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Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 151(2): 180-187, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880941


BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, incipient data have revealed an increase in violence against women (VAW). OBJECTIVE: To analyze the existing scientific literature on strategies and recommendations to respond to VAW during the implementation of social distancing measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. SEARCH STRATEGY: An integrative review was conducted based on articles published between December 2019 and June 2020. Suitable articles were identified from the PubMed, SciELO, and LILACS databases, using relevant terms. SELECTION CRITERIA: Eligible studies included opinion and primary research articles describing the dynamics of VAW during quarantine and in the context of the restrictive measures taken during the COVID-19 pandemic and proposing recommendations to respond to this issue. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were extracted from eligible publications and qualitative synthesis was used. MAIN RESULTS: The 38 articles included in the study showed that some factors increasing women's vulnerabilities to violence were exacerbated during the social distancing and lockdown period. Health professionals are essential for screening and responding to VAW during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies must include integrated actions aiming to prevent and respond to violence during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. These must be designed based on lessons learned from previous public health emergencies.

Infecções por Coronavirus , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Saúde da Mulher , Mulheres Maltratadas/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 30(2): 170-178, May-Aug. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1114925


INTRODUCTION: Unwanted pregnancy is a serious consequence for women who experience sexual violence. Although deciding on abortion is frequent in these cases, there is not much information on women who give up abortion in this circumstanceOBJECTIVE: To analyse the associated factors in abortion withdrawal of sexual violence pregnancyMETHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study with a convenience sample of adolescents and women with pregnancy due to sexual violence and requesting legal abortion between August 1994 and December 2012, at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, Brazil. Pregnant women who gave up abortion after receiving the procedure approval were included and, in another group, pregnant women who completed the abortion. The variables were selected from a digitized database and analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software. The outcome was abortion withdrawal. The study variables were age; low education level; gestational age; color/black ethnicity; not being united; declare religion; serious threat from the aggressor; known offender; and residence of the aggressor. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The analysis used Wald's chi-square test (χ2W) and logistic regression with variable of interest defined as the known aggressor. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of São Paulo, Opinion No. 6767RESULTS: The study included 941 women, 849 (90.2%) who had an abortion and 92 (9.8%) who gave up after being approved. Age ranged from 10-46 years, mean 23.2 ± 7.9 years, gestational age 4-22 weeks, average 11.9 ± 4.5 weeks. Among those who gave up abortion, 12.0% were <14 years old; 50.0% had gestational age ≥ 13 weeks; 50.0% had low education; 14.2% were black; 90.2% single; 85.9% declared to have religion; 50.0% were threatened; 12.0% of the cases occurred at the perpetrator's residence and 53.3% of the victims were raped by known perpetrators. In logistic regression, the only significant variable was the known perpetrator, increasing the victim's chance of giving up abortion twiceCONCLUSION: The known sex offender has influenced the woman or adolescent's decision to give up legal abortion

INTRODUÇÃO: A gravidez forçada é uma grave consequência para mulheres que sofrem violência sexual. Embora decidir pelo aborto seja frequente nestes casos, há escassa informação sobre as mulheres que desistem de realizar ao aborto nessa circunstânciaOBJETIVO: Analisar os fatores associados na desistência do abortamento de gestação decorrente de violência sexualMÉTODO: A cross-sectional epidemiological study com amostra de conveniência de adolescentes e mulheres com gravidez decorrente de violência sexual e solicitação de aborto legal entre agosto de 1994 e dezembro de 2012, no Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, Brasil. Foram incluídas gestantes que desistiram de realizar o aborto após receberem aprovação do procedimento e, em outro grupo, as gestantes que concluíram o aborto. As variáveis foram selecionadas de banco de dados digitalizado e analisadas em software SPSS 15.0. O desfecho foi desistência do aborto. As variáveis de estudo foram a idade, baixa escolaridade; idade gestacional; cor/etnia negra; não estar unida; declarar religião; grave ameaça do agressor; agressor conhecido; e residência do agressor. Foram calculadas as razões de chances (Odds Ratio) com intervalo de confiança de 95%. A análise utilizou teste de qui-quadrado de Wald (χ2W) e regressão logística com variável de interesse definida como o agressor conhecido. A pesquisa recebeu aprovação do Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Parecer nº 6767RESULTADOS: O estudo contou com 941 mulheres, sendo 849 (90,2%) que realizaram o aborto e 92 (9,8%) que desistiram após receberem aprovação. A idade variou de 10-46 anos, média 23,2±7,9 anos, com idade gestacional de 4-22 semanas, média 11,9±4,5 semanas. Entre as que desistiram do aborto, 12,0% tinham idade < 14 anos; 50,0% apresentaram idade gestacional ≥ 13 semanas; 50,0% tinham baixa escolaridade; 14,2% eram negras; 90,2% solteiras; 85,9% declararam ter religião; 50,0% sofreram ameaça; 12,0% dos casos ocorreram na residência do agressor e 53,3% das vítimas foram violentadas por agressores conhecidos. Na regressão logística, a única variável significante foi o agressor conhecido, aumentando em duas vezes a chance da vítima de desistir do abortoCONCLUSÃO: O agressor sexual conhecido exerceu influência na decisão da mulher ou adolescente de desistir do aborto legal

Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Delitos Sexuais , Aborto Induzido , Aborto Legal , Violência Doméstica , Mulheres Maltratadas
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 71: 101594, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768101


A heightened risk of domestic violence has been associated with infection-reducing measures undertaken by governments during the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiatric services can play a key role in addressing this issue by (a) addressing certain risk factors for perpetration of domestic violence through, for example, assertive identification and management of substance misuse; (b) providing support, advocacy and treatment services for victims of domestic violence; and (c) multi-agency working to strengthen medical and social responses to domestic violence. At a time like this, it is important that multi-disciplinary mental health services are strengthened, rather than depleted, in order to address the pressing issues at hand.

Mulheres Maltratadas/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Papel do Médico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235761, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628738


The Women's Experience with Battering (WEB) scale is a self-report instrument that uses a 10-item Likert-type scale to measure IPV victims' cognitive and affective experience of battering. This study aimed to validate the Chinese version of the WEB scale using gender-neutral questions, Experience of Battering Scale (Chinese) (EBS-C), to assess the psychological vulnerability of victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). The study adopted a range of methods, including translation and back translation, expert reviews, cognitive debriefing, and test-retest reliability assessment. The EBS-C was validated in a purposive convenience sample of 718 Chinese-speaking participants (male = 362; female = 356) aged 18-24 (mean age = 21.4) in Hong Kong. The results of CFA showed a good model fit: CFI = .97, TLI = .96, RMSEA = .05, SRMR = .03. The EBS-C was also found to be significantly associated with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2; r = .13-.17, p < .01), depression (BDI-II: r = .15, p < .01), anxiety (GAD-7: r = .17, p < .01), interpersonal support (ISEL-12: r = -.27, p < .01), relationship satisfaction (RAS: r = -.36, p < .01), and self-esteem (RSES: r = -.22, p < .01). The study demonstrated the EBS-C to be a reliable and valid measure for assessing the psychological vulnerability of IPV victims. It is thus useful for identifying the risks such individuals face by assessing their experience of fear, danger, and disempowerment in the intimate relationship relative to abusive incident-based measures alone. The EBS-C will also be useful for developing effective treatments to address the psychological vulnerability resulting from IPV and will facilitate cross-cultural comparative research aimed at enriching our knowledge of IPV victimization.

Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Mulheres Maltratadas/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Autorrelato , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres Maltratadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236733, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722707


Studies on wife abuse in Bangladesh predominantly include the mainstream Bengali population, although there are at least 27 ethnic minority communities including a few 'female-centered' matrilineal groups living in the country. This study explored ethnic differences in the attitudinal acceptance of wife abuse among matrilineal ethnic minority Garo, patrilineal ethnic minority Santal, and mainstream patriarchal Bengali communities in rural Bangladesh. Adopting a cross-sectional design, the study included 1,929 women and men randomly selected from 24 Garo, Santal, and Bengali villages. Multivariate Poisson regression was performed to predict the number of contextual events, where the respondents attitudinally endorsed wife abuse. Of the sample, 33.2% were from Garo, 33.2% from Santal, and 33.6% from the Bengali communities. The acceptance of wife abuse was high in the sample; specifically, 34.1% of the respondents accepted physical wife abuse, 67.5% accepted emotional abuse, and 71.6% accepted any abuse (either physical or emotional) at least on one contextual reason provided in a 10-item scale. The mean for accepting any abuse was 3.0 (SD = 2.8), emotional abuse 2.3 (SD = 2.2), and physical abuse 0.8 (SD = 1.4). The study showed that the rates of accepting any abuse and physical abuse were respectively 16% and 56% lower among Garo as well as 14% and 33% lower among Santal than that of the Bengali community. Data also revealed that individual level factors like younger age, higher education, prestigious occupation as well as family level factors such as higher income, female mobility, and female family authority were inversely associated with the acceptance of wife abuse in the sample. It appears that the gender regime of a society has a great influence on the attitudes toward wife abuse. We argue that a comprehensive socio-cultural transformation of the patriarchal societies into a gender equal order is imperative for the prevention of widespread wife abuse in the country.

Mulheres Maltratadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh , Mulheres Maltratadas/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Características Culturais , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 640, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380972


BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects almost one in three women worldwide. However, disclosing violence or seeking help is difficult for affected women. eHealth may represent an effective alternative to the standard support offers, which often require face-to-face interaction, because of easy accessibility and possibility of anonymous usage. In the Netherlands we are developing SAFE, an eHealth intervention for female victims of IPV, which will be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial and a process evaluation, followed by an open feasibility study to assess real-world user data. METHODS/DESIGN: The randomized controlled trial is a two-arm parallel design comparing an intervention arm and a control group. The groups both have access to eHealth but differ in the offer of interactive features compared to static information. Both groups complete questionnaires at three or four time points (baseline, three months, six months, 12 months) with self-efficacy at 6 months as the primary outcome, measured with the General Self-Efficacy (GSE) scale. The process evaluation consists of quantitative data (from the website and from web evaluation questionnaires) and qualitative data (from interviews) on how the website was used and the users' experiences. DISCUSSION: eHealth has the potential to reach a large number of women who experience IPV. The internet-based design can lower access barriers and encourage help-seeking behavior ultimately reducing the lag time between subjective awareness and protective action. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registered on 15 August 2017 at the Netherlands Trial Register NL7108 (NTR7313).

Mulheres Maltratadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Adulto , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 753, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448199


This article focuses on policy and law concerning violence against women as a public health issue. In Sweden, violence against women is recently recognized as a public health problem; we label this shift "The public health turn on violence against women". The new framing implies increased demands on the Swedish healthcare sector and its' ability to recognise violence and deal with it in terms of prevention and interventions. The aim was to describe and discuss the main content and characteristics of Swedish healthcare law, and national public health and gender-equality policies representing the public health turn on violence against women. Through discursive policy analysis, we investigate how the violence is described, what is regarded to be the problem and what solutions and interventions that are suggested in order to solve the problem. Healthcare law articulates violence against women as an ordinary healthcare issue and the problem as shortcomings to provide good healthcare for victims, but without specifying what the problem or the legal obligation for the sector is. The public health problem is rather loosely defined, and suggested interventions are scarce and somewhat vague. The main recommendations for healthcare are to routinely ask patients about violence exposure. Violence against women is usually labelled "violence within close relationships" in the policies, and it is not necessarily described as a gender equality problem. While violence against women in some policy documents is clearly framed as a public health problem, such a framing is absent in others, or is transformed into a gender-neutral problem of violence within close relationships. It is not clearly articulated what the framing should lead to in terms of the healthcare sector's obligations, interventions and health promotions, apart from an ambivalent discourse on daring to ask about violence.

Mulheres Maltratadas/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/legislação & jurisprudência , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia
Pesqui. prát. psicossociais ; 15(1): 1-12, jan.-abr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1098434


Violência doméstica (VD) ocorre entre pessoas com vinculação afetiva, de convivência ou consanguinidade, podendo envolver também outros membros que convivam no espaço doméstico. A Organização Mundial de Saúde afirma que a VD contra a mulher pode ser detectada, prevenida ou reduzida. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar uma revisão bibliométrica da literatura sobre as intervenções utilizadas em casos de violência doméstica contra mulheres. Buscou-se investigar artigos publicados entre 2004 e 2014 em seis bases de dados (Web of Science, PsycInfo, SciELO, Pepsic. Redalyc e Lilacs), com descritores inseridos em espanhol, inglês e português. Como resultado, foram encontrados 163 artigos, dos quais 14 foram selecionados de acordo com a temática do estudo. Foi constatado que, além das ações destinadas diretamente às vítimas, há o desafio da capacitação de profissionais e da triagem dos casos. Os serviços de saúde têm sido o foco dos estudos, visando à preparação de profissionais e a identificação das vítimas.

Domestic violence occurs between people with affective links, whether familiar or other, involving also those who share their home. The World Health Organization states that the DV against women may be detected, prevented or reduced. The aim of this study was to perform a bibliometric review of the literature about interventions used in cases of DV against women. Studies published between 2004 and 2014 in six different databases (Web of Science, PsycInfo, SciELO, Pepsic. Redalyc and Lilacs) with the describers in Spanish, English and Portuguese were searched. In result, 163 studies were found, of which 14 were chosen according to their theme. It was concluded that, besides of the actions aimed for the victims, there is a challenge in the formation of the professionals and the screening of the cases. The health services have been the focus of the studies aiming for the training of the professionals and victim's identification.

Violencia doméstica (VD) ocurre entre las personas con vinculación afectiva, de convivencia o consanguinidad, pudiendo envolver también otros miembros que convivan en el espacio doméstico. La Organización Mundial de la Salud afirma que la VD contra la mujer puede ser percibida, prevenida o reducida. El presente trabajo tuvo el objetivo de realizar una revisión bibliométrica de la literatura sobre las intervenciones utilizadas en casos de la violencia doméstica contra las mujeres. Se han buscado artículos entre 2004 y 2014, en seis bases de datos (Web of Science, PsycInfo, SciELO, Pepsic. Redalyc y Lilacs) con los descriptores inseridos en español, inglés y portugués. Como resultado se ha encontrado 163 artículos, de los cuales 14 fueron seleccionados de acuerdo con la temática del estudio. Fue constatado que, además de las acciones destinadas directamente a las víctimas, existe el desafío de capacitación de los profesionales y del cribado de casos. Los servicios de la salud han sido foco de los estudios, visando la preparación de los profesionales y la identificación de las víctimas.

Mulheres , Violência Doméstica , Apoio Social , Mulheres Maltratadas , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial
Artigo em Português | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1095987


Objetivo: descrever o tipo de agressão sofrida pela mulher no período da gestação, bem como as conseqüências para o binômio mãe-filho. Método: estudo bibliográfico, descritivo e exploratório, realizou-se uma busca no banco de dados da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), Sistema Latino-Americano e do Caribe de Informações em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Scientific Eletrônic Library Online (SCIELO) e Bancos de dados em enfermagem (BDENF). Resultado: A violência doméstica é caracterizada como qualquer forma de violência praticada dentro do contexto familiar, seja ela física, sexual, psicológica, moral ou patrimonial. Entre os tipos de violência sofrida pela mulher, os mais citados e de maiores danos são a verbal, física e emocional. A violência doméstica contribui para o aumento da mortalidade materna, bem como para o aumento dos números de óbitos perinatais, baixo peso ao nascer, abortos e nascimentos prematuros. Conclusão: Percebeu-se que a violência contra gestantes não tem momento para acontecer e independem de raça, cor, escolaridade e classe social. Observou-se que o profissional deve ampliar seu olhar para os pequenos sinais implícitos nas palavras das mulheres violentadas, pois ele tem um papel de extrema importância no enfrentamento desse problema, afinal ele é o primeiro contato com a gestante vulnerável. (AU)

This study aimed to describe the type of aggression suffered by women during gestation as well as the consequences for the mother-child binomial. Method: a descriptive and exploratory bibliographic study, a search was made in the database of the Virtual Health Library (BVS), Latin American and Caribbean Information System in Health Sciences (LILACS), Scientific Eletrônic Library Online (SCIELO) Nursing Databases (BDENF). Results: Domestic violence is characterized by any form of violence practiced within the family context, be it physical, sexual, psychological, moral or patrimonial. Among the types of violence suffered by women, more cited and larger damage is the verbal, physical and emotional. Domestic violence contributes to increased maternal mortality as well as for the increase of numbers of perinatal deaths, low birth weight, abortions and premature births. Conclusions: It was noticed that violence against pregnant women has no time to happen and is independent of race, color, schooling and social class. It was observed that the professional should widen his eyes to the small signs implied in the words of the violated women, since he plays an extremely important role in facing this problem, after all he is the first contact with the vulnerable pregnant woman. (AU)

Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Saúde Pública , Violência Doméstica , Gestantes , Violência contra a Mulher , Delitos Sexuais , Mulheres Maltratadas , Notificação de Abuso/ética
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2020. (WHO/SRH/20.04).
em Inglês, Chinês, Russo, Português, Espanhol, Árabe | WHO IRIS | ID: who-331699
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816837


Substance use among women is a major public health concern. This review article takes a developmental-relational approach to examine processes through which early relational trauma and violence in relationships may lead to substance use. We examine how early exposure to violence in relationships can impact neurological development, specifically through interference with physiological mechanisms (e.g., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), brain structure and functioning (e.g., the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex), and neuropsychological development (e.g., executive functioning and emotion regulation) across the lifespan. Further, we discuss the impact of exposure to violence on the development of relational capacity, including attachment, internal working models, and subsequent interpersonal relationships across the lifespan, and how these developmental pathways can lead to continued problematic substance use in women.

Mulheres Maltratadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Crescimento , Relações Interpessoais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Violência/psicologia
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1372-1392, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-995106


En el presente artículo se reconstruye la trama específica en la que surgió la categoría mujer golpeada en la psicología argentina, en una peculiar circulación entre sociedad civil y Estado. Desde el enfoque de la historia crítica de la psicología junto a los aportes de la historia reciente, se analiza el proceso de recepción que se produjo en el escenario local, en el entrecruzamiento de la agenda de los derechos humanos con el ideario feminista. Se analiza cómo la violencia de género fue incluida en la agenda gubernamental, en los espacios de activismo feminista y en la producción teórica de la psicología. Se da cuenta de las solidaridades y diferencias entre estos ámbitos, poniendo en evidencia los entramados representacionales y valorativos implicados en los usos de diferentes categorías.(AU)

Neste artigo, reconstruímos a maneira como a categoria mulher maltratada surgiu na psicologia argentina, numa circulação peculiar entre a sociedade civil e o Estado. A partir da abordagem da história crítica da psicologia com as contribuições da história recente, analisamos a recepção no cenário local, na interligação da agenda de direitos humanos com o ideário feminista. Analisamos como a violência de gênero foi incluída na agenda governamental, no ativismo feminista e na produção teórica da psicologia. Incluímos a solidariedade e as diferenças entre essas áreas, levando em conta as representações e valores envolvidos nos usos das diferentes categorias.(AU)

In this article, we reconstruct the way in which the battered woman category emerged in Argentine psychology, in a peculiar circulation between civil society and the State. From the approach of the critical history of psychology to the contributions of recent history, we analyze the reception in the local scene, in the interconnection of the human rights agenda with the feminist ideology. We analyzed how gender violence was included in the governmental agenda, in feminist activism and in the theoretical production of psychology. We include solidarity and the differences between these areas, taking into account the representations and values involved in the uses of the different categories.(AU)

Violência contra a Mulher , Violência de Gênero/psicologia , Psicologia/história , Mulheres Maltratadas/psicologia