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1.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(1): e20200054, 2021. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1114765

RESUMO

RESUMEN OBJETIVO Analizar la influencia de cambios socio-políticos, educativos y feministas de España en el mantenimiento de lactancia materna. MÉTODO Revisión histórico-descriptiva de documentación en bases de datos, Boletines Oficiales del Estado, del Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo y Bienestar Social. RESULTADOS La lactancia materna es un fenómeno complejo influenciado por factores demográficos, biológicos, sociales y psicológicos. Ha cambiado a lo largo de la historia y, evolucionado con los movimientos feministas. La incorporación de la mujer al mercado laboral (s.XIX), produjo una modificación en el rol familiar y pareja. La sociedad del siglo XXI reclama a los poderes públicos la conciliación personal y laboral para la crianza de sus hijos. CONCLUSIONES E IMPLICACIÓN PARA LA PRÁCTICA Han sido múltiples los factores y procesos evolutivos para la situación socio-cultural de la mujer en la lactancia materna. Actualmente sigue siendo complicado compaginar gestación y crianza con el empleo, las redes formales e informales permiten avances en políticas sanitarias.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a influência das mudanças sócio-políticas, educativas e feministas em Espanha na manutenção do aleitamento materno. MÉTODO Revisão histórico-descritiva da documentação em bases de dados, Boletins Oficiais do Estado, do Ministério da Saúde e do Consumo e da Previdência Social. RESULTADOS O aleitamento materno é um fenómeno complexo influenciado por factores demográficos, biológicos, sociais e psicológicos. Ela mudou ao longo da história e evoluiu com os movimentos feministas. A incorporação das mulheres ao mercado de trabalho (século XIX), produziu uma modificação no papel da família e do casal. A sociedade do século XXI exige do poder público a conciliação pessoal e laboral para a educação dos seus filhos. CONCLUSÕES E IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A PRÁTICA Tem havido múltiplos factores e processos evolutivos para a situação sociocultural das mulheres em aleitamento materno. Hoje em dia, ainda é complicado combinar gravidez e educação com emprego, e as redes formais e informais permitem avanços nas políticas de saúde.


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence of socio-political, educational and feminist changes in Spain on the maintenance of breastfeeding. METHOD Historical-descriptive review of documentation in databases, Official State Bulletins, of the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs and Social Welfare. RESULTS Breastfeeding is a complex phenomenon influenced by demographic, biological, social and psychological factors. It has changed throughout history and evolved with the feminist movements. The incorporation of women to the labor market (19th century), produced a modification in the family and couple role. The society of the 21st century demands from the public authorities the personal and labor conciliation for the upbringing of their children. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE There have been multiple factors and evolutionary processes for the socio-cultural situation of women in breastfeeding. Nowadays, it is still complicated to combine pregnancy and upbringing with employment, and formal and informal networks allow advances in health policies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Aleitamento Materno , Feminismo/história , Espanha/etnologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos da Mulher/história , Poder Familiar , Igualdade de Gênero
2.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180375, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1059151

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to understand the perceptions of domestic workers on the legislative changes and impacts on their working and health conditions. Method: a qualitative study, conducted in a city in the inland of São Paulo, between December 2016 and March 2017, conducted through individual interviews with 15 domestic workers, using the snowball strategy and theoretical saturation sampling. For data analysis, Hermeneutics-Dialectics was adopted. Results: domestic workers face precarious working and health conditions, permeated by a lack of information about their rights at work, as well as discrimination, devaluation, musculoskeletal problems, mental suffering and presenteeism. Improvements in recent years have been reported, but the workers claim greater reach for formal registration and valuation for domestic work. Conclusion: constant evaluation and dissemination of the legislative changes with the domestic workers is essential, so that chronic situations of devaluation and precariousness of domestic work are replaced by the empowerment and transformation capacity of these women.


RESUMEN Objetivo: comprender las percepciones de las trabajadoras domésticas sobre los cambios legislativos y los efectos sobre sus condiciones laborales y de salud. Método: estudio cualitativo que se desarrolló en una ciudad del interior del estado de San Pablo entre diciembre de 2016 y marzo de 2017, realizado por medio de entrevistas individuales con 15 trabajadoras domésticas, y en el que se utilizó la estrategia de la bola de nieve y el muestreo por saturación teórica. Para analizar los datos se adoptó la Hermenéutica Dialéctica. Resultados: las trabajadoras domésticas hacen frente a una precarización de las condiciones de trabajo y de salud, permeadas por la escasez de informaciones sobre sus derechos en el trabajo, al igual que por discriminación, desvalorización laboral, problemas osteomusculares, sufrimiento mental y presentismo. Se reportan mejoras en los últimos años; sin embargo, las trabajadoras reclaman un mayor alcance del registro formal y de la valorización del trabajo doméstico. Conclusión: resulta fundamental que se evalúen y divulguen constantemente los cambios legislativos entre las trabajadoras domésticas, de modo que las situaciones crónicas de desvalorización y precarización del trabajo doméstico sean reemplazadas por el empoderamiento y la capacidad de transformación de estas mujeres.


RESUMO Objetivo: compreender as percepções de trabalhadoras domésticas sobre as mudanças legislativas e os impactos em suas condições laborais e de saúde. Método: estudo qualitativo, desenvolvido em uma cidade do interior paulista, entre dezembro de 2016 e março de 2017, realizado por meio de entrevistas individuais com 15 trabalhadoras domésticas, utilizando-se a estratégia bola de neve e amostragem por saturação teórica. Para a análise dos dados, adotou-se a Hermenêutica-Dialética. Resultados: as trabalhadoras domésticas enfrentam precarização das condições de trabalho e saúde, permeadas por escassez de informações sobre seus direitos no trabalho, bem como discriminação, desvalorização laboral, problemas osteomusculares, sofrimento mental e presenteísmo. Melhorias nos últimos anos foram relatadas, porém as trabalhadoras reivindicam maior alcance do registro formal e valorização do trabalho doméstico. Conclusão: torna-se fundamental uma constante avaliação e divulgação das mudanças legislativas junto às trabalhadoras domésticas, para que situações crônicas de desvalorização e precarização do trabalho doméstico sejam substituídas pelo empoderamento e pela capacidade de transformação dessas mulheres.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Ambiente de Trabalho , Condições de Trabalho , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Legislação como Assunto
3.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 23(270): 4826-4835, nov.2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1145453

RESUMO

Objetivo: compreender como as mulheres rurais percebem o seu processo de trabalho no campo. Método: Pesquisa de campo, descritiva, exploratória, com análise qualitativa, realizada no município de Cascavel/PR de janeiro a julho de 2018 com 29 mulheres. Resultados: Conforme dados coletados por meio de entrevista, com as mulheres trabalhadoras rurais, tendo como questão norteadora, "Me fale o que a senhora vê de bom no trabalho que realiza no campo", construímos 05 Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo (DSC), e destacado 08 ideias centrais, sendo elas: Ocupação; Sustento da família; União familiar; Interação social; Qualidade de Vida; Liberdade; Atividade prazerosa; Opção de vida. Conclusão: A pesquisa desvela que as mulheres trabalhadoras rurais entendem seu trabalho como uma ferramenta poderosa a partir de uma percepção integradora que ajusta não só o ponto de vista produtivo, como, também, nos aspectos social, ambiental e cultural.(AU)


Objective: to understand how rural women perceive their work process in the field. Method: Field research, descriptive, exploratory, with qualitative analysis, conducted in the municipality of Cascavel / PR from January to July 2018 with 29 women. Results: According to data collected through interviews, with women rural workers, having as a guiding question, "Tell me what you see in the work you do in the field", we built 05 Discourse of the Collective Subject (CSD), and 08 central ideas were highlighted, namely: Occupation; Family support; Family union; Social interaction; Quality of life; Freedom; Pleasurable activity; Life option. Conclusion: The research reveals that women rural workers understand their work as a powerful tool from an integrative perception that adjusts not only the productive point of view, but also in the social, environmental and cultural aspects.(AU)


Objetivo: comprender cómo las mujeres rurales perciben su proceso de trabajo en el campo. Método: Investigación de campo, descriptiva, exploratoria, con análisis cualitativo, realizada en el municipio de Cascavel / PR de enero a julio de 2018 con 29 mujeres. Resultados: De acuerdo a los datos recolectados a través de entrevistas, con trabajadoras rurales, teniendo como pregunta orientadora "Dime qué ves en el trabajo que haces en el campo", construimos 05 Discurso del Sujeto Colectivo (CDS), y Se destacaron 08 ideas centrales, a saber: Ocupación; Apoyo familiar; Unión familiar; Interacción social; Calidad de vida; Libertad; Actividad placentera; Opción de vida. Conclusión: La investigación revela que las trabajadoras rurales entienden su trabajo como una herramienta poderosa desde una percepción integradora que ajusta no solo el punto de vista productivo, sino también en los aspectos sociales, ambientales y culturales.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Percepção , População Rural , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Saúde da População Rural , Qualidade de Vida , Ambiente de Trabalho , Saúde da Mulher
4.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 31(5): 611-621, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the article is to describe the follow-up of pregnancies at work and occupational exposure to potential risks for pregnancy. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed from April 1, 2017 to October 31, 2017 in the occupational health departments of French hospitals. After delivery and at the time of returning to work, 1,165 eligible workers were interviewed by occupational health physicians (OHPs). Socio-demographic information was self-reported. Occupational exposures were assessed by an OHP. Birth weight, gestational age, and sick leaves were also collected. RESULTS: Among recruited workers, 51.8% were exposed to more than 5 occupational hazards. Biological and physical hazards were the most common hazards at the workplace. Note that heavy lifting ≥ 15 kg concerned 9.5% of workers. Only 20.1% of workers had a specific "pregnancy at work" medical visit with OHP during pregnancy; 26.8% benefited from workstation adjustments. In contrast, the level of sick leaves was high (86.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that pregnant workers in hospitals must be strictly supervised.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Gestantes , Estresse Psicológico , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Estresse Ocupacional , Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Trabalho/psicologia
5.
Work ; 67(2): 269-279, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a vulnerable period of growth and enrichment along with many physiological and psychological challenges. These changes can lead to complications if compounded by external stress and anxiety. COVID-19 has emerged as a chief stressor among the general population and is a serious threat among vulnerable populations. Therefore, there is a need for stress management tools, such as Yoga and physical exercises, both at home and at work. These can be adopted during the pandemic with proper maintenance of social distancing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compile literature that has reported the health outcomes of Yoga intervention on pregnancy at the workplace and analyzes both the restrictions as well as advantages of its beneficial effects in comparison to physical exercises. METHODOLOGY: A comprehensive literature review was conducted utilizing PubMed and Google Scholar. The keywords used for the search include "Yoga", "work", "complications", "physical exercise", "drugs" and "COVID" indifferent permutations and combinations with "pregnancy". We compiled the literature with respect to pregnancy complications and the effects of drugs, physical activity and Yoga for preventing these complications. RESULTS: We noted that pregnancy-related complications are becoming more prevalent because of a sedentary lifestyle, restricted physical activity and growing stress. In such situations, a home or workplace Yoga protocol can combine both exercise and mindfulness-based alleviation of anxiety for both working and non-working women. CONCLUSION: Yoga can be effective for combating stress and anxiety besides boosting immunity in pregnant working women confronted with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Ioga/psicologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Atenção Plena , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Comportamento Sedentário , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238957, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia in women of reproductive age is a major public health challenge for low- and middle-income countries with a long-term negative impact on the health of women, their children, and the economic growth of the society. Even though the world health organization targeted a 50% global reduction of anemia among women of reproductive age by 2025, with the current trend it is unlikely to achieve this goal. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of anemia among women of reproductive age in eastern Africa. METHODS: A secondary data analysis, using demographic and health survey (DHS) data of 10 eastern African countries, was conducted. For our study, a total weighted sample of 101524 women of reproductive age was used. We employed a multilevel mixed-effects generalized linear model (using Poisson regression with robust error variance). Both unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios with their 95% confidence interval were reported. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia in eastern Africa was 34.85 (95%CI: 34.56-35.14) ranging from 19.23% in Rwanda to 53.98% in Mozambique. In the multivariable multilevel analysis, being older age, having primary and above education, being from households with second to highest wealth quantiles, being currently working, not perceiving distance as a big problem, use of modern contraceptive methods, and rural residence was associated with a lower prevalence of anemia. While, being married and divorced/separated/widowed, women from female-headed households, women from households with unimproved toilet facility and unimproved water source, ever had of a terminated pregnancy, having high parity, and being from large household size was associated with a higher prevalence of anemia. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anemia in eastern Africa was relatively high. Both individual level and community level factors were associated with the prevalence of anemia in women of reproductive age. Therefore, giving special attention to those women who are at a higher prevalence of anemia such as younger women, those who are from households with low socioeconomic status, unimproved toilet facility, and source of drinking water, as well as pregnant women could decrease anemia in women of reproductive age.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África Oriental/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Água Potável , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estado Civil , Casamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Paridade , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Toaletes , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 715, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women are under-represented in many mid-career infectious diseases research fellowships, including a TDR fellowship for low- and middle-income country (LMIC) researchers. TDR solicited creative ideas as part of a challenge contest to increase the number of women fellowship applicants. The purpose of this study is to examine themes from submitted ideas and the impact of implementing the top three ideas on the number of women applicants. METHODS: We solicited ideas for modifying the TDR fellowship using a crowdsourcing challenge. Then we used a mixed methods approach to evaluate texts submitted in response to the challenge. The qualitative analysis identified themes from eligible submissions. The quantitative analysis examined the mean score (1-10 scale) assigned to submitted ideas and also the number of eligible women applicants before (2014-7) and after (2018) implementing the top three ideas. RESULTS: We received 311 ideas on improving women's participation in this fellowship from 63 countries. Among all ideas, 282 (91%) were from women and 286 (92%) were from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thirty-three (17%) ideas received an overall mean score of 7.0 or greater. The top three ideas included enhanced social media communication targeting women, improving career mentorship, and creating a nomination system to nudge women applicants. These ideas were implemented as part of the 2018 fellowship application cycle. The number of eligible women applicants increased from 11 in 2016 to 48 in 2018. The number of eligible men applicants increased from 55 in 2016 to 114 in 2018. Women represent 44% (8/18) of the 2018 cohort. CONCLUSION: This suggests that the challenge contest resulted in strong participation from women in LMICs. The three top ideas likely contributed to a greater number of women applicants to this mid-career fellowship. Further ways of enhancing women's participation in global health training are needed.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Crowdsourcing/métodos , Bolsas de Estudo , Pesquisadores , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Comunicação , Feminino , Saúde Global , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236721, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750071

RESUMO

Whereas governments are increasingly considering affirmative action programs to increase corporate board diversity, the effect of such programs can be superficial as they do not address the underlying problem, which is women's access to and inclusion in relevant corporate networks. To address this issue, we study the relationship among affirmative action programs (binding gender quotas and non-binding gender targets), director networks, and the number of board positions individual directors hold given their gender. We use personal, professional, and network characteristics of 25,127 unique directors from 2,435 public firms in 32 European countries over the period of 2000 through 2017. We find that in the absence of affirmative action programs, women directors benefit less from their networks than men directors suggesting the existence of a gender gap in network benefits. After the passage of binding gender quotas, this gender gap in network benefits narrows between women and men directors. Overall, this research suggests that binding gender quotas make director networks a more salient tool for hiring women and may help in leveling the playing field in the way these networks are used for achieving top management positions.


Assuntos
Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Ética nos Negócios , Cultura Organizacional , Corporações Profissionais/organização & administração , Política Pública , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1112, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving breastfeeding practice is important for reducing child health inequalities and achieving several Sustainable Development Goals. Indonesia has enacted legislation to promote optimal breastfeeding practices in recent years. We examined breastfeeding practices among Indonesian women from 2002 to 2017, comparing trends within and across sociodemographic subgroups. METHODS: Data from four waves of the Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys were used to estimate changes in breastfeeding practices among women from selected sociodemographic groups over time. We examined three breastfeeding outcomes: (1) early initiation of breastfeeding; (2) exclusive breastfeeding; and (3) continued breastfeeding at 1 year. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess changes in time trends of each outcome across population groups. RESULTS: The proportion of women reporting early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding increased significantly between 2002 to 2017 (p < 0.05), with larger increases among women who: were from higher wealth quintiles; worked in professional sectors; and lived in Java and Bali. However, 42.7% of women reported not undertaking early initiation of breastfeeding, and 48.9% of women reported not undertaking exclusive breastfeeding in 2017. Women who were employees had lower exclusive breastfeeding prevalence, compared to unemployed or self-employed women. Women in Java and Bali had higher increase in early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding compared to women in Sumatra. We did not find statistically significant decline in continued breastfeeding at 1 year over time for the overall population, except among women who: were from the second poorest wealth quintile; lived in rural areas; did not have a health facility birth; and lived in Kalimantan and Sulawesi (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There were considerable improvements in breastfeeding practices in Indonesia during a period of sustained policy reform to regulate breastfeeding and community support of breastfeeding, but these were not distributed uniformly across socioeconomic, occupation and geographic subgroups. Concerted efforts are needed to further reduce inequities in breastfeeding practice through both targeted and population-based strategies.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/tendências , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Prevalência , Fatores de Tempo , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1106, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer represented the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in Japan. Although physical activity has been reported protective against breast cancer, scientific evidence is limited on the risk of breast cancer according to job category or occupational activity in Japanese. Our objective was to examine the association of job category and occupational activity with breast cancer incidence in Japanese female workers using the data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study. METHODS: A prospective cohort study involving 19,041 women aged 40-79 years who have reported their occupational data and followed-up from 1988 to 2009. All variables were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Cancer incidence data were obtained from 24 areas of the JACC study through cancer population data registration, or review of hospital records. The Cox proportional hazard models were operated to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: There were 138 incident cases of breast cancer during 13.3 years median follow-up period. Office workers compared with manual workers were at a higher risk of breast cancer after adjusting for reproductive health factors and physical activity indicators; the multivariable HR (95% CI) was 1.65 (1.07-2.55). Also, women who had mainly a sitting position during work compared with those moving during work had the higher risk: the multivariable HR (95%CI) of 1.45 (1.01-2.12). The excess risk of breast cancer was observed for office workers when time spent in walking was < 30 min/ day; HR (95% CI) was 1.11 (1.01-1.23), and for women mainly at a sitting position during work when time spent in walking was 30-59 min or < 30 min/day; HRs (95% CIs) were 1.87 (1.07-3.27) and 1.74 (1.07-2.83), respectively. CONCLUSION: The job category and occupational activity were associated with risk of breast cancer incidence. A high risk was observed in office workers and in women with a sitting position during work. These observed increased risks were evident in women with less daily walking activity.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707683

RESUMO

To evaluate labor and delivery complications and delivery modes between physicians and white-collar workers in Taiwan, this retrospective population-based study used data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We compared 1530 physicians aged 25 to 50 years old who worked and had singleton births between 2007 and 2013 with 3060 white-collar workers matched by age groups, groups of monthly insured payroll-related premiums, previous cesarean delivery, perinatal history anemia, and gestational diabetes mellitus. The logistic regression models were used to assess the labor and delivery complications between the two groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that physicians had a significantly higher risk of placenta previa (odds ratio (OR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.69) and other malpresentation (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.45-2.39) than white-collar workers, whereas they had a significantly lower risk of placental abruption (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.40-0.71), preterm delivery (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61-0.92), and premature rupture of membranes (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.59-0.88). Increased risks of some adverse labor and delivery complications were observed among physicians, when compared to white-collar workers. These findings suggest that working women should take preventative action to manage occupational risks during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Descolamento Prematuro da Placenta , Trabalho de Parto , Ocupações , Nascimento Prematuro , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan , Mulheres Trabalhadoras
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599777

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between the husbands' domestic labor and marital intimacy, work satisfaction, and depressive mood in married working women. We used the sixth (2016) dataset from the Women and Families Panel Survey conducted by the Korean Women's Development Institute (KWDI). The subjects were 791 married working women who lived with a wage-earner husband and who did not have a housework assistant. The correlations between variables were measured and the fit of the structural equation model was assessed. We used a mediation model in which the husbands' domestic labor affected the depressive mood of married working women through mediation of marital intimacy and work satisfaction. Bootstrapping was used to verify the significance of the indirect effects of the mediating variables. Husbands' domestic labor had a significant effect on married women's marital intimacy and work satisfaction, but no significant direct effect on depressive mood. Marital intimacy had a significant effect on work satisfaction, and these two variables were significantly related to reductions in the depressive mood score. Husbands' domestic labor was found to be a complete mediator of depressive mood through its effects on marital intimacy and work satisfaction. Husbands' domestic labor did not directly reduce married working women's depressive mood scores, but instead reduced them indirectly through effects on marital intimacy and work satisfaction.


Assuntos
Depressão , Casamento , Satisfação Pessoal , Cônjuges , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia
16.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(6): 382-393, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514212

RESUMO

Objective: To develop a method to assess the cost of extending the duration of maternity leave for formally-employed women at the national level and apply it in Brazil, Ghana and Mexico. Methods: We adapted a World Bank costing method into a five-step method to estimate the costs of extending the length of maternity leave mandates. Our method used the unit cost of maternity leave based on working women's weekly wages; the number of additional weeks of maternity leave to be analysed for a given year; and the weighted population of women of reproductive and legal working age in a given country in that year. We weighted the population by the probability of having a baby that year among women in formal employment, according to individual characteristics. We applied nationally representative cross-sectional data from fertility, employment and population surveys to estimate the costs of maternity leave for mothers employed in the formal sector in Brazil, Ghana and Mexico for periods from 12 weeks up to 26 weeks, the WHO target for exclusive breastfeeding. Findings: We estimated that 640 742 women in Brazil, 33 869 in Ghana and 288 655 in Mexico would require formal maternity leave annually. The median weekly cost of extending maternity leave for formally working women was purchasing power parity international dollars (PPP$) 195.07 per woman in Brazil, PPP$ 109.68 in Ghana and PPP$ 168.83 in Mexico. Conclusion: Our costing method could facilitate evidence-based policy decisions across countries to improve maternity protection benefits and support breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/economia , Licença Parental/economia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , México , Modelos Econométricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
New Solut ; 30(2): 95-101, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567480

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is exposing critical failures in public and occupational health in the United States. So-called hazard pay for essential workers is a necessary but insufficient response to the lack of workplace protections. The roots of these failures in the weakening of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration enforcement and pandemic preparedness and the dramatic shifts in the economy and labor market in recent decades are explored along with the history of hazard pay. The current prominence of COVID-19-related workplace hazards, and the mobilization by both nonunion and union workers experiencing them, presents opportunities amid the crisis and tragic losses to envision a revival of worker protection measures. Strategies are needed for organizing and legislative advocacy to address the disparate impact of both normal and crisis conditions on low-wage workers, especially women and workers of color.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Salários e Benefícios , Local de Trabalho/economia , Betacoronavirus , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Humanos , Sindicatos/economia , Sindicatos/normas , Pandemias , Estados Unidos , United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration , Mulheres Trabalhadoras
19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 875, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, over 740 million women make their living in the informal economy and therefore lack formal employment benefits, such as maternity leave, that can improve infant feeding practices. Returning to work is one of the biggest challenges women face to maintaining breastfeeding. This study aimed to explore attitudes and perceptions towards breastfeeding in the informal work environment among male and female informal workers. METHODS: The study used a qualitative research design. Purposive and snowball sampling was employed. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted among men and women working in different types of informal jobs, in India and South Africa. Data was analysed using a thematic approach and the framework method. RESULTS: Between March and July 2017, 14 FGDs were conducted in South Africa and nine in India. Most women were knowledgeable about the benefits of breastfeeding and reported initiating breastfeeding. However, pressures of family responsibilities and household financial obligations frequently forced mothers to return to work soon after childbirth. Upon return to work many mothers changed their infant feeding practices, adding breastmilk substitutes like formula milk, buffalo milk, and non-nutritive fluids like Rooibos tea. Some mothers expressed breastmilk to feed the infant while working but many mothers raised concerns about expressed breastmilk becoming 'spoilt'. Breastfeeding in the workplace was challenging as the work environment was described as unsafe and unhygienic for breastfeeding. Mothers also described being unable to complete work tasks while caring for an infant. In contrast, the flexibility of informal work allowed some mothers to successfully balance competing priorities of childcare and work. Sociocultural challenges influenced breastfeeding practices. For example, men in both countries expressed mixed views about breastfeeding. Breastfeeding was perceived as beneficial for both mother and child, however it was culturally unacceptable for women to breastfeed in public. This affected working mothers' ability to breastfeed outside the home and contributed to a lack of respect for women who chose to breastfeed in the workplace. CONCLUSION: Mothers working in the informal sector face multiple challenges to maintaining breastfeeding. Interventions are required to support feeding and childcare if global nutrition and development goals are to be met.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mães/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Emprego/métodos , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , África do Sul
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1007, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that work-related physical activity may not have the same mental health benefits as leisure-time physical activity. Further, work-related physical activity is likely to include a variety of different behaviours for people with different occupations. As such, the aim of this study was to determine if occupation type moderated the association between work-related physical activity and psychological distress. METHODS: A randomly selected sample of 1080 women from Melbourne, Australia completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), and reported their current occupation. RESULTS: Linear regression analyses indicated that occupation significantly moderated the association between work-related walking and psychological distress (F [8, 55] = 2.26, p = .036). Given evidence of moderation, we fitted linear regression models to test the associations between work-related physical activity and psychological distress for three separate groups; professionals, sales and services workers, and tradespersons. Female tradespersons who engaged in a low (B = - 3.81, p = .006) or high amount of work-related walking (B = - 3.23, p = .029), had significantly lower psychological distress symptoms than those who engaged in no work-related walking. There were no significant associations between work-related physical activity of any intensity and psychological distress for professionals, or sales and service workers. CONCLUSIONS: Given the relationship does not exist across all occupations, work-related physical activity should not be promoted above and beyond leisure-time physical activity. However, walking at work may be important in reducing psychological distress for some people and should therefore, not be discounted.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão
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