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1.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 16: 1745506520929165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The transition to motherhood is associated with declines in physical activity in women. Working mothers may be particularly at-risk for low levels of physical activity, since they have to balance the competing interests of work and family life, and exercise often takes a backseat to more seemingly pressing concerns. The potential benefits working mothers can experience from physical activity are numerous. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the percentage of working mothers from the United States who met the World Health Organization's and the American College of Sports Medicine's recommended guidelines for weekly physical activity and investigate the associations between physical activity, quality of life, and self-rated work productivity in this sample of working mothers. METHODS: Participants were 334 working mothers from the United States (mean age = 35.00 years; standard deviation (SD) = 5.85; 77.8% White) recruited from a Qualtrics research panel. To be eligible to participate in the study, a woman had to be 18 years or older with at least one child aged 5 years or younger, work at least 30 h per week at a job, live with her child(ren) at least 50% of the time, and have a minimum of a bachelor's degree. Participants completed the Godin leisure time exercise questionnaire, the World Health Organization-five well-being index, a single-item indicator of self-rated work productivity, and a demographic questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the working mothers in the sample, 45.5% met the recommended guidelines of at least 150 min of moderate exercise in the past week. Approximately 39% of working mothers reported engaging in no 30-min bouts of strenuous exercise in the past week. Non-white working mothers, working mothers with a higher singular annual income, and working mothers who obtained a higher educational level were more likely to meet the recommended guidelines for physical activity in the past week. Meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines in the past week was associated with better quality of life (r = 0.39; p < 0.001) and self-rated work productivity (r = 0.13; p < 0.05). Only the association between physical activity and quality of life remained significant in a multivariate analysis (standardized beta coefficient = 0.33; p < 0.001) after controlling for race/ethnicity, maternal singular annual income, and maternal highest level of education. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight that working mothers in the United States are a group at risk for low levels of physical activity. Given the great benefits that these women do experience as a function of getting exercise, it is critically important we pay more attention to how individual, organizational, and societal-level interventions might assist them in attaining target levels of physical activity.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Eficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Workplace Health Saf ; 68(4): 182-189, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920184

RESUMO

Background: Workplace breastfeeding resources (e.g., break times and private spaces) help working mothers exclusively breastfeed for 6 months. However, not every employer offers lactation resources as specified in the Affordable Care Act. This study examined working mothers' access to workplace breastfeeding resources, their barriers and facilitators to combining breastfeeding and work, and their recommendations to improve access to breastfeeding resources. Methods: Working mothers between the ages of 18 to 50 years who had given birth in the previous 2 years were recruited online to participate in the study. An online, cross-sectional survey collected qualitative and quantitative data from working mothers on their access to workplace breastfeeding resources and experiences with breastfeeding at work. Descriptive statistics were used to report the quantitative results from the survey, and the qualitative data were examined using the constant comparative method. Findings: Fifty-two participants met the inclusion criteria for the study and completed the survey. Most of the participants in the study were White, college-educated women who worked in clerical or administration support and education occupations. Approximately 78.8% of the participants reported access to private spaces and 65.4% reported access to break times for breastfeeding. Fewer participants reported access to breast pumps, lactation consultants, and support groups. Conclusions/Application to Practice: There are gaps in access to workplace breastfeeding resources, but occupational health nurses can inform and help employers implement lactation resources to reduce breastfeeding disparities.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Cultura Organizacional , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 23(3): e002046, 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119521

RESUMO

Introducción. El trabajo ocupa un lugar clave en la vida de la mujer, y a su vez comprende varias dimensiones. Dos de ellas son el trabajo doméstico no remunerado (TDNR) e invisibilizado, y el trabajo productivo remunerado (TPR) fuera dela casa. El objetivo de esta investigación fue comprender cómo es la percepción de salud en la mujer actual de clase media urbana con doble jornada laboral y cómo ella jerarquiza su TPR. Métodos. Investigación con enfoque cualitativo realizada en un hospital privado universitario de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, mediante entrevistas individuales a mujeres adultas y alfabetas de 30 a 60 años de edad, seleccionadas a través del método de bola de nieve a partir de sus médicos de cabecera. Se utilizaron fichas demográficas estructuradas y entrevistas en profundidad. Se registraron datos personales y prácticas médicas realizadas en los últimos años. Se realizó un análisis de contenido. Resultados. Entrevistamos a 47 mujeres, la mayoría con hijos y la mitad, a cargo de las tareas domésticas en su hogar. Ninguna de ellas reconoció la tarea doméstica (TDNR) como trabajo, 76 % refirió no realizar controles habituales de salud,aunque más del 90 % hizo las prácticas preventivas recomendadas para su edad. Las mujeres entrevistadas expresaron diferentes significados atribuidos por ellas al TPR como independencia, desarrollo personal, mejoría en autoestima, calidad de vida, y sociabilidad. Sin embargo, ante su ausencia en el hogar se mostraron ambivalentes y con sentimientos de culpabilidad. Conclusiones. Este estudio permite reconocer que las mujeres con trabajo TDNR y TPR valoran positivamente a este último, pero se cuestionan que éste les quite tiempo a su participación en el ámbito familiar. Esto resulta en una mayor autoexigencia y perpetúa la invisibilidad del TDNR. En relación al autocuidado, sienten que no realizan sus cuidados médicos, pero tienen buenos indicadores de prácticas preventivas. Quizás sea necesario propiciar la reflexión acerca del rol que tiene el TPR en su bienestar. (AU)


Introduction. Work occupies a key place in the life of women, and in turn, comprises several dimensions. Two of them are unpaid domestic work (UDW) and paid productive work (PPW) outside the home. The objective of this research was to understand how the perception of health is in the current urban middle-class woman with a double working day and how she prioritizes her PPW. Methods. Research with a qualitative approach carried out in a private university hospital in the City of Buenos Aires, through individual interviews with adult and literates women aged 30 to 60, selected through the snowball method from their general practitioners. Structured demographics and in-depth interviews were used. Personal data and medical practices carried out in recent years were recorded. A content analysis was performed. Results. We interviewed 47 women, the majority with children and half of them, in charge of housework in their home. None of them recognized housework (UDW) as work, 76 % reported not doing regular health checks, although more than 90 % did the recommended preventive practices for their age. The women interviewed expressed different meanings attributed bythem to the PPW such as independence, personal development, improvement in self-esteem, quality of life, and sociability. However, in their absence at home, they were ambivalent and guilty. Conclusions. This study allows us to recognize that women with UDW and PPW value the latter positively, but question whether it takes time away from their participation in the family environment. This results in increased self-demand and perpetuates the invisibility of the UDW. In relation to self-care, they feel that they do not perform their medical care, buthave good indicators of preventive practices. It may be necessary to encourage reflection on the role of the PPW in theirwell-being. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Divisão do Trabalho baseado no Gênero , Qualidade de Vida , Autoimagem , Classe Social , Percepção Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tabagismo/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/história , Jornada de Trabalho , Exercício Físico , Educação Infantil , Medicina Preventiva/tendências , Entrevistas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Violência contra a Mulher , Teste de Papanicolaou , Alfabetização , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Violência de Gênero , Iniquidade de Gênero , Estereotipagem de Gênero , Culpa , Hipertensão/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia
4.
Women Health ; 60(1): 60-71, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046650

RESUMO

Postpartum physical activity is important but is often neglected owing to conflicting priorities. Given the poor activity levels in the general Saudi population, women are especially likely to have poor postpartum activity levels. This study measured postpartum physical activity of Saudi working women and investigated the relationship between physical activity levels and sociodemographic factors. Study design: Cross-sectional study. This was a cross-sectional study conducted between January and June 2017. Working, postpartum Saudi women completed an online questionnaire including demographic information and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)-short form. Of 486 women responding to the online invitation, 142 (29.2%) were eligible and participated. Based on IPAQ data, 23 (16.2%), 31 (21.8%), and 88 (62.0%) participants performed high, moderate or low levels of physical activity, respectively. No significant associations were found between the physical activity levels and sociodemographic factors. The most common factors discouraging physical activity were lack of time (21.2%) and childcare responsibilities (19.1%). The majority of participating working Saudi women had low postpartum physical activity levels. No sociodemographic factors were significantly associated with the level of physical activity. Measures may be required to promote postpartum physical activity among Saudi women.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Período Pós-Parto , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(1): 79-85, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The professional impact of upper limb lymphedema, which affects 15-20% of women after breast cancer treatment, has been poorly evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To analyze lymphedema characteristics and global lymphedema- and/or sleeve-attributed impact (mildly inconvenient to severely debilitating) on professional activities, workplace relationships, and workstation ergonomics. METHODS: Patients received a standardized, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire at consultation/hospitalization for treatment in a specialized lymphedema management center. RESULTS: All 134 consecutive women (March/2015-March/2017; median age 54), with 53-month median lymphedema duration and 34% median excess volume, were included; 35% considered global impact (arm-use impairment) high. For high vs. low global impact during occupational activities, univariate analyses identified global impairment as being associated with the low (23.8%), intermediate (60%), or high (63.2%) (p < 0.01) arm-use level, while multivariate analyses retained intermediate (OR 6.9 [95% CI 1.1-118.1], p < 0.01) and high (OR 4.5 [95% CI 1.5-37.3], p < 0.05) vs. low arm-use level. Lymphedema affected the careers of 70 (52.2%) patients, mostly those with severely impaired arm movement (53.8% vs. 10.2, p < 0.001), without modifying their relationships with colleagues and superiors for 84 (62.7%). Highly impaired women reported changed relationships with colleagues (45% vs. 20%, p < 0.01) and superiors (43.6% vs. 16.9%, p < 0.01). Only 10 women's (7.5%) job changes reflected lymphedema or its treatment. Workplace adaptations (53% ergonomic) were made for 36 (26.9%) patients, mostly those with greater arm-movement impairment (43.6% vs. 25.3%, p < 0.05), who were highly satisfied (86%). CONCLUSION: Upper limb lymphedema can significantly impact work, sometimes upending careers. The rare workstation adaptations were beneficial. Occupational physicians should assess lymphedema-attributed difficulties to improve working conditions.


Assuntos
Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Braço , Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/psicologia , Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/terapia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Ergonomia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Extremidade Superior , Trabalho/psicologia , Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/normas , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 75, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the huge burden of domestic work on women in Japan, its effects on their health have been poorly investigated. We aimed to assess the association between domestic work stress and self-rated psychological health among women. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey using an online social research panel in February 2018. Participants were 2,000 women with paid work (the "workers" group) and 1,000 women without paid work (the "homemakers" group), aged between 25 and 59 years old and living with a partner. Self-rated psychological health (Mental Health and Vitality scales of the Japanese SF-36), occupational and domestic work stress (the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire), the 10-item Work-Family Conflict Scale, and sociodemographic factors were assessed. RESULTS: The workers had lower domestic job control and higher support from a partner and their parents than the homemakers (p < 0.001), whereas domestic job demand and psychological health were similar between the groups. After adjustment for the covariates using multiple linear regression models, better psychological health was significantly associated with lower domestic job demand, higher domestic job control, and having a young child in both groups. In addition, work-family conflicts and occupational job stress among the workers and caregiving among the homemakers showed negative associations with psychological health. CONCLUSION: Self-rated psychological health in women was associated with domestic work stress regardless of employment status. To promote women's health, we need to take into account the effects of domestic work, work-family conflicts, and social support from families, as well as occupational factors.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Epidemiol Health ; 41: e2019043, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The lowest-low fertility status of Korea has continued for the past 17 years despite governmental efforts to encourage childbirth. As the number of working women has increased, their residence patterns have changed; however, the impact of this factor has yet to be explored. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of residence patterns relative to the workplace on the total fertility rate of working women. METHODS: Information on eligibility and healthcare utilization was obtained from the National Health Information Database between 2011 and 2015. The study participants were working women aged 15-49 years. We classified their residence relative to their workplace into 3 patterns: same municipality, same province, and different province. The total fertility rate was calculated and logistic regression was performed of childbirth according to residence pattern, adjusting for age, insurance contribution quartile, size of the workplace, year of birth, and province of residence. RESULTS: The total fertility rates of working women from 2011 to 2015 were 1.091, 1.139, 1.048, 1.073, and 1.103, respectively. The total fertility rate by residence pattern was highest in women residing in the same municipality as their workplace. After adjustment, the odds of childbirth in women from the same municipality and the same province were 21.6% and 16.0% higher than those of women residing in a different province, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The total fertility rate was higher among women living near their workplace. Therefore, effective policy measures should be taken to promote the proximity of working women's workplace and residence.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1339, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between spontaneous abortion (SA) and occupational characteristics among working women is not well-studied. This study aimed to assess the risk of SA and occupational factors such as occupational classification, working hours, and work schedules among working Korean women aged > 19 years. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 4078 working women were identified from among 25,534 workers in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys V (2010-2012) database, to obtain data on SA history and the number of SAs. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for SA were calculated using multiple logistic regression models after adjusting for age, education, household income, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and obesity status. The weighted prevalence for the number of SAs was calculated according to occupational characteristics to demonstrate the SA status among working Korean women. RESULTS: SA occurrence was reported in 5.7% of the study participants. The ORs (95% CIs) for SA were significantly higher in pink-, green-, and blue-collared workers than in white-collared workers. Regarding weekly working hours, compared with ≤50 h spent working, the ORs (95% CIs) for 51-60, 61-70, and > 70 h per week were 1.26 (0.87-1.84), 1.63 (1.04-2.56), and 1.73 (1.10-2.70), respectively. A significantly higher weighted prevalence of repeat SAs was observed in pink- and green-collared workers and in those who worked long hours. CONCLUSION: We found a significant association between SA, repeat SA, and occupational characteristics among working Korean women.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Gravidez , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547253

RESUMO

A physically active lifestyle incurs health benefits and physically active individuals show reduced reactivity to psychosocial stressors. However, the findings are inconclusive and are based on self-reported physical activity and sedentary time. The present study aimed at studying the associations between psychological stressors (job demand, control, support, JD-C-S) and objectively measured physical activity (PA) on various intensities from sedentary (SED) to vigorous physical activity. The participants were 314 employees from a cross-sectional study. PA data were collected with the accelerometer ActiGraph GT3X (Pensacola, FL, USA), SED data with the inclinometer activPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland, UK), and psychosocial stressors with a web questionnaire. Results showed that vigorous-intensity PA was negatively associated with demand (ß -0.15, p < 0.05), even when adjusted for the covariates. SED was negatively associated to support (ß -0.13, p < 0.05). Stress significantly moderated relations between support and sedentary time (ß -0.12, p < 0.05). Moderate PA (MVPA) was negatively associated with demand, but only when controlling for overtime (ß -0.13, p < 0.05). MVPA was also negatively associated with control (ß -0.15, p < 0.05) but not when work engagement was included in the model. Being more physically active and spending less time sedentary may help to handle job situations with high demand and low support.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escócia , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia
11.
Maturitas ; 129: 62-67, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between irregular menstrual cycles and occupational characteristics among Korean female workers. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data on paid female workers from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V (2010-2012). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We evaluated the possible associations between irregular menstrual cycles and work variables (occupational classification, working hours, and shift work) using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Weighted prevalence was calculated according to each work variable to approximate the Korean population. RESULTS: Irregular menstrual cycles were the most common in women in the 'pink collar' group (16.61%). The frequency of irregular menstrual cycles was 2-fold higher in women working >60 h per week (25.64%) than in those working 20-60 h per week (11.09%). Irregular menstrual cycles were more prevalent in shift workers (15.85%) than in non-shift workers (11.06%). A significantly high risk of irregular menstrual cycles was found for pink-collar occupations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.687, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.044-2.710, reference: white-collar occupation group) and in women with long working hours (adjusted OR = 2.139, 95% CI = 1.243-3.559, reference: 20-60 working hours group) and shift work (adjusted OR = 1.487, 95% CI = 1.028-2.118, reference: fixed working schedule group). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed associations between irregular menstrual cycles and occupational characteristics of female workers. Long working hours, shift work, and pink-collar occupations are positively associated with irregular menstrual cycles. Therefore, working hours and shift schedules for female workers should be structured considering these factors. Further research is needed to determine the optimal working time and shift schedules for female workers.


Assuntos
Distúrbios Menstruais/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Ocupações , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Br J Nurs ; 28(16): 1086-1090, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518539

RESUMO

Menopause is a natural transition affecting most women between the ages of 45 and 55. Three-quarters of women will experience mild to moderate menopausal symptoms and a further quarter will report them as severe. Symptoms can include night sweats, hot flushes, poor concentration, tiredness, poor memory and lowered confidence. The workplace can exacerbate these symptoms and for some women can influence their decision to stop working earlier than previously intended. The need for support and understanding from managers is crucial and can make a major difference to how a woman deals with her menopause. Many women enter the menopause at the peak of their productive lives. These women have valuable skills, knowledge and experience that employers need to retain, so they should be developing resources to help navigate this normal and natural stage of the ageing process.


Assuntos
Menopausa/fisiologia , Menopausa/psicologia , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Empatia , Feminino , Mão de Obra em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 595, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An adequate and qualified health workforce is critical for achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and responding to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Frontline health workers who are mainly women, play important roles in responses to crisis. Despite women making up the vast majority of the health workforce, men occupy the majority of leadership positions. This study aims to understand the career progression of female health workers by exploring how gender norms influence women's upward career trajectories. METHODS: A qualitative methodology deployed a life history approach was used to explore the perspectives and experiences of health workers in Battambang province, Cambodia. Twenty male and female health managers were purposively selected based five criteria: age 40 and above, starting their career during 1980s or 1990s, clinical skills, management roles and evidence of career progression. Themes and sub-themes were developed based on available data and informed by Tlaiss's (2013) social theory framework in order to understand how gender norms, roles and relations shape the career of women in the health industry. RESULTS: The findings from life histories show that gender norms shape men's and women's career progression at different levels of society. At the macro level, social, cultural, political, and gender norms are favorably changing by allowing more women to enter medical education; however, leadership is bias towards men. At the meso organziational level, empowerment of women in the health sector has increased with the support of gender working groups and women's associations. At the micro individual level, female facility managers identified capacity and qualifications as important factors in helping women to obtain leadership positions. CONCLUSION: While Cambodia has made progress, it still has far to go to achieve equality in leadership. Promoting gender equity in leadership within the health workforce requires a long vision and commitment along with collaboration among different stakeholders and across social structures. If more women are not able to obtain leadership roles, the goals of having an equitable health system, promoting UHC, and responding to the SDGs milestones by leaving no one behind will remain unattainable objectives.


Assuntos
Mobilidade Ocupacional , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Liderança , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Camboja , Educação Médica , Empoderamento , Feminino , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Masculinidade
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357386

RESUMO

Introduction: This study aims to investigate the association between gender discrimination in the workplace and pregnancy planning/childbirth experiences among working women in South Korea. Methods: We analyzed data from the Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women and Families (KLoWF) for the years 2007 to 2016. The study population consisted of 7996 working women, between the ages of 19 and 45. Gender discrimination was measured through the 6-item Workplace Gender Discrimination Scale, evaluating discrimination in terms of recruitment, promotions, pay, deployment, training and lay-offs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to measure the association between gender discrimination and the pregnancy planning/childbirth experience. Results: Compared to individuals experiencing no discrimination in the workplace, those experiencing low [odds ratio (OR): 0.78, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.61-0.99] or medium (OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.54-0.89) levels of discrimination had decreased odds of pregnancy planning. Likewise, individuals scoring low (OR: 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.92), medium (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.51-0.92), or high (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.27-0.80) levels of discrimination also had decreased odds of childbirth experience when compared to the no-experience group. When stratified by income, compared to individuals experiencing no discrimination in the workplace, those experiencing gender discrimination had decreased odds of pregnancy planning for low income (low OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45-0.92; medium OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.52-0.97; high OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.24-0.87), medium income (medium OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.37-0.77; high OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.14-0.63), and high income groups (low OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.49-0.84; medium OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.52-0.92). Conclusions: The present study finds that gender discrimination in the workplace is associated with decreased odds of pregnancy planning/childbirth experience among working South Korean women. Furthermore, low and medium income groups were especially more likely to be affected by the level of gender discrimination in the workplace when planning pregnancy.


Assuntos
Parto/psicologia , Gravidez/psicologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Gravidez/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(9): 1206-1212, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand how changes in low-income mothers' work, home, and childcare environments impact their food practices for young children. METHODS: The grounded theory, theory-guided, design included two in-depth qualitative interviews (6 to 8 months apart) with each of 19 low income, working/student mothers of Head Start children, living in a rural county in Upstate New York. Interviews covered mothers' experiences of employment, school, family, household, and childcare events over one school year and whether and how events changed child food practices. Emergent themes related to mothers' experiences of life events, with attention to influences on child food practices, were open-coded using a constant comparative approach. A life course approach and a transactional model of the stress process informed interpretation. RESULTS: Within the study period, most mothers reported at least one life event, with many experiencing one or more changes in employers, job schedules, residence, household members, or childcare situation. Emergent patterns of adjustment in child food practices linked with life events were shaped by mothers' appraisals of life events, the availability of coping resources, and their adaptations to events, based on temporal, financial, and social resources. The findings support a view of child feeding informed by the transactional model of stress. CONCLUSIONS: Instability in work, family, household, and childcare highlight changing contexts for child food practices in daily life. Research and practice should acknowledge the changing nature of the child feeding context and the need for children's caregivers to make adjustments in response to changing resources.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Mães/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(10): 1348-1359, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228146

RESUMO

Objectives To explore factors that shape decisions made regarding employee benefits and compare the decision-making process for workplace breastfeeding support to that of other benefits. Methods Sixteen semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with Human Resource Managers (HRMs) who had previously participated in a breastfeeding-support survey. A priori codes were used, which were based on a theoretical model informed by organizational behavior theories, followed by grounded codes from emergent themes. Results The major themes that emerged from analysis of the interviews included: (1) HRMs' primary concern was meeting the needs of their employees, regardless of type of benefit; (2) offering general benefits standard for the majority of employees (e.g. health insurance) was viewed as essential to recruitment and retention, whereas breastfeeding benefits were viewed as discretionary; (3) providing additional breastfeeding supports (versus only the supports mandated by the Affordable Care Act) was strongly influenced by HRMs' perception of employee need. Conclusions for Practice Advocates for improved workplace breastfeeding-support benefits should focus on HRMs' perception of employee need. To achieve this, advocates could encourage HRMs to perform objective breastfeeding-support needs assessments and highlight how breastfeeding support benefits all employees (e.g., reduced absenteeism and enhanced productivity of breastfeeding employee). Additionally, framing breastfeeding-support benefits in terms of their impact on recruitment and retention could be effective in improving adoption.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/instrumentação , Tomada de Decisões , Quartos de Pacientes , Recursos Humanos/normas , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Aleitamento Materno/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Política Organizacional , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/organização & administração , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos/organização & administração , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(6): 857-863, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the occurrence and to determine relationship of dietary practices with hypertension between housewives and working women.. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Karachi University and Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from January to April 2015, and comprised working women and housewives who were enrolled using convenient sampling. Data was collected on consumption of fruits, vegetables, poultry/fish and fast food. Blood pressure and body mass index were noted and interpreted according to World Health Organisation classification for Asian population. Normal reference range of blood pressure was taken as Systolic100-120mmHg, Diastolic 60-90 mmHg, and mean value as 120/80mmHg. Data analysis was done using SPSS17. RESULTS: There were 600 subjects; with 300(50%) housewives and as many working women. Mean age of housewives was 35.56}7.53 years, and that of employed women 35.44}6.65 years. Among the housewives, 96(32%) had normal blood pressure while the corresponding number in the other group was 198(66%) (p<0.001). In terms of relationship body mass index with hypertension, out of the 204(68%) hypertensive housewives, 90(44.1%) were overweight, and of the 102 hypertensive working women, 40(39.23%) had normal weight range. Most housewives reported a sedentary lifestyle as opposed to working women (p<0.001).. CONCLUSIONS: Being a housewife was in itself found to be a contributing factor in hypertensive disorders.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia
18.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(5): e00043018, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166416

RESUMO

In recent decades, the number of women pursuing careers in health has significantly increased. However, the physician labor market is still characterized by gender differences regarding payment. Using a nationally representative Peruvian sample of health providers (3,219 male and 1,063 female physicians), we estimated the gender gap in the likelihood of earning high wages for physicians and decomposed this gap in a proportion related to differences in individual characteristics (e.g. specialty, labor experience), and a residual proportion related to differences in returns to these characteristics. Our main results reveal that male physicians have on average an 81% higher likelihood of earning high salaries (monthly earning level > 5,000 PEN) relative to their female counterparts. Further, the main proportion of this gap is associated to the unexplained component (among 57% and 77%, according to the model specification), which may be associated to unobservable characteristics and discrimination in the Peruvian labor market.


Assuntos
Seleção de Pessoal/economia , Médicos/economia , Salários e Benefícios/economia , Sexismo/economia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Peru , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Salários e Benefícios/estatística & dados numéricos , Salários e Benefícios/tendências , Fatores Sexuais , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(8): 1087-1097, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Limited research has been conducted on the maternal and child health situation of garment factory workers in Cambodia. This qualitative study investigated the health-seeking behaviours for maternal and infant care of female garment factory workers in Kampong Tralach district, Cambodia. METHODS: We conducted 54 in-depth interviews, six focus group discussions and observed two factories. Participants were pregnant women and mothers of infants who have worked in factories, young women currently working in factories, caregivers of children, village leaders, healthcare workers, and factory managers. Deductive and inductive thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: The women were accessing regular antenatal and facility-based delivery care. Most factory managers provided maternity leave, and some also provided leave for regular antenatal (ANC) visits. Women often returned to work 2 months post-delivery and this triggered the cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Feeding was also compromised for the 6-12 months old children as carers, delayed the introduction of complementary feeds. Factories were equipped with childcare and breastfeeding spaces, however these were not used due to both feasibility issues and distrust of factory management. Instead, grandmothers were the preferred childcare providers. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: Current factory policies regarding ANC, maternity leave and childcare provisions are context insensitive to rural workers who live far from the workplace to avail themselves of mandated ANC leave or breastfeeding breaks. Our study suggest that the increasing number of young women working in garment factories is compromising the early nutrition of their children, with a reduction in exclusive breastfeeding and inadequate complementary feeding.


Assuntos
Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Camboja , Feminino , Grupos Focais/métodos , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/normas
20.
Econ Hum Biol ; 34: 194-207, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040075

RESUMO

In this article we test the hypothesis that the secular increase in heights in the course of the second half of the nineteenth century was associated with the rise of the breadwinner-homemaker household. In these 'modern' households, women raised the living standards (quality and quantity of food, hygiene and care) for all members, especially the children. We model the assumed contributions to the family budget by age and gender of household members, and find that a strong imbalance between consumers and producers in the household put severe strains on effective resource allocation, leading to lower net nutrition and lower young adult heights. We suggest a carefully calibrated consumer/producer ratio as an indicator to capture these effects. The ratio is not meant to replace others, and we show that sibling rank order as well as gender preferences also played a role in intra-household resource allocation. For our research, we have used a database with reconstructed life histories (including co-residence) of 3003 Dutch army recruits. Our results indicate that the consumer/producer ratio as experienced by recruits in their early life indeed had a strong impact (-1,8 cm) on their heights. However, this effect differed by social class, which can be explained by differences in acceptance of the income pooling model.


Assuntos
Estatura , Características da Família/história , Fatores Socioeconômicos/história , Ordem de Nascimento , Alimentos/economia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Militares , Países Baixos , Estado Nutricional , Fatores Sexuais , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/história , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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