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1.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 23(3): e002046, 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119521

RESUMO

Introducción. El trabajo ocupa un lugar clave en la vida de la mujer, y a su vez comprende varias dimensiones. Dos de ellas son el trabajo doméstico no remunerado (TDNR) e invisibilizado, y el trabajo productivo remunerado (TPR) fuera dela casa. El objetivo de esta investigación fue comprender cómo es la percepción de salud en la mujer actual de clase media urbana con doble jornada laboral y cómo ella jerarquiza su TPR. Métodos. Investigación con enfoque cualitativo realizada en un hospital privado universitario de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, mediante entrevistas individuales a mujeres adultas y alfabetas de 30 a 60 años de edad, seleccionadas a través del método de bola de nieve a partir de sus médicos de cabecera. Se utilizaron fichas demográficas estructuradas y entrevistas en profundidad. Se registraron datos personales y prácticas médicas realizadas en los últimos años. Se realizó un análisis de contenido. Resultados. Entrevistamos a 47 mujeres, la mayoría con hijos y la mitad, a cargo de las tareas domésticas en su hogar. Ninguna de ellas reconoció la tarea doméstica (TDNR) como trabajo, 76 % refirió no realizar controles habituales de salud,aunque más del 90 % hizo las prácticas preventivas recomendadas para su edad. Las mujeres entrevistadas expresaron diferentes significados atribuidos por ellas al TPR como independencia, desarrollo personal, mejoría en autoestima, calidad de vida, y sociabilidad. Sin embargo, ante su ausencia en el hogar se mostraron ambivalentes y con sentimientos de culpabilidad. Conclusiones. Este estudio permite reconocer que las mujeres con trabajo TDNR y TPR valoran positivamente a este último, pero se cuestionan que éste les quite tiempo a su participación en el ámbito familiar. Esto resulta en una mayor autoexigencia y perpetúa la invisibilidad del TDNR. En relación al autocuidado, sienten que no realizan sus cuidados médicos, pero tienen buenos indicadores de prácticas preventivas. Quizás sea necesario propiciar la reflexión acerca del rol que tiene el TPR en su bienestar. (AU)


Introduction. Work occupies a key place in the life of women, and in turn, comprises several dimensions. Two of them are unpaid domestic work (UDW) and paid productive work (PPW) outside the home. The objective of this research was to understand how the perception of health is in the current urban middle-class woman with a double working day and how she prioritizes her PPW. Methods. Research with a qualitative approach carried out in a private university hospital in the City of Buenos Aires, through individual interviews with adult and literates women aged 30 to 60, selected through the snowball method from their general practitioners. Structured demographics and in-depth interviews were used. Personal data and medical practices carried out in recent years were recorded. A content analysis was performed. Results. We interviewed 47 women, the majority with children and half of them, in charge of housework in their home. None of them recognized housework (UDW) as work, 76 % reported not doing regular health checks, although more than 90 % did the recommended preventive practices for their age. The women interviewed expressed different meanings attributed bythem to the PPW such as independence, personal development, improvement in self-esteem, quality of life, and sociability. However, in their absence at home, they were ambivalent and guilty. Conclusions. This study allows us to recognize that women with UDW and PPW value the latter positively, but question whether it takes time away from their participation in the family environment. This results in increased self-demand and perpetuates the invisibility of the UDW. In relation to self-care, they feel that they do not perform their medical care, buthave good indicators of preventive practices. It may be necessary to encourage reflection on the role of the PPW in theirwell-being. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Divisão do Trabalho baseado no Gênero , Qualidade de Vida , Autoimagem , Classe Social , Percepção Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tabagismo/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/história , Jornada de Trabalho , Exercício Físico , Educação Infantil , Medicina Preventiva/tendências , Entrevistas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Violência contra a Mulher , Teste de Papanicolaou , Alfabetização , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Violência de Gênero , Iniquidade de Gênero , Estereotipagem de Gênero , Culpa , Hipertensão/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia
3.
Ars pharm ; 60(3): 147-151, jul.-sept. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186759

RESUMO

Objetivos: Con el objetivo de ponerla en valor ante la sociedad, presentamos la biografía de Gertrudis Martínez Otero. Gertrudis era natural de Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Cádiz) y tiene el honor de ser, aparte de una de las primeras alumnas de la Licenciatura de Farmacia en la Universidad de Granada, la primera mujer licenciada en Farmacia por dicha universidad, lo que la permitió convertirse en la primera boticaria andaluza y la tercera de España, además de ser la primera mujer de la provincia gaditana en ir a la universidad. Material y métodos: La metodología ha girado en torno a fuentes orales a través de conversaciones particulares, tanto con vecinos actuales del pueblo de Sanlúcar de Barrameda que mantienen una cierta relación de vecindad con familiares y descendientes de ella como con una de sus biógrafas, que nos ha facilitado nuevos datos de Gertrudis procedente de sus últimas investigaciones. Hemos completado con nuestra propia investigación algunos aspectos biográficos que no se encuentran ni en las referencias archivísticas ya conocidas del expediente personal de Gertrudis Martínez Otero en la Universidad de Granada ni en otras biografías suyas ya publicadas. Resultados: Como resultado del estudio se completan con datos originales las escasas biografías existentes de Gertrudis Martínez Otero, que permiten realzar su figura y destacar la importancia que tiene por haber sido la primera mujer que ejerció como farmacéutica en la comunidad autónoma de Andalucía


Objectives: With the aim of doing her figure most well-known for the society, the biography of Gertrudis Martínez Otero is presented. She was a native of Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Cádiz), who has the honor of being, apart from one of the first female students at the University of Granada, the first woman licensed in Pharmacy by that university, which allowed her to become the first Andalusian apothecary and the third in Spain, besides being the first woman in the province of Cadiz to go to the university. Material and methods: The methodology followed has consisted in complementing with our own research some biographical aspects that are not found in the already known archival references of the personal expedient of Gertrudis Martínez Otero in the University of Granada or in other biographies of hers already published. The sources managed have been mainly private conversations with both current neighbors of the town of Sanlúcar de Barrameda that maintain a certain neighborhood relationship with relatives and descendants of her and with one of her biographers, who has provided us with new data from Gertrudis from further research. Results: As a result of the study, the existing biographies of Gertrudis Martínez Otero are completed with original data, which allows to establish a before and an after of the History and Pharmacy in Andalusia, due to that Gertrudis was the first woman who worked as a pharmacist in that autonomous community, after the end of her studies at the University of Granada


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Farmacêuticos/história , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/história , Espanha
4.
Annu Rev Biochem ; 88: 1-24, 2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220975

RESUMO

This first serious attempt at an autobiographical accounting has forced me to sit still long enough to compile my thoughts about a long personal and scientific journey. I especially hope that my trajectory will be of interest and perhaps beneficial to much younger women who are just getting started in their careers. To paraphrase from Virginia Woolf's writings in A Room of One's Own at the beginning of the 20th century, "for most of history Anonymous was a Woman." However, Ms. Woolf is also quoted as saying "nothing has really happened until it has been described," a harbinger of the enormous historical changes that were about to be enacted and recorded by women in the sciences and other disciplines. The progress in my chosen field of study-the chemical basis of enzyme action-has also been remarkable, from the first description of an enzyme's 3D structure to a growing and deep understanding of the origins of enzyme catalysis.


Assuntos
Coenzimas/química , Enzimas/química , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/história , Biocatálise , Escolha da Profissão , Coenzimas/metabolismo , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Enzimas/metabolismo , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Cinética , Teoria Quântica
5.
Econ Hum Biol ; 34: 194-207, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040075

RESUMO

In this article we test the hypothesis that the secular increase in heights in the course of the second half of the nineteenth century was associated with the rise of the breadwinner-homemaker household. In these 'modern' households, women raised the living standards (quality and quantity of food, hygiene and care) for all members, especially the children. We model the assumed contributions to the family budget by age and gender of household members, and find that a strong imbalance between consumers and producers in the household put severe strains on effective resource allocation, leading to lower net nutrition and lower young adult heights. We suggest a carefully calibrated consumer/producer ratio as an indicator to capture these effects. The ratio is not meant to replace others, and we show that sibling rank order as well as gender preferences also played a role in intra-household resource allocation. For our research, we have used a database with reconstructed life histories (including co-residence) of 3003 Dutch army recruits. Our results indicate that the consumer/producer ratio as experienced by recruits in their early life indeed had a strong impact (-1,8 cm) on their heights. However, this effect differed by social class, which can be explained by differences in acceptance of the income pooling model.


Assuntos
Estatura , Características da Família/história , Fatores Socioeconômicos/história , Ordem de Nascimento , Alimentos/economia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Militares , Países Baixos , Estado Nutricional , Fatores Sexuais , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/história , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Dynamis (Granada) ; 39(2): 357-380, 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189630

RESUMO

Este artigo analisa os acidentes de trabalho envolvendo mulheres que trabalharam na mineração de carvão no município de Criciúma, localizado no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, na década de 1940. A partir dos processos de Justiça, é problematizado como os acidentes impactavam a vida dessas trabalhadoras, afetando suas atividades de trabalho dentro e fora dos espaços de produção. Além de refletir sobre um aspecto pouco estudado pela literatura, este artigo também faz um balanço quantitativo dos processos envolvendo mulheres trabalhadoras, a fim de analisar quais são os resultados alcançados pelos mesmos


This article analyzes work accidents involving women in coal mining in the city of Criciúma in the state of Santa Catarina (Brazil) during the 1940s. Based on court cases, we address the question of how accidents impacted on the life of these workers, affecting their work activities within and outside production spaces. Besides reflecting on an aspect that has been little studied in the literature, this article also makes a quantitative assessment of cases involving workers, analyzing the results obtained


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Mineração/história , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/história , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trabalho/história , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Indenização aos Trabalhadores , Legislação Trabalhista , Brasil
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