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1.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 15: 1745506519891302, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856698

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the improved safety of the ready-made garment industry in Bangladesh since 2013, other workplace health and safety issues in the ready-made garment industry continue, especially violence towards female workers. This article examines this violence as well as the social norms and attitudes of key stakeholders underpinning it. METHODS: Data were collected in four ready-made garment factories in Bangladesh through in-depth interviews, focus group discussions with female workers and key-informant interviews with different stakeholders, along with factory observations. RESULTS: Findings were analysed thematically. Female workers described personal experience of violence in the workplace: physical and verbal abuse, constant pressure, other personal restrictions and withholding of pay. They did not make complaints for fear of losing their jobs. Supervisors characterized the women as 'disobedient,' 'uncooperative' and 'unwilling' to work and viewed their behaviour as acceptable. Other stakeholders ignored these problems. CONCLUSION: Finally, this study suggests how the findings encourage action to prevent violence in the workplace in order to address the emerging occupational health problems in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura/organização & administração , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Violência no Trabalho/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1299-1322, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-995100

RESUMO

Se describe la integración de tres mujeres argentinas a la carrera científica durante la década de 1960 desde sus estudios doctorales en un laboratorio extranjero. Se analizan los auspicios personales y los apoyos en políticas públicas que les otorgaron oportunidades para producir y gestionar ciencia. Se trata de Hermelinda Fogliatto, Rosalía Paiva y Ana María Insúa quienes comenzaron su actividad profesional en el ámbito educativo accediendo a la Psicología. Cuando en el país no existía tradición de promover doctorados en esa disciplina, ellas lo lograron en el Laboratorio de Psicometría de la Universidad de Loyola (Chicago) bajo la dirección de Horacio Rimoldi, quien las impulsó en su carrera. Desde modelos factoriales, condujeron investigaciones sobre procesos de pensamiento para la resolución de problemas que se convirtieron en referencia internacional. Las tres mujeres se desempeñaron en instituciones de Estados Unidos con financiamiento de agencias oficiales de salud y educación. Dos de ellas regresaron a Argentina donde ingresaron al Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Se discute el rol de dicha institución en la promoción de la investigación en psicología, el lugar de la misma en las carreras universitarias y su incidencia en el perfil de psicólogo.(AU)


O processo de integração de três mulheres argentinas na carreira científica é descrito a partir do momento em que eles obtiveram um doutorado em psicologia enquanto estavam trabalhando em um laboratório estrangeiro durante a década de 1960. A trajetória de Hermelinda Fogliatto, Rosalía Paiva e Ana María Insúa é retratada revelando sua chegada da educação ao campo da psicologia. Enquanto não havia tradição de promover o doutorado em psicologia na Argentina, eles conseguiram nesse objetivo sob a direção de Horacio Rimoldi no Laboratório Psicométrico da Universidade de Loyola (Chicago), que as encorajou em suas carreiras. Eles realizaram pesquisas sobre o processo de pensamento para resolução de problemas, com o modelo fatorial, consideradas como referência internacional. Trabalharam para organizações apoiadas pelas agências de Saúde e Educação dos Estados Unidos. Duas delas retornaram à Argentina onde trabalharam para o Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Discute-se o papel desta instituição na promoção da pesquisa psicológica bem como o lugar da pesquisa no treinamento e perfil dos psicólogos.(AU)


The integration of three Argentine women in the scientific career is described from the time they obtained a PhD in Psychology while working at a foreign laboratory in the 60's. The auspices under which they were integrated in the scientific career and the public policies which supported them are analyzed to understand how they took advantage from the opportunities they had to produce and manage science. The paths of Hermelinda Fogliatto, Rosalía Paiva and Ana María Insúa are portrayed revealing their arrival from education to the field of psychology. While there was no tradition of promoting PHDs on psychology in Argentina, they achieved this goal at the Psychometric Laboratory of Loyola University (Chicago) under the direction of Horacio Rimoldi, who encouraged their careers. Applying factorial models, they conducted research on the thinking process for problem solving, which was considered work of international reference. These women worked for organizations supported by Health and Education agencies of the United States. Two of them returned to Argentina where they worked for the National Council of Scientific and Technical Research. The role of this institution for the promotion of psychology research is discussed, as well as the place research had in psychologists training and profiles.(AU)


Assuntos
Psicologia/história , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Pensamento , Análise Fatorial
3.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 75, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the huge burden of domestic work on women in Japan, its effects on their health have been poorly investigated. We aimed to assess the association between domestic work stress and self-rated psychological health among women. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey using an online social research panel in February 2018. Participants were 2,000 women with paid work (the "workers" group) and 1,000 women without paid work (the "homemakers" group), aged between 25 and 59 years old and living with a partner. Self-rated psychological health (Mental Health and Vitality scales of the Japanese SF-36), occupational and domestic work stress (the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire), the 10-item Work-Family Conflict Scale, and sociodemographic factors were assessed. RESULTS: The workers had lower domestic job control and higher support from a partner and their parents than the homemakers (p < 0.001), whereas domestic job demand and psychological health were similar between the groups. After adjustment for the covariates using multiple linear regression models, better psychological health was significantly associated with lower domestic job demand, higher domestic job control, and having a young child in both groups. In addition, work-family conflicts and occupational job stress among the workers and caregiving among the homemakers showed negative associations with psychological health. CONCLUSION: Self-rated psychological health in women was associated with domestic work stress regardless of employment status. To promote women's health, we need to take into account the effects of domestic work, work-family conflicts, and social support from families, as well as occupational factors.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 585-591, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885232

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: There is a significantly higher risk of lipid disorders occurrence, including atherogenic dyslipidemia in women after menopause than it is in general population. The aim of the work was to investigate the correlation between health behaviours and the occurrence of lipid disorders in women after menopause working in agriculture. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in years 2015-2016 and included 843 post-menopausal women working in agriculture. The following were used: a questionnaire including socio-demographic data, laboratory lipid tests, inventory of health behaviours. The following were estimated: logistic regression models for serum lipids concentration versus frequency of health behaviours in the examined women. RESULTS: Adverse lipid profile was found in over a half of post-menopausal women working in agriculture, whereas the frequency of health behaviours were estimated at the average level, although the frequency of correct eating habits and health practices was significantly lower than preventive behaviours and positive psychological attitudes. A correlation was found between the frequency of health behaviours and the occurrence of lipid disorders in women after menopause working in agriculture: more frequent health practices co-existed with the lower concentration of total cholesterol and a higher concentration of HDL-cholesterol, more frequent preventive behaviours co-existed with lower concentration of LDL-cholesterol. Women with higher concentration of triglycerides undertook pro-health practices relatively more often. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed a high prevalence of lipid disorders in postmenopausal women working in agriculture. More effective health education programmes are necessary in the area of reduction the risk factors of CVD in the population of women working in agriculture.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Lipídeos/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Idoso , Agricultura , Aterosclerose/psicologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa/psicologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia
5.
Work ; 64(3): 515-529, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overall, health-related correlates of job demands and job resources are well-known. However, in today's working life, personal resources are considered to be of increasing importance. Beyond general mental ability, knowledge regarding personal resources remains limited. This is particularly so among women working in the welfare sector, a sector mainly employing women and with the work typically involving clients. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the importance of job demands, job resources, and personal resources for health-related outcomes, as well as the mitigating effects of resources, among women working within the Swedish welfare sector. METHODS: Self-reports from 372 women employed within the welfare sector were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression. RESULTS: Overall, increasing job demands were associated with poorer health outcomes while increasing job resources and personal resources were associated with better health. Additionally, lower control aggravated the effects of quantitative job demands on health outcomes while lower feedback mitigated the effect of qualitative demands. However, personal resources had no moderating effect. CONCLUSIONS: Job resources seem more pertinent to health than personal resources, at least among women working within the welfare sector in Sweden.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Saúde do Trabalhador , Seguridade Social , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Absenteísmo , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Presenteísmo , Angústia Psicológica , Análise de Regressão , Autorrelato , Apoio Social , Suécia , Carga de Trabalho
6.
Br J Nurs ; 28(16): 1086-1090, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518539

RESUMO

Menopause is a natural transition affecting most women between the ages of 45 and 55. Three-quarters of women will experience mild to moderate menopausal symptoms and a further quarter will report them as severe. Symptoms can include night sweats, hot flushes, poor concentration, tiredness, poor memory and lowered confidence. The workplace can exacerbate these symptoms and for some women can influence their decision to stop working earlier than previously intended. The need for support and understanding from managers is crucial and can make a major difference to how a woman deals with her menopause. Many women enter the menopause at the peak of their productive lives. These women have valuable skills, knowledge and experience that employers need to retain, so they should be developing resources to help navigate this normal and natural stage of the ageing process.


Assuntos
Menopausa/fisiologia , Menopausa/psicologia , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Empatia , Feminino , Mão de Obra em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547253

RESUMO

A physically active lifestyle incurs health benefits and physically active individuals show reduced reactivity to psychosocial stressors. However, the findings are inconclusive and are based on self-reported physical activity and sedentary time. The present study aimed at studying the associations between psychological stressors (job demand, control, support, JD-C-S) and objectively measured physical activity (PA) on various intensities from sedentary (SED) to vigorous physical activity. The participants were 314 employees from a cross-sectional study. PA data were collected with the accelerometer ActiGraph GT3X (Pensacola, FL, USA), SED data with the inclinometer activPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland, UK), and psychosocial stressors with a web questionnaire. Results showed that vigorous-intensity PA was negatively associated with demand (ß -0.15, p < 0.05), even when adjusted for the covariates. SED was negatively associated to support (ß -0.13, p < 0.05). Stress significantly moderated relations between support and sedentary time (ß -0.12, p < 0.05). Moderate PA (MVPA) was negatively associated with demand, but only when controlling for overtime (ß -0.13, p < 0.05). MVPA was also negatively associated with control (ß -0.15, p < 0.05) but not when work engagement was included in the model. Being more physically active and spending less time sedentary may help to handle job situations with high demand and low support.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escócia , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia
8.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221356, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although breast Self-Examination is no longer tenable as a standard method to detect early breast cancer, world health organization recommends breast self -examination for raising awareness of women about breast cancer. Secondary prevention through monthly breast self-examination is the best option to tackle the rising incidence of breast cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess breast self -examination practice and associated factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from April 23 to May 23, 2018. A total of 421 female workers in Debre Tabor Town public health facilities were included. The study participants were selected using simple random sampling technique from the study population. The collected data were checked for completeness. The data were entered and cleaned using EpiData version 3.1 then exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Crude odd ratio and probability value were identified for each independent variable and all independent variables with probability value of less than 0.2 were entered into multivariables logistic regression. Statistically significant associated factors were identified based on probability value (p-value) less than 0.05 and adjusted odd ratio with 95% confidence interval. RESULT: The mean age of participants was 25.2 (S.D = 4.12) and 137 (32.5%) of the participants had practiced breast self -examination and 64 (15.2%) of them performed it monthly. Family history of breast cancer (adjusted OR = 6.5, CI = 1.54-21.4), Knowledge about breast -self examination (adjusted OR = 5.74, CI = 2.3-14.4) and self- efficacy in practicing breast self -examination (adjusted OR = 4.7, CI = 1.84-12.11) were significantly associated with breast self -examination practice. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the prevalence of breast self-examination was low. Family history of breast cancer, knowledge about breast self -examination and self- efficacy in practicing breast self- examination did have statistically significant association with breast self-examination practice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Autoexame de Mama/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/anatomia & histologia , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Autoeficácia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia
9.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 15(2): 162-163, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384385

RESUMO

Through the generosity of Charles R. Millikan, DMin, vice president for Spiritual Care and Values Integration, an annual award competition was established at Houston Methodist Hospital among the resident staff. To enter the writing competition, residents must submit a poem or essay of 1,000 words or less on the topic, "On Being a Doctor." A committee of seven was selected from Houston Methodist Hospital Education Institute to establish the judging criteria and select the winning entries. The following is the first-place winning entry for 2019; the second- and third-place entries will be published in the next two issues of this journal.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Escolha da Profissão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Obstetrícia , Médicas/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357386

RESUMO

Introduction: This study aims to investigate the association between gender discrimination in the workplace and pregnancy planning/childbirth experiences among working women in South Korea. Methods: We analyzed data from the Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women and Families (KLoWF) for the years 2007 to 2016. The study population consisted of 7996 working women, between the ages of 19 and 45. Gender discrimination was measured through the 6-item Workplace Gender Discrimination Scale, evaluating discrimination in terms of recruitment, promotions, pay, deployment, training and lay-offs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to measure the association between gender discrimination and the pregnancy planning/childbirth experience. Results: Compared to individuals experiencing no discrimination in the workplace, those experiencing low [odds ratio (OR): 0.78, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.61-0.99] or medium (OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.54-0.89) levels of discrimination had decreased odds of pregnancy planning. Likewise, individuals scoring low (OR: 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.92), medium (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.51-0.92), or high (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.27-0.80) levels of discrimination also had decreased odds of childbirth experience when compared to the no-experience group. When stratified by income, compared to individuals experiencing no discrimination in the workplace, those experiencing gender discrimination had decreased odds of pregnancy planning for low income (low OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45-0.92; medium OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.52-0.97; high OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.24-0.87), medium income (medium OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.37-0.77; high OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.14-0.63), and high income groups (low OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.49-0.84; medium OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.52-0.92). Conclusions: The present study finds that gender discrimination in the workplace is associated with decreased odds of pregnancy planning/childbirth experience among working South Korean women. Furthermore, low and medium income groups were especially more likely to be affected by the level of gender discrimination in the workplace when planning pregnancy.


Assuntos
Parto/psicologia , Gravidez/psicologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Gravidez/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 65(5): 425-434, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined the trajectory groups of maternal depressive symptoms of Korean employed women with young children and the association between trajectory group membership and personal, family, social and sociodemographic factors. METHOD: This study used Nagin's semi-parametric, group-based modeling to analyze 2008 (Wave 1) to 2012 data (Wave 5) from the Panel Study on Korean Children, a nationally representative sample of children. RESULTS: Four distinct trajectory groups were identified, namely, a non-depressive symptoms group, increasing subclinical depressive symptoms group, stable moderate depressive symptoms group and severe depressive symptoms group. Results showed that self-esteem, parental stress, child care cooperation of husband, marital satisfaction and social support affected the likelihood of membership in the four depressive symptoms groups. CONCLUSION: Prevention or intervention toward trajectory groups requires integrative approaches that target various factors across multiple contexts.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Mães , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
12.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(9): 1206-1212, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand how changes in low-income mothers' work, home, and childcare environments impact their food practices for young children. METHODS: The grounded theory, theory-guided, design included two in-depth qualitative interviews (6 to 8 months apart) with each of 19 low income, working/student mothers of Head Start children, living in a rural county in Upstate New York. Interviews covered mothers' experiences of employment, school, family, household, and childcare events over one school year and whether and how events changed child food practices. Emergent themes related to mothers' experiences of life events, with attention to influences on child food practices, were open-coded using a constant comparative approach. A life course approach and a transactional model of the stress process informed interpretation. RESULTS: Within the study period, most mothers reported at least one life event, with many experiencing one or more changes in employers, job schedules, residence, household members, or childcare situation. Emergent patterns of adjustment in child food practices linked with life events were shaped by mothers' appraisals of life events, the availability of coping resources, and their adaptations to events, based on temporal, financial, and social resources. The findings support a view of child feeding informed by the transactional model of stress. CONCLUSIONS: Instability in work, family, household, and childcare highlight changing contexts for child food practices in daily life. Research and practice should acknowledge the changing nature of the child feeding context and the need for children's caregivers to make adjustments in response to changing resources.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Mães/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Public Health ; 173: 21-28, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226512

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the fertility intentions of urban working women whose family planning has been limited to one child since the universal two-child policy was adopted and to explore factors associated with intentions to not have a second child. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study was conducted among 703 urban working women with one child using a self-administered questionnaire from May to August 2016 in Hunan, China. Data were collected on the women's sociodemographic characteristics, attitudes towards having another child and fertility intentions. A descriptive analysis, chi-square test and logistics regression were used for data analysis. RESULTS: The ideal number of children among the urban working women was 2.03 ± 0.35. Fewer than half (32.4%) of working women with one child clearly intended to have another child. Not having another child was independently associated with family type, husband's age, age of the first child, attitude of the husband and parents-in-law, whether the parents-in-law provided economic support and the influence of friends. Participants showed lower second-child intentions with increasing age of the partner and first child (P value = 0.002, 0.026). Participants whose parents-in-law provided economic support were less likely to not want a second child than those whose parents-in-law did not provide economic support (P value = 0.037). Those with husbands and parents-in-law with supportive attitudes were less likely to not want another child (P value = 0.001, 0.022). Participants whose friends positively influenced them to have another child were less likely to intend to not have another child (P value = 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: There is no guarantee that the universal two-child policy will be enough to prompt an increase in fertility among urban working women with one child in Hunan Province. Supplementary measures are urgently needed to create a favourable environment for childbearing in China.


Assuntos
Características da Família/etnologia , Fertilidade , Intenção , População Urbana , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude , China , Estudos Transversais , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Política Pública , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Work ; 62(4): 563-571, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few correlational studies comparing family-work reconciliation between groups of women. OBJECTIVE: We intend to correlate and compare the use of time, purchasing power, and job satisfaction between two groups of working women, women with children and women without children. METHODS: This is a correlational and comparative study. The following instruments were used: Activities Diary; Brazilian Criteria for Economic Classification; and the short version of the Quality of Working Life Questionnaire. A total of 171 women participated in the study: one group was composed of 78 women with children and the other group was composed of 93 women without children. Data were analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk test, Wilcoxon test, Student's t-test and the Kolmogorov Smirnov test. RESULTS: Women with children spent more hours/day on hygiene, taking care of elderly individuals, practicing their religion, and studying (p = 0.001), but they presented no statistical differences in job satisfaction from those women without children (p = 0.2362). Women with children belonged to a higher economic classification and had greater purchasing power than women without children. CONCLUSIONS: Having children is a variable that influences time use, purchasing power, and job satisfaction among women and the presence of children is a factor that may increase the purchasing power of a woman.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Reprodutivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
J Occup Health Psychol ; 24(6): 662-674, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094539

RESUMO

Our research was motivated by the goal of better understanding how male and female first-time entrepreneurs psychologically appraise key stressors during the business start-up process, and how these stress appraisals are related to psychological distress after business launch. Informed by role congruity theory (Eagly & Karau, 2002), we argue that financial and social stressors during business launch are appraised as particularly stressful by women. Both starting a business due to financial needs motivation (i.e., high agency) and failing to receive social support during business launch (i.e., low communion) are incongruent with the female gender role. We further argue that these negative stress appraisals early in the business launch process will be associated with higher psychological distress during the later stages of running their business. We investigated these relationships in a field study of nascent entrepreneurs surveyed at three time points over a 1-year period during which they developed and launched their first business. The results of this investigation support our hypotheses, such that female entrepreneurs had higher stress appraisals when faced with gender role incongruent stressors of high financial need and low social support. These higher stress appraisals among women were in turn related to higher psychological distress several months later during business operation compared with their male counterparts. We discuss these findings in light of their implications for psychological stress and strain among nascent entrepreneurs, as well as the unique challenges faced by women as they enter entrepreneurship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Contrato de Risco , Identidade de Gênero , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adulto , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Estigma Social , Comportamento Estereotipado , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia
16.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 74(4): 664-674, 2019 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977512

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examines the role of work-related perceived age discrimination on women's mental health over the life course and tests whether financial strain mediates this relationship. METHODS: Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (1967-2003), we employ nested growth curve models to evaluate whether perceived age discrimination at work influences women's depressive symptoms and life satisfaction and whether perceived financial strain mediates this relationship. RESULTS: Women who experienced age discrimination had greater overall depressive symptoms but not after controlling for financial strain. We found evidence that age discrimination affected financial strain, which, in turn, increased women's depressive symptoms. Women who reported age discrimination had lower odds of being in higher categories of overall life satisfaction; financial strain partially mediated the relationship but age discrimination remained a significant predictor. DISCUSSION: Despite legal protection, age discrimination at work is frequent and has significant effects on women's mental health over the life course. Financial strain partially mediates this relationship, pointing to financial implications of perceived age discrimination for women and their families. Our findings have important policy and workplace implications, calling attention to ageism as a potent stressor for working women's mental health beyond those tied to sex or race.


Assuntos
Ageismo , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Depressão , Economia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Idoso , Ageismo/ética , Ageismo/prevenção & controle , Ageismo/psicologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoimagem , Saúde da Mulher
17.
Breastfeed Med ; 14(6): 416-423, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994382

RESUMO

Background: Although national breastfeeding rates have improved across recent decades, women continue to face barriers to achieving recommended breastfeeding targets. Returning to work presents a unique set of challenges for breastfeeding continuation, even in health care settings tasked with promoting breastfeeding among patients. This study examined the association between key workplace breastfeeding support characteristics, job satisfaction, and breastfeeding outcomes among health care employees. Materials and Methods: We used data from a cross-sectional survey of employees in a large integrated health care system. The study sample included female employees who had breastfed in the past 3 years (n = 165). The Employee Perceptions of Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire (EPBS-Q) measured organization, manager, and coworker support for breastfeeding. Regression analyses tested the association between workplace support factors and breastfeeding duration, breastfeeding exclusivity, and job satisfaction. Results: Managerial support increased median job satisfaction by 0.39 standard deviations (p < 0.001), and increased the odds of prolonging exclusive breastfeeding (odds ratio [OR] 1.47; confidence interval [CI] 1.03-2.09). Organizational support increased median job satisfaction by 0.27 standard deviations (p < 0.001), and increased the odds of exclusive breastfeeding by nearly twofold (OR 1.80; CI 1.05-3.09). No significant associations were found between workplace support factors (organizational, managerial, and co-worker support) and overall breastfeeding duration. Conclusions: Organizational and managerial support are key aspects of workplace lactation support, which may positively impact job satisfaction, rates of exclusive breastfeeding, and duration of exclusive breastfeeding among female health care employees. This intersection of outcomes salient for the business community and public health practitioners highlights opportunities for collaborations to improve workplace and breastfeeding outcomes.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Apoio Social , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cultura Organizacional , Fatores de Tempo , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int Breastfeed J ; 14: 15, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988690

RESUMO

Background: In order to meet World Health Organization recommendations for breastfeeding, many women need to combine breastfeeding with return to work or study. Barriers are often encountered when returning to work or study, which can lead to premature cessation of breastfeeding. This study aimed to explore Australian women's experiences of breastfeeding at one multi-campus university. Method: This paper draws on the qualitative findings from a mixed-methods study conducted between April and November 2017. An online survey was used to explore women's experiences of breastfeeding at university. In total, 108 people participated in the survey. After the deletion of incomplete surveys, 79 staff and students survey responses were analysed. In-depth interviews were also carried out with 10 staff and students. Open text responses and in-depth interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: The analysis revealed four themes. The first theme, University as a positive and progressive environment for breastfeeding, explores staff and students' experiences of maternity leave, flexible work arrangements, and on-campus childcare, and their relationships with tutors, supervisors, managers and colleagues. The second theme, Finding private and safe spaces for breastfeeding, presents staff and students' experiences of using designated rooms, car parks, corridors, classrooms, and offices to breastfeed and express breast milk, and their experiences related to storage of breast milk. The third theme, Feeling self-conscious and unprofessional, reflects women's experiences of mixing their professional and personal lives, and feeling guilty for taking time out to breastfeed. The fourth theme, Developing resilience to judgement, captures women's realisation that breastfeeding on campus requires the development of a "thick skin" and the capacity to not be offended easily. Conclusions: Sustaining breastfeeding requires time and commitment on behalf of the mother, as well as a supportive workplace or study environment. Transforming university campuses into breastfeeding friendly environments is long overdue and requires organisational commitment to achieve genuine reform.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Retorno ao Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Austrália , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Retorno ao Trabalho/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Breastfeed Med ; 14(5): 313-319, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896256

RESUMO

Introduction: The childcare setting remains largely unexplored as a potential barrier to breastfeeding continuation and, therefore, the lack of interventions targeting childcare providers may be a missed opportunity for improved breastfeeding support. This article explores the perceptions of 25 first-time breastfeeding mothers on navigating the critical transition to childcare and the role of childcare providers regarding breastfeeding support. Methods: Mothers were selected if they indicated an intent to breastfeed on a prenatal questionnaire and had enrolled their child in childcare. Semistructured interviews guided by Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model were conducted to capture mothers' experiences. Responses were analyzed utilizing thematic analysis to generate themes rooted in mothers' experiences with childcare and breastfeeding. Results: A thematic analysis resulted in three key themes: Providers are not Critically Evaluated, A Stressful Transition, and Childcare as a Service, not Support. These themes indicated that although mothers intended to continue breastfeeding during and after the transition to childcare, they had not previously given much consideration to the childcare setting beyond that of a service provider. Conclusion: Findings illustrate new considerations to support modern breastfeeding mothers through the transition to work and childcare are needed such as basic and practical education and training to prepare childcare providers to support breastfeeding mothers in the way that best meets their needs, enhanced education for mothers on how to seek and evaluate providers for breastfeeding competence, and policy initiatives focused on fostering engagement between mothers and providers. By taking mothers' perceptions into consideration, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers can offer breastfeeding support that mothers will be receptive to and more likely to engage with, thereby advancing the health of both mothers and infants.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Creches/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , Retorno ao Trabalho/psicologia , Apoio Social , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Saúde do Trabalhador , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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