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1.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 50-59, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077144

RESUMO

The KSA 2030 vision makes special reference to women's empowerment as an important strategy for Saudi community transformation. Studies related to women's empowerment, especially in the Saudi context, are still not enough and unclear. The current study explored the predictors of women empowerment knowledge and attitudes among Saudi academic and administrative staff. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 15 Saudi government-owned universities. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select 5587 participants during the period April to September 2020. The study instrument consisting of three main parts; basic demographic data, questionnaire assessed the knowledge regarding women's empowerment, and women empowerment attitude scale. The results showed good knowledge of empowerment among the women with 75.5% of the participants demonstrating good knowledge. The total women empowerment attitude was positive among 65.9% of the participants. The association between demographic data and women empowerment knowledge and attitude showed a significant association with marital status, residence, education, and occupation (p <0.05). Linear regression on marital status, education, residence, and occupation, are confirmed as significant predictors of women empowerment knowledge and attitude (p <0.05). Mother's education level is shown as a predictor for women empowerment attitude (p>0.005). Three-quarters of Saudi academic and administrative staff have a good women empowerment knowledge score, and more than two-thirds have a positive attitude. Demographic characteristics are important predictors for women empowerment knowledge and attitude. The results of this study will help decision-makers to design and implement goal-directed women empowerment programs.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Empoderamento , Docentes/psicologia , Poder Psicológico , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autonomia Pessoal , Arábia Saudita , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
2.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 60-68, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077145

RESUMO

Women in Saudi Arabia constitute nearly 50% of the population, but their participation in economic and social activities are far below the kingdom's potential. According to the 2030 vision, women empowerment is an essential requirement for community transformation and development. The study aims to explore women empowerment among academic and administrative staff in Saudi Universities. A cross-sectional research design was conducted at 15 Saudi governmental universities. A multistage cluster sampling technique was followed to select 5587 participants. The data collection starts from April to September 2020. The current study results illustrate statistically significant differences between academic and administrative staff in the total women empowerment score and all of its dimensions (p <0.05). The majority of academic staff (84.4%) have high personal empowerment compared to 73.7% of the administrative staff. The study concluded that women empowerment is higher among academics compared to administrative staff in Saudi Universities.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Empoderamento , Docentes/psicologia , Poder Psicológico , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autonomia Pessoal , Arábia Saudita , Autoimagem , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
3.
Rev Infirm ; 70(269): 31-32, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742590

RESUMO

As an individual choice of the mother to feed her newborn and to weave a special bond with him, breastfeeding, whose benefits are multiple, is strongly encouraged by paediatricians and midwives. The return to work at the end of maternity leave is often an obstacle to the continuation of this method of infant feeding. However, adjustments are possible, even for salaried carers who, as one young woman acting as a health executive testifies, wish to combine professional practice with continued breastfeeding in order to remain in line with their choices.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Comportamento de Escolha , Mães , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mães/psicologia , Retorno ao Trabalho , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia
4.
Health Care Women Int ; 42(3): 323-334, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646927

RESUMO

Women, who are "supposed" to do all their official and household work are now required to do all of it simultaneously because of lockdown amid covid-19. I did this study to analyze the perceived stress and depressive tendencies among the non-clinical population of employed women residing in Delhi-NCR and whether work from-for home is acting as a mediator between the two. Further, marital status and family status were also taken into consideration. A sample of two-hundred-three responses depicted that there is a significant and positive correlation between perceived stress and depressive tendencies. Further, working from-for home significantly acts as a mediator between the two variables. Moreover, there is no significant interaction between family status and working from-for home on depressive tendencies. However, there is a significant interaction between marital status and working from-for home on depressive tendencies. The implications, limitations, and future suggestions are discussed in the end.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Estado Civil , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 3, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women's empowerment, and maternal and neonatal health are important targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. Our objective is to examine the relationship between women's empowerment and elective cesarean section (ECS), focusing on Vietnam, a country where the use of CS has increased rapidly in recent decades, which raises public health concerns. METHODS: We hypothesized that in the context of the developing biomedicalization of childbirth, women's empowerment increases the use of ECS due to a woman's enhanced ability to decide her mode of delivery. By using microdata from the 2013-2014 Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey, we conducted a multivariate analysis of the correlates of ECS. We studied a representative sample of 1343 institutional single birth deliveries. Due to higher ECS rates among multiparous (18.4%) than primiparous women (10.1%) and the potential interaction between parity and other correlates, we used separate models for primiparous and multiparous women. RESULTS: Among the indicators of women's external resources, which include a higher level of education, having worked during the previous 12 months, and having one's own mobile phone, only education differed between primiparous and multiparous women, with a higher level among primiparous women. Among primiparous women, no resource indicator was significantly linked to ECS. However, considering women's empowerment facilitated the identification of the negative impact of having had fewer than 3 antenatal care visits on the use of ECS. Among multiparous women, disapproval of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with a doubled likelihood of undergoing ECS (odds ratio = 2.415), and living in an urban area also doubled the likelihood of ECS. The positive association with living in the richest household quintile was no longer significant when attitude towards IPV was included in the model. In both groups, being aged 35 or older increased the likelihood of undergoing ECS, and this impact was stronger in primiparous women. CONCLUSIONS: These results underline the multidimensionality of empowerment, its links to other correlates and its contribution to clarifying the influence of these correlates, particularly for distinguishing between medical and sociocultural determinants. The results advocate for the integration of women's empowerment into policies aimed at reducing ECS rates.


Assuntos
Cesárea/psicologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/psicologia , Empoderamento , Paridade , Atitude , Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Equidade de Gênero , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Sobremedicalização/prevenção & controle , Medicalização , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana , Vietnã , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia
6.
Work ; 67(2): 269-279, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a vulnerable period of growth and enrichment along with many physiological and psychological challenges. These changes can lead to complications if compounded by external stress and anxiety. COVID-19 has emerged as a chief stressor among the general population and is a serious threat among vulnerable populations. Therefore, there is a need for stress management tools, such as Yoga and physical exercises, both at home and at work. These can be adopted during the pandemic with proper maintenance of social distancing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compile literature that has reported the health outcomes of Yoga intervention on pregnancy at the workplace and analyzes both the restrictions as well as advantages of its beneficial effects in comparison to physical exercises. METHODOLOGY: A comprehensive literature review was conducted utilizing PubMed and Google Scholar. The keywords used for the search include "Yoga", "work", "complications", "physical exercise", "drugs" and "COVID" indifferent permutations and combinations with "pregnancy". We compiled the literature with respect to pregnancy complications and the effects of drugs, physical activity and Yoga for preventing these complications. RESULTS: We noted that pregnancy-related complications are becoming more prevalent because of a sedentary lifestyle, restricted physical activity and growing stress. In such situations, a home or workplace Yoga protocol can combine both exercise and mindfulness-based alleviation of anxiety for both working and non-working women. CONCLUSION: Yoga can be effective for combating stress and anxiety besides boosting immunity in pregnant working women confronted with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Ioga/psicologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Atenção Plena , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Comportamento Sedentário , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599777

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between the husbands' domestic labor and marital intimacy, work satisfaction, and depressive mood in married working women. We used the sixth (2016) dataset from the Women and Families Panel Survey conducted by the Korean Women's Development Institute (KWDI). The subjects were 791 married working women who lived with a wage-earner husband and who did not have a housework assistant. The correlations between variables were measured and the fit of the structural equation model was assessed. We used a mediation model in which the husbands' domestic labor affected the depressive mood of married working women through mediation of marital intimacy and work satisfaction. Bootstrapping was used to verify the significance of the indirect effects of the mediating variables. Husbands' domestic labor had a significant effect on married women's marital intimacy and work satisfaction, but no significant direct effect on depressive mood. Marital intimacy had a significant effect on work satisfaction, and these two variables were significantly related to reductions in the depressive mood score. Husbands' domestic labor was found to be a complete mediator of depressive mood through its effects on marital intimacy and work satisfaction. Husbands' domestic labor did not directly reduce married working women's depressive mood scores, but instead reduced them indirectly through effects on marital intimacy and work satisfaction.


Assuntos
Depressão , Casamento , Satisfação Pessoal , Cônjuges , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1007, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that work-related physical activity may not have the same mental health benefits as leisure-time physical activity. Further, work-related physical activity is likely to include a variety of different behaviours for people with different occupations. As such, the aim of this study was to determine if occupation type moderated the association between work-related physical activity and psychological distress. METHODS: A randomly selected sample of 1080 women from Melbourne, Australia completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), and reported their current occupation. RESULTS: Linear regression analyses indicated that occupation significantly moderated the association between work-related walking and psychological distress (F [8, 55] = 2.26, p = .036). Given evidence of moderation, we fitted linear regression models to test the associations between work-related physical activity and psychological distress for three separate groups; professionals, sales and services workers, and tradespersons. Female tradespersons who engaged in a low (B = - 3.81, p = .006) or high amount of work-related walking (B = - 3.23, p = .029), had significantly lower psychological distress symptoms than those who engaged in no work-related walking. There were no significant associations between work-related physical activity of any intensity and psychological distress for professionals, or sales and service workers. CONCLUSIONS: Given the relationship does not exist across all occupations, work-related physical activity should not be promoted above and beyond leisure-time physical activity. However, walking at work may be important in reducing psychological distress for some people and should therefore, not be discounted.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão
9.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 32(5): 242-249, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551818

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze trends of South Korean working women's childbearing intentions to provide directions for strategies to increase South Korea's birth rate. This study used the data generated by the Korean Longitudinal Panel Survey of Women and Families in South Korea from 2007 to 2016, and included 2,341 working women. This study showed that female workers' intention to bear children is decreasing. In 2007, age and the number of children were considered in predicting the characteristics of those with childbearing intentions. In 2016, the provision of maternity leave at work, job satisfaction regarding relationships and communication, and work-family conflicts were added. When identifying the factors by category, the impact level of occupational factors increased, although the impact level of individual factors decreased. There should be a balance between work and family roles, and employers should provide ample maternity leave and promote an organizational culture that supports job satisfaction.


Assuntos
Intenção , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , República da Coreia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 875, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, over 740 million women make their living in the informal economy and therefore lack formal employment benefits, such as maternity leave, that can improve infant feeding practices. Returning to work is one of the biggest challenges women face to maintaining breastfeeding. This study aimed to explore attitudes and perceptions towards breastfeeding in the informal work environment among male and female informal workers. METHODS: The study used a qualitative research design. Purposive and snowball sampling was employed. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted among men and women working in different types of informal jobs, in India and South Africa. Data was analysed using a thematic approach and the framework method. RESULTS: Between March and July 2017, 14 FGDs were conducted in South Africa and nine in India. Most women were knowledgeable about the benefits of breastfeeding and reported initiating breastfeeding. However, pressures of family responsibilities and household financial obligations frequently forced mothers to return to work soon after childbirth. Upon return to work many mothers changed their infant feeding practices, adding breastmilk substitutes like formula milk, buffalo milk, and non-nutritive fluids like Rooibos tea. Some mothers expressed breastmilk to feed the infant while working but many mothers raised concerns about expressed breastmilk becoming 'spoilt'. Breastfeeding in the workplace was challenging as the work environment was described as unsafe and unhygienic for breastfeeding. Mothers also described being unable to complete work tasks while caring for an infant. In contrast, the flexibility of informal work allowed some mothers to successfully balance competing priorities of childcare and work. Sociocultural challenges influenced breastfeeding practices. For example, men in both countries expressed mixed views about breastfeeding. Breastfeeding was perceived as beneficial for both mother and child, however it was culturally unacceptable for women to breastfeed in public. This affected working mothers' ability to breastfeed outside the home and contributed to a lack of respect for women who chose to breastfeed in the workplace. CONCLUSION: Mothers working in the informal sector face multiple challenges to maintaining breastfeeding. Interventions are required to support feeding and childcare if global nutrition and development goals are to be met.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mães/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Emprego/métodos , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , África do Sul
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 715, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a widespread problem with a great need for innovative intervention concepts to overcome it. Epidemiological studies have identified working women in high-income Western countries to be at greater risk for physical inactivity. The current study included working mothers and examined within-subject associations between doing exercise/sport together with one's child and five different affective states, and with light physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). METHOD: During 1 week, mothers (N = 192) completed up to eight ecological momentary assessment (EMA) surveys a day to assess momentary affect and certain situational circumstances (e.g., doing exercise/sport, being together with child). Physical activity was assessed objectively with waist-worn accelerometers. RESULTS: Multilevel analysis showed that doing exercise/sport together with one's child was associated with higher positive affect and lower negative affect compared to being active alone. However, greater frequency of doing exercise/sport together with children was negatively associated with MVPA. CONCLUSION: Due to the positive effect on momentary affect, combining spending time together with one's child and simultaneously doing exercise/sport might be a good strategy of pairing two relevant personal goals. However, this strategy was not associated with sufficient MVPA.


Assuntos
Emoções , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multinível , Relações Pais-Filho , Esportes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(10): 1143-1153, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406503

RESUMO

Job discrimination, a social stressor, may lead to sleep health disparities among workers; yet, limited research has examined this relationship and specific sources of job discrimination. We used a US sample of working women (n = 26,085), participants in the Sister Study (2008-2016), to examine the associations of perceived job discrimination due to sex, race, age, health conditions, and/or sexual orientation with sleep health. Cross-sectionally, linear or logistic regression models revealed that each source of job discrimination was independently associated with different sleep problems after controlling for other sources of job discrimination. Longitudinally, among participants without short sleep (<7 hours/night) at time 1 (2012-2014), age-specific job discrimination was associated with 21% increased odds of new-onset short sleep (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.43) at time 2 (2014-2016). Among those without insomnia symptoms at time 1, race-specific job discrimination was associated with 37% increased odds of new-onset insomnia symptoms (odds ratio = 1.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.75) at time 2. Sex- and health-specific job discrimination also predicted new-onset sleepiness. There were dose-response relationships such that a greater number of sources of job discrimination (≥3) was associated with greater odds of prevalent and incident sleep problems. Perceived job discrimination may contribute to working women's poor sleep health over time, raising concerns about sleep health disparities emanating from the workplace.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Sono , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Discriminação Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 83, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fertility, in addition to the biomedical aspect, is phenomena of social, economic and demographic changes. Social network were considered for understanding fertility behaviors and changes in the levels of fertility. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between social capital and childbirth behaviors in Iranian women employees. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2017 on 536 women health care workers who randomly selected from health care setting Babol/Iran. Data were collected using demographic, childbearing behavior and social capital questionnaires. The SPSS-21 software was employed to analysis the data at a significant level of 0.05. RESULTS: The results of the study showed that, there was significant relationship between number of pregnancy and social capital (P = 0.039). Furthermore, social capital has a significant relationship with the time of pregnancy (P = 0.043), the time of pregnancy in women with high social capital was observed to be relatively 30% shorter compare the women with low social capital. CONCLUSION: Social capital, as one of the important factors influencing childbirth behaviors, should be considered in population planning and policy making.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Pessoal de Saúde , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Comportamento Reprodutivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Capital Social , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Mulheres/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Gravidez
14.
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(1): 30-42, mar. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125779

RESUMO

Antecedentes: las cirujanas en la Argentina experimentan barreras en el ámbito laboral y personal tratando de lograr sus objetivos profesionales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue explorar las barreras que enfrentan las cirujanas en su carrera laboral en las tres principales ciudades de la República Argentina. Material y métodos: estudio exploratorio transversal. Se utilizaron encuestas anónimas a cirujanas durante un período de 6 meses. Resultados: un 59% de las cirujanas son solteras y no viven en pareja. Aquellas con hijos son las principales encargadas de la crianza. Los esposos o convivientes aparecen en tercer lugar, con un muy bajo porcentaje de responsabilidad en la tarea. En la mayoría de los espacios laborales no existe un sistema que facilite el cuidado de hijos en su trabajo. El 65% afirma haber dejado de presentar trabajos científicos luego de la maternidad. Solo un 26% de los pacientes ha rechazado sus servicios en favor de ser intervenido por un cirujano hombre. Por el contrario, un 42% de los jefes ha rechazado ser acompañado en cirugías por cirujanas. Casi un 85% de las cirujanas ha recibido comentarios alusivos a su sexualidad durante su trabajo. Conclusión: las estructuras organizacionales quirúrgicas operan como un marco normativo estructurador de prácticas y discursos que han construido, en el nivel simbólico, subjetivo e institucional, las desigualdades entre mujeres y varones en el ámbito de la actuación médica. La feminización del sector en los últimos tiempos y la salida de la mujer al ámbito laboral no implican necesariamente la equidad de género.


Background: Women surgeons in Argentina face barriers in the workplace and in their personal life when trying to achieve their professional goals. The aim of this investigation was to explore the career barriers women surgeons face in the three main cities of Argentina. Material and methods: We conducted an exploratory cross-sectional study. Anonymous surveys were administrated to women surgeons during a six-month period. Results: Among survey respondents, 59% were single and did not live with a partner. Those with children are the primary carers. Spouses or partners appear in third place, with a very low percentage of responsibility as carers. Most workplaces where female surgeons work do not have childcare facilities. Sixty-five percent of the survey respondents had not presented scientific papers after having children. Only 26 percent of patients had rejected their services in favor of a male surgeon and 42% of head surgeons had refused to be assisted by female surgeons. Almost 85% of women surgeons have received comments about their sexuality during their work. Conclusions: The organizational structures of surgery departments work as a structured regulatory framework of practices and speeches that have constructed the inequalities between women and men in the field of medical action at the symbolic, subjective and institutional level. The recent feminization of the surgical field and the entrance of women in the workplace do not necessarily imply gender equality.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Iniquidade de Gênero , Papel de Gênero , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar/tendências , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Aleitamento Materno , Gravidez , Estudos Transversais , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio não Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
J Vasc Surg ; 72(2): 692-699, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual harassment is defined as unwelcome behaviors or obscene remarks that affect an individual's work performance or create an intimidating, hostile, or offensive environment. It is known to be more pervasive in male-dominated workplaces and flourishes in a climate of tolerance and culture of silence. We sought to examine its prevalence in faculty of vascular surgery training programs, to identify factors associated with occurrence, to determine reporting barriers, and to identify any gender bias that exists. METHODS: An anonymous survey consisting of questions on gender bias and sexual harassment was e-mailed to vascular surgery faculty members at 52 training sites in the United States. The survey asked about type, perpetrators, and locations; why and how the practice occurs; reporting mechanisms and barriers to reporting; and demographic information. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: Of 346 invitations sent, 149 recipients (43%) completed the survey. Of respondents, 48 of 149 (32%) thought harassment occurred more commonly in surgical specialties with historical male dominance, citing ignoring of behavior and hierarchy/power dynamics as the most common reasons for its occurrence; 61 of 149 (41%) reported having experienced workplace harassment, with unwanted sexually explicit comments or questions and jokes, being called a sexist slur or nickname, or being paid unwanted flirtation as the most common behaviors. Harassment was high in both men and women, although women had a higher likelihood of being harassed (67% of women respondents vs 34% of men respondents; P = .001) and on average had experienced 2.6 (of 11) types of harassment. The majority of harassment came from hospital staff, although women were more likely to receive harassment from other faculty. Despite that 84% of respondents acknowledged known institutional reporting mechanisms, only 7.2% of the harassing behaviors were reported. The most common reasons for not reporting included feeling that the behavior was "harmless" (67%) or "nothing positive would come of it" (28%). Of the respondents, 30% feared repercussions or felt uncomfortable identifying as a target of sexual harassment, and only 59% would feel comfortable discussing the harassment with departmental or divisional leadership. In examining workplace gender disparity, female surgeon responses differed significantly from male surgeon responses in regard to perceptions of gender differences. CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of faculty of vascular surgery training programs have experienced workplace sexual harassment. Whereas most are aware of institutional reporting mechanisms, very few events are reported and <60% of respondents feel comfortable reporting to departmental or divisional leadership. Female vascular surgeons believe gender influences hiring, promotion, compensation, and assumptions of life goals. Further work is necessary to identify methods of reducing workplace sexual harassment and to optimize gender disparity in vascular surgery practice.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Médicas/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Ocupacional/diagnóstico , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Health Care Women Int ; 41(3): 284-292, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259663

RESUMO

Working mothers are receiving a lot of physical and mental stress due to their various roles in the home and society. However, lack the time to manage their health because of their diverse roles in the workplace and at home; thus, it is necessary to implement a program that can help manage the health of working mothers in a company. The author's purposes in this study are to identify the health related quality of life and mental health problems of working mothers and to determine the effects of an in-house health care program to manage those problems. Fourteen female participants who are working, have children were recruited and measured health-related quality of life, degree of depression and anxiety and pain intensity were measured. After measurement, participants were enrolled in an in-house health care program for 8 weeks. The in-house health care program, consisting of physical therapy, psychiatrist consulting, and group education. After in-house health care program, all of the dependent values including health-related quality of life, degree of depression and anxiety, and pain intensity were improved. Therefore, this in-hose health care program is may an effective program to improve the mental health and quality of life of working mothers.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Mães/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Criança , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
17.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(1): 86-95, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the work-life pattern and prevalence of occupation-related symptoms, as well as the effect of work-life balance on health status according to age and sex among Korean gastroenterologists. METHODS: A total of 222 gastroenterologists from 44 nationwide centers in South Korea participated in an anonymized self-responded electronic questionnaire survey about their daily activities and symptoms for 14 days. Musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal and mental symptoms were scored using a numerical scale. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to measure the burnout score. RESULTS: Korean gastroenterologists (124 men and 98 women) spent 71.5 ± 19.0 h/week for work (54.0 ± 16.2 in-hospital and 17.5 ± 9.5 out-of-hospital), without any differences regarding sex. However, women spent more time performing housework and parenting (20.7 ± 19.0) compared to men (14.3 ± 13.3, P = 0.007). Musculoskeletal pain was found in 199 respondents (89.6%), and women had a higher total pain score compared to men in all age groups (P = 0.016). Gastrointestinal and mental symptoms were found in 119 (53.6%) and 153 (68.9%), respectively. Work-life ratio was significantly correlated with musculoskeletal (P < 0.001), gastrointestinal (P = 0.048) and mental symptoms (P = 0.003). Using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, 64.4% of the respondents demonstrated burnout. Moreover, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment scores were worst in women in their 30s or 40s. CONCLUSION: Korean gastroenterologists suffered from musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal and mental symptoms and were highly prone to burnout due to long and laboring work. Work-life imbalance and burnout were most severe in young women doctors due to their domestic demands.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Gastroenterologistas/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Médicas/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Vet Rec ; 186(5): 155, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite now having higher numbers of women than men within the veterinary profession, there are substantially less women in leadership roles. Research, primarily in other professions, has focussed on barriers to leadership and sometimes overlooked facilitators and motivators. This study aimed to explore the motivating factors for female veterinary surgeons to become leaders, to identify potential strategies to increase female leadership. METHODS: Sixteen female leaders from academia, professional bodies, industry and clinical practice took part in semistructured interviews. Interviews were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. RESULTS: Two themes were developed: 'Potential for positive influence' and 'Requirement of external enablers'. Participants wanted to influence change for themselves, including work-life balance and developing their role, and for others through a position of influence. They wanted to inspire and mentor the future generation of leaders. External enablers allowed this transition to occur, including formal mentors and informal support systems, opportunities for growth and increased responsibility, and leadership training. CONCLUSION: Potential strategies to increase female leaders include the promotion of female role models, increasing awareness of training and increasing work flexibility. The profession could improve its support of the next generation of leaders and celebrate the successful female leaders we already possess.


Assuntos
Liderança , Medicina Veterinária/organização & administração , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Motivação , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 25: e46906, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1135774

RESUMO

RESUMO. Este estudo investigou a trajetória de mulheres talentosas de acordo com o Mega-Modelo de Desenvolvimento de Talentos, concebido por Subotnik, Olszewski-Kubilius e Worrell (2011), analisando a relação existente entre as dimensões individuais, contextuais e interpessoais no seu percurso profissional. Foram realizadas cinco entrevistas com mulheres eminentes em cinco áreas de atuação: educação, comunicação, recursos humanos, publicidade e literatura brasileira. Os resultados foram analisados conforme a Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados. Verificou-se que independente da área em que atuam e de diferenças encontradas em relação à idade, formação educacional e estrutura familiar, fatores como resistência a estereótipos de gênero, trabalho como fonte de transformação social, presença de mentores, suporte emocional da família, oportunidades, otimismo e resiliência foram decisivos para a expressão e desenvolvimento de seus potenciais. Esses fatores foram classificados como facilitadores e variáveis de proteção frente às adversidades encontradas. Compreender o talento feminino envolve considerar a inter-relação das dimensões psicológicas, sociais e culturais.


RESUMEN. En este estudio se investigó la trayectoria de mujeres talentosas de acuerdo con el Mega-Modelo de Desarrollo de Talentos concebido por Subotnik, Olszewski-Kubilius y Worrell (2011), analizando la relación existente entre las dimensiones individuales, contextuales e interpersonales en su recorrido profesional. Se realizaron cinco entrevistas con mujeres eminentes en cinco áreas de actuación: educación, comunicación, recursos humanos, publicidad, y literatura brasileña. Los resultados fueron analizados conforme a la Teoría Fundamentada en los Datos. Se verificó que independientemente del área en que actúan y de diferencias encontradas en relación a la edad, formación educativa y estructura familiar, factores como resistencia a estereotipos de género, trabajo como fuente de transformación social, presencia de mentores, apoyo familiar emocional, oportunidades, optimismo y resiliencia fueron decisivos para la expresión y el desarrollo de sus potenciales. Estos factores se clasificaron como facilitadores y variables de protección frente a las adversidades encontradas. Comprender el talento femenino implica considerar la interrelación de las dimensiones psicológicas, sociales y culturales.


ABSTRACT. This study investigated the trajectory of talented women according to the Mega-Model of Talent Development conceived by Subotnik, Olszewski-Kubilius and Worrell (2011), analyzing the relationship between individual, contextual and interpersonal dimensions in their professional career. Five interviews were conducted with eminent women in five areas: education, communication, human resources, advertising, and Brazilian literature. The results were analyzed according to the Grounded Theory. Regardless of the area where they work and the differences found in relation to age, educational background and family structure, factors such as resistance to gender stereotypes, work as a source of social transformation, presence of mentors, emotional family support, opportunities, optimism and resilience were decisive for the expression and development of their potentials. These factors were classified as facilitators and protection variables against the adversities faced in life. Understanding female talent involves considering the interrelationship of psychological, social, and cultural dimensions.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Aptidão , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Núcleo Familiar/psicologia , Recursos Humanos , Literatura
20.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(12): 892-903, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390373

RESUMO

Objectives This study aimed to examine employment status differences in the marriage and fertility rates of Japanese women via an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis.Methods We used data collected from 1995 to 2015 in Japan based on the government's "Report of Vital Statistics: Occupational and Industrial Aspects," which recorded the marriage rates of unmarried adults and fertility rates of married adults-according to their employment status. A Bayesian APC analysis was performed to identify changes in marriage and fertility rates based on three effects: age, period, and cohort. Finally, we calculated the marriage and fertility rate ratios between non-employed and employed women for each age group, period, and cohort.Results The APC analyses showed that the period effect on marriage rates for non-employed women decreased during the periods analyzed, while that for employed women increased from 2005. Meanwhile, the period effect on fertility rates increased regardless of employment status, albeit to a larger degree for employed women. The cohort effect on marriage rates began to decrease from cohorts born in the 1960s for non-employed women, and from cohorts born in the 1970s for employed women. And the degree of the decrease was larger among non-employed women than those employed. Meanwhile, the marriage rate ratio increased from 0.46 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.90) in the cohort born between 1946 and 1950 to 1.00 (95% CI: 0.45, 1.92) in the cohort born between 1991 and 1995. Finally, the fertility rate ratio increased from 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.69) in the cohort born between 1946 and 1950 to 0.38 (95% CI: 0.14, 1.81) in the cohort born between 1991 and 1995.Conclusion Employment status differences in the marriage rates of unmarried adults and fertility rates of married adults decreased among younger Japanese cohorts and in recent years. By contrast, there were statistically significant differences in fertility rates of married adults based on employment status, even in cohorts born more recently.


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Fertilidade , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
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