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2.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 30(4): 584-588.e2, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824306

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the evolving representation of women in the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the available gender demographic data of various SIR subgroups between 2008 and 2017 was performed. The gender makeup of the following groups was analyzed: SIR membership, SIR Executive Council members and officers, Annual Meeting invited speakers, committee chairs, Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (JVIR) first and senior authors, JVIR editorial board, IR Quarterly (IRQ) authors, and active interventional radiology (IR) residents and fellows. RESULTS: From 2008 to 2017, the percentage of female representation in SIR members doubled (from 6% to 13.1%). In the same period, female representation also significantly increased in Executive Council members (0% to 20%) and officers (0% to 50%), SIR Annual Meeting presenters (5.1% to 15.4%), and JVIR first authors (10% to 14.5%) and senior authors (7.1% to 11.9%). From 2012 to 2017, there were increases in female representation among SIR committee chairs (21% to 28%) and IRQ authors (4.5% to 27%). However, the percentage of female IR residents and fellows did not significantly change between 2008 and 2017 (11% vs 16.2%; P = .51). CONCLUSIONS: Women interventional radiologists are underrepresented within SIR, representing only 9.2% of active IR physicians. There has been a steady increase in female representation within most areas of SIR evaluated in this study. Although these trends are reassuring, efforts toward increasing recruitment and retention of women in IR need to improve in light of the infancy of IR as a residency program.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Médicas/tendências , Radiologistas/tendências , Radiologia Intervencionista/tendências , Sexismo/tendências , Especialização/tendências , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Congressos como Assunto/tendências , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Radiologistas/educação , Radiologia Intervencionista/educação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sociedades Médicas/tendências , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/educação
3.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 30(4): 579-583, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772166

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the current state of gender diversity among invited coordinators at the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) Annual Scientific Meeting and to compare the academic productivity of female interventional radiologists to that of invited male coordinators. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Faculty rosters for the SIR Annual Scientific Meetings from 2015 to 2017 were stratified by gender to quantify female representation among those asked to lead and coordinate podium sessions. To quantify academic productivity and merit, H-index, publications, and authorship by females over a 6-year period (2012-2017) were statistically compared to that of recurring male faculty. RESULTS: From 2015 to 2017, women held 7.1% (9/126), 4.3%, (8/188), and 13.7% (27/197) of the available coordinator positions for podium sessions, with no representation at the plenary sessions, and subject matter expertise was concentrated in economics and education. Academic productivity of the top quartile of published female interventional radiologists was statistically similar to that of the invited male faculty (H-index P = .722; total publications P = .689; and authorship P = .662). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that senior men dominate the SIR Annual Scientific Meeting, with few women leading or coordinating the podium sessions, despite their established academic track record.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Médicas/tendências , Radiologistas/tendências , Radiologia Intervencionista/educação , Sexismo/tendências , Especialização/tendências , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Congressos como Assunto/tendências , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Radiologistas/educação , Radiologia Intervencionista/tendências , Sociedades Médicas/tendências , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/educação
5.
Anesth Analg ; 128(1): 137-143, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gender inequity is still prevalent in today's medical workforce. Previous studies have investigated the status of women in academic anesthesiology. The objective of this study is to provide a current update on the status of women in academic anesthesiology. We hypothesized that while the number of women in academic anesthesiology has increased in the past 10 years, major gender disparities continue to persist, most notably in leadership roles. METHODS: Medical student, resident, and faculty data were obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges. The number of women in anesthesiology at the resident and faculty level, the distribution of faculty academic rank, and the number of women chairpersons were compared across the period from 2006 to 2016. The gender distribution of major anesthesiology journal editorial boards and data on anesthesiology research grant awards, among other leadership roles, were collected from websites and compared to data from 2005 and 2006. RESULTS: The number (%) of women anesthesiology residents/faculty has increased from 1570 (32%)/1783 (29%) in 2006 to 2145 (35%)/2945 (36%) in 2016 (P = .004 and P < .001, respectively). Since 2006, the odds that an anesthesiology faculty member was a woman increased approximately 2% per year, with an estimated odds ratio of 1.02 (95% confidence interval, 1.014-1.025; P < .001). In 2015, the percentage of women anesthesiology full professors (7.4%) was less than men full professors (17.3%) (difference, -9.9%; 95% confidence interval of the difference, -8.5% to -11.3%; P < .001). The percentage of women anesthesiology department chairs remained unchanged from 2006 to 2016 (12.7% vs 14.0%) (P = .75). To date, neither Anesthesia & Analgesia nor Anesthesiology has had a woman Editor-in-Chief. The percentage of major research grant awards to women has increased significantly from 21.1% in 1997-2007 to 31.5% in 2007-2016 (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Gender disparities continue to exist at the upper levels of leadership in academic anesthesiology, most importantly in the roles of full professor, department chair, and journal editors. However, there are some indications that women may be on the path to leadership parity, most notably, the growth of women in anesthesiology residencies and faculty positions and increases in major research grants awarded to women.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/tendências , Anestesiologia/tendências , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Liderança , Médicas/tendências , Sexismo/tendências , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Anestesiologistas/educação , Anestesiologia/educação , Educação Médica/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/educação
6.
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(3): 113-118, mayo-jun. 2018. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-179798

RESUMO

En los últimos años, la proporción de mujeres que estudian medicina creció de forma constante en numerosos países. En Argentina, la feminización de la profesión médica ya muestra una mayor representación de la mujer en los grupos de edad más joven, y la proyección a 10 años indica que la mujer abarcará el 60-70% de la fuerza laboral médica en todos los estratos de edad. La adaptación a las características laborales de las mujeres requerirá aceptar la flexibilidad del trabajo a tiempo parcial y las interrupciones de la carrera originadas por la maternidad u otros compromisos familiares. Una consecuencia futura de que las mujeres eludan la mayoría de las especialidades quirúrgicas será una escasez relativa de profesionales en estas especialidades. De todas forma, deberá explorarse si este supuesto desinterés por las especialidades quirúrgicas depende del fuerte condicionamiento del modelo masculino en estos espacios. A pesar de ser mayoría, la mujer está menos representada en el ámbito académico, lo que origina a su vez una menor representación en el liderazgo médico. La mujer médica parece ser más humanitaria, empática y honesta que el varón, aportes que podrían ser muy significativos cuando las mujeres alcancen un equitativo liderazgo de opinión con los hombres. Potencialmente, hay importantes diferencias entre el perfil laboral femenino y masculino y, con seguridad, esto influirá en la organización y la economía de los futuros servicios médicos, que serán probablemente más complejos, comparativamente más caros y mejor socializados


In recent years, the proportion of women studying medicine grew steadily in many countries. In Argentina, the feminization of the medical profession shows an overrepresentation of women in the younger group of physicians, and the 10-year projection indicates that women will comprise 60-70% of the medical workforce in all age strata. Adaptation to labor characteristics of women will require flexibility to accept part-time work and career interruptions caused by motherhood or other family obligations. A future consequence of women avoidance of most surgical specialties, is a relative shortage of doctors in these specialties. Anyway, it should be explored whether this supposed lack of interest in surgical specialties depends on the strong conditioning of the male model in these spaces. Despite being majority, woman is less represented in academia, resulting underrepresented in medical leadership in turn. Medical woman seems to be more humanistic, empathetic and honest than male. These contributions could be very significant, as long as women were able to achieve an egalitarian opinion leadership with men. There are potentially significant differences between the female and male occupational profiles, and this will certainly influence the organization and economy of future medical services, which are likely to be more complex, comparatively more expensive and better socialized


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/educação , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica/tendências , Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicas/tendências , Educação Médica , Emprego , Argentina
7.
Trials ; 19(1): 235, 2018 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29673381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Cambodia, HIV prevalence is concentrated in key populations including among female entertainment workers (FEWs) who may engage in direct or indirect sex work. Reaching FEWs with sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services has been difficult because of their hidden and stigmatized nature. Mobile-phone-based interventions may be an effective way to reach this population and connect them with the existing services. This article describes study design and implementation of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a mobile health intervention (the Mobile Link) aiming to improve SRH and related outcomes among FEWs in Cambodia. METHODS: A two-arm RCT will be used to determine the effectiveness of a mobile-phone-based text/voice messaging intervention. The intervention will be developed through a participatory process. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews have been conducted to inform and tailor behavior change theory-based text and voice messages. During the implementation phase, 600 FEWs will be recruited and randomly assigned into one of the two arms: (1) a control group and (2) a mobile phone message group (either text messages [SMS] or voice messages [VM], a delivery method chosen by participants). Participants in the control group will also receive a weekly monitoring survey, which will provide real-time information to implementing partners to streamline outreach efforts and be able to quickly identify geographic trends. The primary outcome measures will include self-reported HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing and treatment, condom use, contraceptive use, and gender-based violence (GBV). DISCUSSION: If the Mobile Link trial is successful, participants will report an increase in condom use, linkages to screening and treatment for HIV and STI, and contraception use as well as a reduction in GBV. This trial is unique in a number of ways. First, the option of participation mode (SMS or VM) allows participants to choose the message medium that best links them to services. Second, this is the first RCT of a mobile-phone-based behavior change intervention using SMS/VMs to support linkage to SRH services in Cambodia. Lastly, we are working with a hidden, hard-to-reach, and dynamic population with which existing methods of outreach have not been fully successful. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trials.gov, NCT03117842 . Registered on 31 March 2017.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Saúde Reprodutiva , Profissionais do Sexo/educação , Saúde Sexual , Telemedicina/métodos , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Saúde da Mulher , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/educação , Camboja , Telefone Celular , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Feminino , Violência de Gênero/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Método Simples-Cego , Telemedicina/instrumentação , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/instrumentação , Fatores de Tempo , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia
8.
Glob Public Health ; 12(1): 98-115, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26315455

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence indicates that excessive sugar consumption is driving epidemics of obesity and related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) around the world. South Africa (SA), a major consumer of sugar, is also the third most obese country in Africa, and 40% of all deaths in the country result from NCDs. A number of fiscal, regulatory, and legislative levers could reduce sugar consumption in SA. This paper focuses on a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the challenges that government might anticipate. Policies cannot be enacted in a vacuum and discussion is focused on the industrial, economic, and societal context. The affected industry actors have been part of the SA economy for over a century and remain influential. To deflect attention, the sugar industry can be expected either to advocate for self-regulation or to promote public-private partnerships. This paper cautions against both approaches as evidence suggests that they will be ineffective in curbing the negative health impacts caused by excessive sugar consumption. In summary, policy needs to be introduced with a political strategy sensitive to the various interests at stake. In particular, the sugar industry can be expected to be resistant to the introduction of any type of tax on SSBs.


Assuntos
Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Indústria Alimentícia/economia , Política de Saúde/economia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/educação , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Bebidas/economia , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sacarose na Dieta/economia , Sacarose na Dieta/provisão & distribução , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Regulamentação Governamental , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/economia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/economia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Poder Psicológico , Prevalência , Parcerias Público-Privadas/economia , Parcerias Público-Privadas/organização & administração , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Impostos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/legislação & jurisprudência , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 474(9): 1962-6, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27245771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orthopaedic surgery lags behind other surgical specialties in terms of gender diversity. The percentage of women entering orthopaedic residency persistently remains at 14% despite near equal ratios of women to men in medical school classes. This trend has been attributed to negative perceptions among women medical students of workplace culture and lifestyle in orthopaedics as well as lack of exposure, particularly during medical school when most women decide to enter the field. Since 2012, The Perry Initiative, a nonprofit organization that is focused on recruiting and retaining women in orthopaedics, had conducted extracurricular outreach programs for first- and second-year female medical students to provide exposure and mentoring opportunities specific to orthopaedics. This program, called the Medical Student Outreach Program (MSOP), is ongoing at medical centers nationwide and has reached over 300 medical students in its first 3 program years (2012-2014). QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What percentage of MSOP participants eventually match into orthopaedic surgery residency? (2) Does MSOP impact participants' perceptions of the orthopaedics profession as well as intellectual interest in the field? METHODS: The percentage of program alumnae who matched into orthopaedics was determined by annual followup for our first two cohorts who graduated from medical school. All program participants completed a survey immediately before and after the program that assessed the impact of MSOP on the student's intention to pursue orthopaedics as well as perceptions of the field and intellectual interest in the discipline. RESULTS: The orthopaedic surgery match rate for program participants was 31% in our first graduating class (five of 16 participants in 2015) and 28% in our second class (20 of 72 participants in 2016). Pre/post program comparisons showed that the MSOP influenced students' perceptions of the orthopaedics profession as well as overall intellectual interest in the field. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest that The Perry Initiative's MSOP positively influences women to choose orthopaedic surgery as a profession. The match rate for program alumnae is twice the percentage of females in current orthopaedic residency classes. Given these positive results, MSOP can serve as a model, both in its curricular content and logistic framework, for other diversity initiatives in the field.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ortopedia/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Especialização/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/educação , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/psicologia , Percepção , Médicas/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/educação , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia
11.
Appetite ; 105: 106-13, 2016 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27179936

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Women with children often fulfil multiple roles of running a household, raising a family and working outside the home. Good nutrition during this time is important to optimise their performance and prevent lifestyle diseases. Women also act as nutritional gatekeepers for their family. The dual burden of paid employment and unpaid family work may be associated with time scarcity in mothers which can impact food preparation and therefore nutritional adequacy. The aim of this study was to examine the diet of women who lived with children by comparison of hours worked. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011-12. Subjects were women aged 18-65 years who resided with ≥1 child (<18 years). Women were grouped according to hours of employment: not working; working <25 h a week; and working ≥25 hours a week. Data from two 24-h dietary recalls were used to compare differences between groups in nutrient intake and proportion of energy from discretionary foods. Covariates included were age, education, smoker status, Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), number of persons in household, week or weekend day of the survey and the sequence of recalls. RESULTS: Analyses included 1869 women. Dietary intakes varied minimally between groups with intakes of fibre, vitamin C, and calcium lowest in the group not working. Overall diet quality was poor with >30% of energy coming from discretionary foods in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Usual hours of employment per week have a minimal effect on diet quality in women with children. It is likely that different factors specific to each group contribute to the poor dietary intakes and should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Emprego , Mães , Cooperação do Paciente , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Atividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável/etnologia , Escolaridade , Características da Família/etnologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/educação , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Cooperação do Paciente/etnologia , Fatores de Tempo , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/educação , Adulto Jovem
12.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 474(9): 1979-85, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27113596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women and minorities remain underrepresented in orthopaedic surgery. In an attempt to increase the diversity of those entering the physician workforce, Nth Dimensions implemented a targeted pipeline curriculum that includes the Orthopaedic Summer Internship Program. The program exposes medical students to the specialty of orthopaedic surgery and equips students to be competitive applicants to orthopaedic surgery residency programs. The effect of this program on women and underrepresented minority applicants to orthopaedic residencies is highlighted in this article. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) For women we asked: is completing the Orthopaedic Summer Internship Program associated with higher odds of applying to orthopaedic surgery residency? (2) For underrepresented minorities, is completing the Orthopaedic Summer Internship Program associated with higher odds of applying to orthopaedic residency? METHODS: Between 2005 and 2012, 118 students completed the Nth Dimensions/American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Orthopaedic Summer Internship Program. The summer internship consisted of an 8-week clinical and research program between the first and second years of medical school and included a series of musculoskeletal lectures, hands-on, practical workshops, presentation of a completed research project, ongoing mentoring, professional development, and counselling through each participant's subsequent years of medical school. In correlation with available national application data, residency application data were obtained for those Orthopaedic Summer Internship Program participants who applied to the match between 2011 through 2014. For these 4 cohort years, we evaluated whether this program was associated with increased odds of applying to orthopaedic surgery residency compared with national controls. For the same four cohorts, we evaluated whether underrepresented minority students who completed the program had increased odds of applying to an orthopaedic surgery residency compared with national controls. RESULTS: Fifty Orthopaedic Summer Internship scholars applied for an orthopaedic residency position. For women, completion of the Orthopaedic Summer Internship was associated with increased odds of applying to orthopaedic surgery residency (after summer internship: nine of 17 [35%]; national controls: 800 of 78,316 [1%]; odds ratio [OR], 51.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 21.1-122.0; p < 0.001). Similarly, for underrepresented minorities, Orthopaedic Summer Internship completion was also associated with increased odds of orthopaedic applications from 2011 to 2014 (after Orthopaedic Summer Internship: 15 of 48 [31%]; non-Orthopaedic Summer Internship applicants nationally: 782 of 25,676 [3%]; OR, 14.5 [7.3-27.5]; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Completion of the Nth Dimensions Orthopaedic Summer Internship Program has a positive impact on increasing the odds of each student participant applying to an orthopaedic surgery residency program. This program may be a key factor in contributing to the pipeline of women and underrepresented minorities into orthopaedic surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ortopedia , Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/educação , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/tendências , Ortopedia/educação , Ortopedia/tendências , Médicas/tendências , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Especialização/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/educação , Recursos Humanos
13.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 474(9): 1957-61, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27075329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orthopaedic fellowship training is a common step before becoming a practicing orthopaedic surgeon. In the past, fellowship decisions in orthopaedics were made early in the residency and without a formal match. The process was disorganized, often not fair to the applicants or fellowship programs. More recently, there has been an organized match process for nine different disciplines in orthopaedics. Although the numbers of women applicants into orthopaedic residency has been reported and is the target of efforts to continue to improve gender diversity in orthopaedics, the numbers regarding women in orthopaedic fellowships have not been known. Other details including if there is a difference in match rate between male and female fellowship applicants and what discipline they choose to pursue across orthopaedic surgery has not been reported. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) How have the numbers of women applying to orthopaedic fellowships changed over a 5-year period? (2) Is gender associated with fellowship match success? (3) Which subspecialties have greater proportions of female applicants? METHODS: Available orthopaedic residency match data regarding number of applicants and number of female residents between 2010 and 2014 were obtained. For fellowship data, our method was a review of the applicants who submitted rank lists and the number of applicants who matched in all subspecialties through San Francisco Match and from the American Shoulder and Elbow Society from 2010 to 2014. For each year, the number of females versus males applying was abstracted. The total number of females versus males who matched was then obtained. For each subspecialty represented in this article, the number of female applicants and matches was compared with the male applicants and matches. RESULTS: The proportion of fellowship applicants who are female ranged from 7% to 10% annually, and the percentage of matched female applicants ranged from 8% to 12%. Overall, combining results from 2010 to 2014, female fellowship applicants had a higher proportion of match success when compared with men (women: 320 of 335 [96%]; men: 2696 of 3325 [81%]; p < 0.001). Pediatric orthopaedic fellowships had the highest proportion of women (79 of 318 [25%] followed by foot and ankle (42 of 311 [14%]; spine had the lowest (15 of 525 [3%]). CONCLUSIONS: Women applicants for advanced orthopaedic training matched at a higher proportion than men in fellowship training. Pediatrics has a higher proportion of women applicants and fellows. Orthopaedics should be a model for other surgical specialties by encouraging women to successfully pursue advanced training.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Bolsas de Estudo/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ortopedia , Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Especialização/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/educação , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/psicologia , Ortopedia/educação , Médicas/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/educação , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Recursos Humanos
14.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 474(9): 1945-9, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27075331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The process of choosing medical specialty and residency programs is multifaceted. Today's generation of medical students may have an increased interest in work-life balance and time with their families. In considering this factor, medical students may be influenced by policy regarding maternity, paternity, and adoption leave during residency and fellowship training. Current policy among orthopaedic programs regarding maternity, paternity, and adoption leave is not well described. To understand the influence these policies may have on the choices that medical students make in choosing their specialty, the policies must first be better understood. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What proportion of orthopaedic programs have formal or unwritten policies regarding maternity, paternity, and adoptive leave? (2) What are the provisions for time away, allotment of time, and makeup options for trainees who take leave? (3) What proportion of orthopaedic programs report utilization of leave, and what proportions of leave are for maternity, paternity, or adoptive reasons? METHODS: Accredited programs in orthopaedic surgery were identified through the Council of Orthopedic Residency Directors within the American Orthopaedic Association. Current program directors of these accredited programs were surveyed. The survey was emailed to 144 program directors, of which 141 emails were delivered. Responses were received from 45 program directors, representing 31% of programs. The survey focused on maternity, paternity, and adoptive leave, and it consisted of questions designed to explore program policies (formal, unwritten, no policy, or in development), time considerations (amount allowed, allocation of time away, and makeup requirements), and utilization (trainees who took leave and type of leave used). RESULTS: Most respondents have maternity leave policy (formal: 36 of 45 [80%]; unwritten: 17 of 45 [38%]). Sixteen programs (16 of 45 [36%]) reported having both a formal and an unwritten maternity leave policy. Less than half of the programs have paternity leave policy (formal: 22 of 45 [49%]; unwritten: 19 of 45 [42%]), and fewer programs have adoption leave policy (formal: eight of 45 [18%]; unwritten: 11 of 45 [24%]). For programs that have formal or unwritten policies, most programs allow 4 to 6 weeks off (26 of 43 [60%]) with nearly half of programs allocating leave as paid time off (15 of 37 programs [41%]) and nearly half of programs requiring makeup time (17 of 37 [46%]). Many programs reported no utilization of leave by trainees (23 of 36 [61%]); many programs reported utilization by three or fewer residents (11 of 13 [85%]); and among residents who took leave, maternity was the most common reason (maternity: 22 of 36 [61%]; paternity: 11 of 36 [31%]; adoption: three of 36 [8%]). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the lack of uniformity among orthopaedic surgery residency and training programs regarding approach to maternity, paternity, and adoption leave. Discussion among program directors, perhaps facilitated by the Council of Orthopedic Residency Directors within the American Orthopaedic Association, to align the programs' policy in this arena may provide more transparent and uniform policy for trainees in orthopaedic surgery.


Assuntos
Adoção , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ortopedia , Licença Parental/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/educação , Ortopedia/educação , Formulação de Políticas , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/educação , Recursos Humanos
15.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 474(9): 1967-72, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27084717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orthopaedic surgery now has the lowest percentage of women in residency programs of any surgical specialty. Understanding factors, particularly those related to the medical school experience, that contribute to the specialty's inability to draw from the best women students is crucial to improving diversity in the profession. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Does required medical school exposure to orthopaedic surgery increase the proportion of women choosing the specialty? (2) Do negative perceptions deter women from choosing orthopaedic surgery? (3) What proportion of orthopaedic faculty members are women, and what proportion of residents are women? (4) To what degree has gender bias been identified in the application/interview process? METHODS: Two PubMed searches of articles between 2005 and 2015 were performed using a combination of medical subject headings. The first search combined "Orthopaedics" with "Physicians, women" and phrases "women surgeons" or "female surgeons" and the second combined "Orthopedics" with "Internship & Residency" or "exp Education, Medical" and "Sex Ratio" or "Sex Factors", resulting in 46 publications of which all abstracts were reviewed resulting in 11 manuscripts that were related to the research questions. The Google Scholar search of "women in orthopaedic surgery" identified one additional publication. These 12 manuscripts were read and bibliographies of each reviewed with two additional publications identified and included. RESULTS: Required exposure to orthopaedics was found to be positively associated with the number of women applicants to the field, whereas negative perceptions have been reported to deter women from choosing orthopaedic surgery. Orthopaedics has the lowest percentage of women faculty and women residents (14%) compared with other specialties; this suggests that same gender mentorship opportunities are limited. For women applying to orthopaedics, gender bias is most evident through illegal interview questions, in which women are asked such questions more often than men (such as family planning questions, asked to 61% of women versus 8% of men). CONCLUSIONS: Successful recruitment of women to orthopaedic surgery may be improved by early exposure and access to role models, both of which will help women students' perceptions of their role in field of orthopaedic surgery.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Internato e Residência , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/psicologia , Ortopedia/educação , Médicas/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Currículo , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/educação , Percepção , Seleção de Pessoal , Fatores Sexuais , Sexismo , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/educação
16.
Med Pr ; 66(5): 713-24, 2015.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26647989

RESUMO

The key activity in good practice of occupational medicine is to control, on a regular basis, the workers' health and how it is affected by the work environment and - consequently - to provide the employers and employees with advice regarding the organization, ergonomics, physiology and psychology of work. Occupational medicine practitioners should remember that certain duties are performed both at work and at home. This issue is particularly important in preventive healthcare of pregnant working women. Taking the above into consideration, we reviewed the literature with respect to nuisance and occupational risk factors, which might be associated with professional and household duties. The research indicates the need to reduce activities that require frequent bending or lifting, put a women at risk of falling or cause excess occupational stress for pregnant women. We would like to draw the doctors' attention to the possibility of exceeding a 4-hour limit of work at video display terminals and negative effects of low physical exercise and sitting for a long time both at work and at home. Since long working hours (over 40 h/week) affect the course of pregnancy negatively, total working time at work (including any additional jobs) and at home must be taken into account in the occupational risk assessment. To sum up, we emphasize that preventive healthcare of pregnant working women should mainly include education programmes. Women need to know how to perform their work safely and pay attention to the scope and frequency of household tasks (duties).


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Acidentes Domésticos/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Saúde do Trabalhador/educação , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Gestantes , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
Science ; 345(6202): 1273-5, 2014 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25214610

RESUMO

The development field needs to be more serious about gender inequities and women's empowerment. By ignoring gender inequities, many development projects fail to achieve their objective. And when development organizations do not focus on women's empowerment, they neglect the fact that empowered women have the potential to transform their societies. I also review the Gates Foundation's record on gender and propose some approaches to improve it.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/educação , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Poder Psicológico
20.
Matern Child Health J ; 18(7): 1675-82, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24414865

RESUMO

Under Canada's Employment Insurance system, parents are entitled to receive up to 50 weeks of parental leave at 55 % of salary. Despite this national policy, women with higher education are more likely to delay childbearing. This analysis aimed to assess the association between workplace support, educational attainment and the timing of first births. Women who had recently given birth to their first live-born infant and lived in Alberta, Canada, were randomly selected to participate in a telephone survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between workplace support, educational attainment and timing of first pregnancy. Among 835 women with a planned pregnancy, 26 % agreed that support or lack of support for pregnant women at their workplace affected their decision about when to begin their family. After controlling for age and income, women who had completed a post-graduate degree were three times (OR 3.39, 95 % CI 1.69-6.81) more likely to indicate that support or lack of support for pregnant women in their workplace affected their childbearing decisions. In spite of national policies, and the potential risks associated with delayed childbearing, workplace support impacts timing of pregnancy, particularly for highly educated women.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Saúde do Trabalhador , Comportamento Reprodutivo , Apoio Social , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Adulto , Alberta , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Licença Parental , Gravidez , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/educação , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Local de Trabalho
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