusion: Despite the global problem of opioid abuse, there are significant regional differences in the nature and extent of opioid abuse. It is necessary to collect data at the national level to develop appropriate prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/análise , Fentanila/análise , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Cromatografia Líquida , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fentanila/efeitos adversos , Fentanila/envenenamento , Toxicologia Forense , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Microbiol ; 57(11): 1003-1011, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555993

RESUMO

while several methods for determining postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) in drowning cases have been suggested, the estimation of PMSI remains difficult. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology enables simultaneous identification of multiple taxa from environmental samples. Although NGS has been applied to estimate time since death, this application has been mainly focused on terrestrial cases. As a case study, we investigated microeukaryotic biodiversity and community structures in submerged car bonnet and drowned pig using NGS technology. NGS analysis showed that the microeukaryotic biodiversity in pig carcass was relevantly lower than that in car bonnet. NGS results also revealed that water molds and algae were related to decomposition. Relative abundances of Filobasidium, Achlya, Saprolegnia, Hydrodicton, Lobosphaera, and Scenedesmus varied with decomposition period. This data indicated that these taxa might be useful as good indicators to estimate PMSI. This study showed microeukaryotic community analysis using NGS technology may help solve drowning cases in forensic investigation.


Assuntos
Afogamento/diagnóstico , Eucariotos/classificação , Medicina Legal/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Biodiversidade , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Eucariotos/genética , Eucariotos/isolamento & purificação , República da Coreia , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 68: 101869, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557628

RESUMO

The cadaveric alterations that derive from the decomposition of the human body are often investigated and examined in medical autopsies together with any other evidence of thanatological interest. This study aimed to systematically review case-specific characteristics of dental autopsies that reported the pink tooth phenomenon (PTP). The review was performed in October/2018 and followed PRISMA and Cochrane guidelines. Seven databases were searched as primary study sources (PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, Web of Science, Science Direct and Embase) and three (OATD, Open Grey and Open Thesis) were searched for "grey literature". Only descriptive studies were collected, namely case reports and case series. The risk of bias among the studies was assessed with The Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tool. From each case, the sex and age of the victims were registered, together with the place of body recovery, time of death, cadaveric status, cause of death, and number and position of pink teeth. Additionally, a supplemental quantitative analysis was conducted within a sampled subgroup. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to analyze relative risks of presenting pink teeth according to age and tooth position. Eleven studies out of 1004 were eligible. In total 71 cases of cadavers with pink teeth were reported. Two (2.81%) victims had unknown sex, while 17 (23.95%) were females and 52 (73.24%) were males. The victims were aged between 4 and 85 years (mean age 31.13 ±â€¯13.32). Dental autopsies registered 331 pink teeth (163 anterior, 87 premolars and 81 molars). The age did not influence on presenting an additional pink tooth, regardless of tooth position (p > 0.05). Forensic dentists must be aware of pink teeth in dental autopsies. This is an unspecific phenomenon and must not be misinterpreted in medico-legal investigations.


Assuntos
Mudanças Depois da Morte , Descoloração de Dente/patologia , Afogamento/patologia , Humanos
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