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J Anxiety Disord ; 75: 102291, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827869


OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 is rearranging our society with fear and worry about the novel coronavirus impacting the mental health of Americans. The current study examines the intersection of COVID-19 fear, worries and perceived threat with social vulnerabilities and mental health consequences, namely anxiety and depressive symptomatology. METHODS: Using an online platform, a national sample (n = 10, 368) of U.S. adults was surveyed during the week of March 23, 2020. The sample was post-strata weighted to ensure adequate representation of the U.S. population based on population estimates for gender, race/ethnicity, income, age, and geography. RESULTS: Fear and worry are not distributed equally across the country; rather they are concentrated in places where the largest number of confirmed COVID-19 cases is found. Additionally, data highlight significant differences in the subjective perception of distress across groups with varying social vulnerabilities. Women, Hispanics, Asians, families with children under 18, and foreign-born respondents reported higher levels of subjective fear and worry compared to their counterparts. Finally, even after controlling for social vulnerability, subjective assessments of distress were positive, and significantly related to anxiety and depressive symptomatology; prior mental health research from China and Europe confirm what others have begun to document in the United States. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary work provides practitioners with a glimpse of what lies ahead, which individuals and communities may be the most vulnerable, and what types of strategic interventions might help to address a wide range of mental health consequences for Americans in the months and years ahead.

Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Medo , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Depressão/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Mulheres/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
Public Health ; 185: 196-198, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645507


OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of this study was to explore the reasons behind the late presentation of female patients with leishmaniasis to the clinic. STUDY DESIGN: A descriptive study design and qualitative method were used in this study. METHODS: For information generation, two focus group discussions and three in-depth interviews were conducted with healthcare providers. RESULTS: Many factors, including socio-economic status, lack of knowledge about the disease (i.e. signs and symptoms, transmission, prevention and treatment), the use of traditional or local treatment methods and lack of female healthcare providers, contribute to the late presentation of patients with leishmaniasis to the clinic. This late presentation of patients with leishmaniasis, especially in women, can result in damage to the body tissue, resulting in life-long scars that carry social stigmas. CONCLUSIONS: Leishmaniasis can result in life-long scars if it is not timely diagnosed and treated. As a result of the scars being highly stigmatised, the social life of patients with leishmaniasis can be impacted, especially for female patients.

Cicatriz/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Mulheres/psicologia , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pobreza , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Classe Social , Estigma Social
Adv Gerontol ; 33(2): 220-227, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593235


The article probes into the development of local self-organization of retired women, actively involved in resolving housing issues at their place of residence in Saint-Petersburg. The socio-spatial approach to aging, also referred to as «aging in a place / in a community¼ serves the theoretical framework. This type of aging requires an active approach to the habitual environment of the elderly and their support. It is the groups of older women that generate activists who have free time and the necessary competencies and who are ready to promote the interests of all the residents of an apartment building, a neighborhood or a district. Therefore, the empirical basis of the article was mainly the materials of interviews with women activists. In the public utilities system full of intricate semi-legal schemes, invisible and incomprehensible to the majority of ordinary citizens, activists are not always able to enter into an equitable dialogue with the controlling bodies and public utilities managers. In order to make insignificant changes, older activists are sometimes required to take tremendous efforts and develop new competencies which help to overcome barriers and to defend the collective interests.

Vida Independente , Organizações , Ativismo Político , Setor Público , Mulheres/psicologia , Idoso , Feminino , Habitação/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Aposentadoria , Federação Russa
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232526, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401821


Although ICPD brought about an international consensus on the centrality of women's empowerment and gender equity as desired national goals, the conceptualization and measurement of empowerment in demography and economics have been largely understood in a relational and in a family welfare context where women's altruistic behaviour within the household is tied either to developmental or child health outcomes. The goals of this study were twofold: (1) to offer an empirical examination of the household level empowerment measure through the theoretical construct of self-compassion and investigate its association with antenatal health, and (2) to ensure robust psychometric quality for this new measure. Drawing data from the nationally representative, multi-topic dataset of 42, 152 households, India Human Development Survey, IHDS II (2011-2012), the study performed a confirmatory factor analysis followed by an OLS estimation to investigate the association between a self-compassionate based empowerment and antenatal care. Empowerment was shown to be positively and significantly associated with antenatal care with significant age and education gradient. A woman's married status, her relation to the household head and joint family residence created conditions of restricted freedom in terms of her mobility, decision making and sociality. The empowerment measure showed inconsistent associations with social group affiliations and household wealth. The study provided an intellectual starting point to rethink the traditional formulations of empowerment by foregrounding its empirical measure within the relatively unexplored area of social psychology. In the process it addressed measurement gaps in the empowerment-health debate in India and beyond.

Empatia , Empoderamento , Autoimagem , Mulheres/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
Womens Health Issues ; 30(4): 299-305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340897


PURPOSE: Women veterans are a rapidly increasing subset of the Veterans Affairs (VA) patient population but remain a numerical minority. Men veteran-dominated health care settings pose unique considerations for providing care to women veterans in a comfortable and welcoming environment. We analyzed patient suggestions on how to make the VA more welcoming to women. METHODS: We surveyed a convenience sample of women veteran patients who visited 1 of 26 VA locations in August and September of 2017. Women veterans were invited to complete brief anonymous questionnaires that included questions about harassment experiences and feeling welcome at the VA, and an open-ended question about suggestions to make the VA more welcoming to women. We analyzed data from the open-ended question using the constant comparison method. RESULTS: Among respondents (N = 1,303), 85% felt welcome at the VA. Overall, 29% answered the open-ended prompt for a total of 490 distinct responses: 260 comments and 230 suggestions. Comments included praise for the VA (67%) and stories about feeling uncomfortable or harassed in the VA (26%). Suggestions included those related to VA staff (31%), the environment of care (18%), additional resources for women veterans (18%), clinical services for women veterans (15%), changing men veterans' behavior toward women veterans at the VA (5%), and making the treatment of women and men the same (5%). CONCLUSIONS: Although most women veterans felt welcome in the VA, patient-centered suggestions offer opportunities for making the VA more welcoming to women. Soliciting patient suggestions and increasing awareness of how feeling welcome is experienced by patients are first steps to health care settings becoming more inclusive.

Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais de Veteranos/organização & administração , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Veteranos/psicologia , Mulheres/psicologia , Adulto , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais de Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200033, 2020.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321005


The social isolation imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic brings out, in a empowered way, some worrying indicators about domestic violence and family violence against women. Organizations addressing domestic violence have already seen an increase in domestic violence due to forced coexistence, economic stress and fears about the Coronavirus. The article seeks to establish some relations between social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic and the increase in violence against women, taking into account the context of a patriarchal society. Data, still incipient, published by the press of several countries were analyzed, as well as reports from international organizations and organizations focused on combating domestic violence. In parallel, a brief literature review with authors who discuss the social role of women in society.

Isolamento Social/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Mulheres/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Apoio Social
Rev. esp. nutr. comunitaria ; 26(1): 0-0, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193828


FUNDAMENTOS: la recopilación de los saberes y sabores de comidas tradicionales faculta la mantención de la identidad en las comunidades y los núcleos familiares, permitiendo ser un aporte para la alimentación saludable. OBJETIVO: comprender el significado que representan las comidas tradicionales para un grupo de mujeres adultas mayores de la provincia de Concepción, Chile. MÉTODOS: el estudio utilizó el paradigma cualitativo con enfoque fenomenológico interpretativo de Heidegger. Como estrategia de recolección de datos, se utilizó la entrevista semiestructurada. Las respuestas, se codificaron, reagruparon y analizaron a través de la técnica de análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS: las entrevistadas identifican recetas culinarias con características que son tradicionales para ellas, reconociendo ingredientes y formas de preparación que se han mantenido en el tiempo. Las materias primas utilizadas son las mismas que recuerdan desde su época de infancia, aunque se menciona una dificultad en la adquisición de estos productos, debido al acceso o el costo económico de su adquisición. Sin embargo, el cambio de ingredientes no es apreciado como una modificación mayor a la receta más clásica. Otro aspecto importante es la modificación de los sabores en las preparaciones. A lo anterior, los alimentos y preparaciones de antaño eran identificados como más naturales y por lo mismo, reconocidos como más saludable. CONCLUSIONES: las comidas tradicionales permiten entrecruzar simbolismos y significados en mujeres adultas mayores, que favorecen la valoración de la alimentación desde los sabores, formas de preparar e ingredientes utilizados, percibiéndose como una alternativa para la alimentación saludable

BACKGROUND: culinary knowledge and tastes of traditional allows keeping the identity in communities and households, which in turn could eases a healthy diet. OBJECTIVE: to understand the meaning of traditional meals for a group of elder women in the province of Concepcion, Chile. METHODS: qualitative research with Heidegger's interpretative phenomenological approach. As a data collection strategy, it was used a semi-structured interview. The responses were codified, regrouped and analyzed through the content analysis technique. RESULTS: the interviewed women identified culinary recipes with traditional characteristics, recognizing ingredients and preparation methods that have been kept in time. Raw materials used are the same they remembered from their childhood, although they mention certain difficulties when trying to acquire those products whether it is hard to access to them, or because the economic cost of them. The change on foodstuff is not seen as a major modification to the traditional recipe. Another aspect told by the participants was the modification in the taste of the preparations. To the above, the food and preparations of yesteryear were identified as more natural and therefore, recognized as healthier. CONCLUSIONS: traditional meals allow to crisscross symbolism and significance in elder women. This show the value of the feeding process to people of that age group, being perceived as an alternative to keep a healthy diet

Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comportamento Alimentar , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Refeições/psicologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Mulheres/psicologia , Ingredientes de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Chile/epidemiologia
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228934, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059042


Limited empirical data exists on why women and minority students enter Biomedical Career Enrichment Programs (BCEPs) and how program variables-such as duration of research-influence their intention to pursue research careers. This exploratory study reports motivators for participation in BCEPs among women and racial/ethnic minority students-historically underrepresented groups-and the influence of program and personal variables on their research-career intent and self-efficacy beliefs. We studied the program variables of research experience, research duration, and mentor influence; and the personal variables of race, gender, family, and peers. Using the conceptual framework of planned behavior theory and social cognitive career theory, we interviewed students from underrepresented groups participating in BCEPs that offered research experience for short duration (Group A), long duration (Group B), and no research experience (Group C). We utilized Atlas Ti, a qualitative methodological software tool, to analyze the interview responses. Students choosing a BCEP with research experience cited "opportunity to gain experience" and "interest or curiosity in research" as motivators. Duration of research experience had a positive relationship with enhancement in research skills and self-efficacy beliefs, but did not change the initial research-career intent of these BCEP participants. The study revealed an interesting and unexpected theme of "perceived deterrents" to a career in research that included stress of competition (e.g. grants), the instability of projects, and the isolation of scientific research. Importantly, the study findings indicate the need to reform program design and science policies that challenge the current biomedical workforce and dissuade interested students from underrepresented groups from entering the field.

Escolha da Profissão , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Mulheres/psicologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Comportamento de Escolha/ética , Tomada de Decisões , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Intenção , Motivação , Projetos Piloto , Autoeficácia , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
J Urol ; 204(2): 310-315, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096679


PURPOSE: Because current knowledge about public restroom use and bladder health is limited, we sought to identify why women avoid public restrooms and the associations of lower urinary tract symptoms and toileting behaviors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between October and December 2017 we recruited a convenience sample of U.S. women to complete a cross-sectional, anonymous questionnaire about public restroom use, lower urinary tract symptoms (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms [ICIQ-FLUTS]) and toileting behavior (Web-Based Toileting Behavior [TB-WEB]). We compared women who reported limiting public restroom use all or most of the time to those who did not limit or did so occasionally or sometimes. RESULTS: Of the 6,004 women in the study 26% limited public restroom use most or all of the time and were more concerned with cleanliness than those who did not limit public restroom use. They also reported more often using nonsitting positions when away from home and holding urine to avoid public restrooms, higher ICIQ-FLUTS scores, more frequent overactive bladder and fewer than 7 voids a day. CONCLUSIONS: A large number of women reported avoiding public restrooms, often over concerns of cleanliness, availability of amenities and privacy. Women who habitually limit public restroom use more frequently reported unhealthy toilet behaviors and lower urinary tract conditions. These findings will help guide future research and inform public policy and bladder health awareness.

Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior , Toaletes , Mulheres/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Micção
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991732


A growing body of research has documented salutary associations between religious involvement and poor mental health outcomes, such as depressive symptoms and psychological distress. However, little scholarly attention has been given to the association between Buddhism, a non-Western religious faith, and depressive symptomatology in Thailand. Using random survey data collected from urban Thailand, this study examines the association between religious involvement and depressive symptoms among married women in Bangkok. Findings from multiple linear regression models reveal that (1) Buddhist respondents report significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms than their non-Buddhist counterparts, (2) the frequency of participation in religious activities is significantly and inversely associated with the level of depressive symptoms, and (3) the inverse association between religious participation and depressive symptoms is more salient for Buddhists who frequently practice their faith (i.e., significant interaction effect). Research limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

Budismo , Depressão/epidemiologia , Cônjuges/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres/psicologia , Adulto , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tailândia
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226062, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929547


BACKGROUND: Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention strategy for adherent users. Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in sub-Saharan Africa may particularly benefit from PrEP because of the disproportionate burden of HIV in this group. Understanding potential users' perceptions of and interest in using PrEP is critical to promote the utilization of PrEP by individuals at risk of HIV. METHODS: This qualitative investigation of AGYW's knowledge of and interest in PrEP use was conducted in the context of Girl Power, a quasi-experimental cohort study comparing four models of service delivery at four health centers in Lilongwe, Malawi. We conducted individual in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 40 HIV-negative AGYW ages 15-24 years old six months after enrolment in the parent study. An explanation of PrEP was provided to participants. Interview topics included participants' prior knowledge of, interest in, concerns about, and delivery preferences for PrEP. Analysis consisted of structural coding of interview transcripts corresponding to interview topics, summary of responses within these topics, and identification and description of emerging themes within each topic. RESULTS: None of the AGYW had knowledge of PrEP prior to the IDIs, but once explained, a majority expressed an interest in using it due to inconsistencies in condom use, condom use errors, their own or their partners' concurrent sexual partnerships, and rape. Most AGYW hoped that PrEP would be available in youth-friendly sections of health centers for easy access and youth-friendly counselling. They suggested that discrete packaging of PrEP would be needed to ensure user privacy. Concerns about relationship destabilization and accusations of promiscuity were raised as potential barriers to use. CONCLUSION: General interest in PrEP among AGYW was high. Discrete packaging and access to youth-friendly PrEP delivery modalities may facilitate the utilization of PrEP as a prevention strategy among sexually active AGYW. Attention to potential negative reactions from partners and community members to PrEP use will be needed when introducing PrEP to this population.

Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Mulheres/psicologia , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Malaui , Psicologia do Adolescente , Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
Disasters ; 44(2): 285-306, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231814


Gender, although gaining attention, remains under-researched in disaster risk reduction protocols and response and recovery efforts. This study examines women's experiences of two disasters in small towns in the United States, utilising qualitative interviews with residents of Granbury and West, Texas, during the first year of disaster recovery. Granbury was struck by an EF-4 tornado on 15 May 2013, whereas an explosion occurred at a local fertiliser facility in West on 17 April 2013. The paper explores how women's experiences of inter-gender power dynamics in decision-making, the prioritisation of childcare, and women's participation in the community affect their post-disaster recovery. Previous research highlights different forms of human response and recovery vis-à-vis 'natural' and technological disasters, with less attention paid to gender differences. The results point to the persistent, and similar, effect of gender stratification on women's experiences across different types of disasters in the US and the continued importance of gender-sensitive disaster policies and programmes.

Desastres , Explosões , Tornados , Mulheres/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cidades , Participação da Comunidade , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Mãe-Filho , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Texas
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200033, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101569


RESUMO: O isolamento social imposto pela pandemia da COVID-19 traz à tona, de forma potencializada, alguns indicadores preocupantes sobre a violência doméstica e a violência familiar contra a mulher. As organizações voltadas ao enfrentamento da violência doméstica já observaram aumento da violência doméstica por causa da coexistência forçada, do estresse econômico e de temores sobre o coronavírus. O artigo busca estabelecer algumas relações entre o isolamento social durante a pandemia da COVID-19 e o aumento da violência contra as mulheres, levando em conta o contexto de uma sociedade patriarcal. Foram analisados dados, ainda incipientes, publicados pela imprensa de diversos países, bem como relatórios de organizações internacionais e organizações direcionadas ao enfrentamento da violência doméstica. Paralelamente, fez-se uma breve revisão de literatura com autores que discutem o papel social da mulher na sociedade.

ABSTRACT: The social isolation imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic brings out, in a empowered way, some worrying indicators about domestic violence and family violence against women. Organizations addressing domestic violence have already seen an increase in domestic violence due to forced coexistence, economic stress and fears about the Coronavirus. The article seeks to establish some relations between social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic and the increase in violence against women, taking into account the context of a patriarchal society. Data, still incipient, published by the press of several countries were analyzed, as well as reports from international organizations and organizations focused on combating domestic violence. In parallel, a brief literature review with authors who discuss the social role of women in society.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Mulheres/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Apoio Social , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Betacoronavirus
Rev. polis psique ; 10(1): 85-106, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1102613


A maternidade por muito tempo foi considerada indispensável para a vivência feminina. Porém, nas últimas décadas, vem ocorrendo um movimento contrário a uma naturalização do sentimento materno fundamentado apenas pelo pertencimento da mulher ao gênero feminino. Este trabalho é fruto de um mestrado em andamento cujo objetivo é descrever como a concepção sobre a maternidade foi construída, bem como analisar, através do Desafio da Maternidade Real, postado na plataforma Facebook, matérias e documentários publicados no Youtube, como as pessoas se manifestam a respeito desse assunto. Através desta análise, percebemos a necessidade de alavancar a discussão também em torno de uma não maternidade. Metodologicamente, adotamos a Teoria Ator- Rede para mapear e discutir as translações efetuadas entre os diversos actantes envolvidos na controvérsia e por entendermos que os dados disponíveis na internet se constituem um excelente campo de pesquisa, uma vez que potencializam a rastreabilidade dos acontecimentos.

Maternity has long been considered indispensable for the female experience. However, in recent decades there has been a movement contrary to a naturalization of maternal sentiment based only on women's belonging to the feminine gender. This work is the result of an ongoing Master's Degree, whose objective is to describe how the conception about motherhood was built, as well as analyze through the Challenge of Real Maternity, posted on the Facebook platform, stories and documentaries published on YouTube, how people manifest themselves about this subject. Through this analysis, we perceive the need to leverage the discussion also around a non-maternity. Methodologically, we adopted the Actor-Network Theory to map and discuss the translations performed among the various actors involved in the controversy and because we understand that the data available on the Internet constitute an excellent field of research, since they potentialize the traceability of events.

La maternidad por mucho tiempo fue considerada indispensable para la vivencia femenina. Pero en las últimas décadas viene ocurriendo un movimiento contrario a una naturalización del sentimiento materno fundamentado sólo en la pertenencia de la mujer al género femenino. Este trabajo es fruto de una maestría en marcha, cuyo objetivo es describir cómo la concepción sobre la maternidad fue construida, así como analizar a través del Desafío de la Maternidad Real, publicado en la plataforma Facebook, materias y documentales publicados en Youtube, como las personas se manifiestan al respecto. A través de este análisis, percibimos la necesidad de aprovechar la discusión también en torno a una no maternidad. Metodológicamente, adoptamos la Teoría Ator-Red para mapear y discutir las translaciones efectuadas entre los diversos actores involucrados en la controversia y por entender que los datos disponibles en Internet se constituyen un excelente campo de investigación, ya que potencian la rastreabilidad de los acontecimientos.

Mulheres/psicologia , Violência contra a Mulher , Aborto , Redes Sociais Online , Mães/psicologia , Brasil , Mães/história
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 25: e44779, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1091752


RESUMO Estudos indicam que as mulheres enfrentam mais dificuldades nas áreas empresariais (gestão, contabilidade, finanças, ciências do comportamento e gestão de pessoas) do que os seus colegas homens, devido a considerações estereotipadas sobre o seu papel, que têm consequências negativas nas oportunidades no local de trabalho. Neste sentido, a liderança surge, nesta investigação, com um papel reforçado e como uma ferramenta crucial no apoio à gestão do marketing (em específico, o caso da comunicação e da publicidade) e na sua relação com o sexismo e a igualdade do género. Em específico, torna-se necessário compreender até que ponto a comunicação social e a indústria publicitária influenciam os estereótipos que vão ditar a ascensão ou não da liderança feminina. O presente trabalho visa contribuir, em nível teórico, para a compreensão deste fenómeno, reunindo alguns dos principais contributos da literatura. Estudos futuros deverão conduzir os investigadores no sentido de testar empiricamente qual o papel da liderança na definição das políticas e planos de comunicação das organizações (em específico, a promoção da igualdade de género). Numa perspetiva interdisciplinar, o presente estudo pretende contribuir para o marketing e para o comportamento organizacional. Futuros trabalhos deverão conduzir à elaboração de focus group e entrevistas em profundidade reunindo alguns agentes da tomada de decisão (na ótica da empresa) e consumidores (na ótica da procura).

RESUMEN Los estudios indican que las mujeres se enfrentan a más dificultades en las áreas empresariales (gestión, contabilidad, finanzas, ciencias de comportamiento y gestión de personas) que sus colegas varones, debido a consideraciones estereotipadas sobre su papel, que tienen consecuencias negativas en las oportunidades en el lugar de trabajo. En este sentido, el liderazgo surge en esta investigación con un papel reforzado y como una herramienta crucial en el apoyo a la gestión del marketing (en particular, el caso de la comunicación y la publicidad) y en su relación con el sexismo y la igualdad de género. En concreto, es necesario comprender hasta qué punto la comunicación social y la industria publicitaria influencian los estereotipos que van a dictar la ascensión o no del liderazgo femenino. El presente trabajo pretende contribuir, en nivel teórico, a la comprensión de este fenómeno, reuniendo algunas de las principales contribuciones de la literatura. Los estudios futuros deben conducir a los investigadores a probar empíricamente cuál es el papel del liderazgo en la definición de las políticas y planes de comunicación de las organizaciones (en particular, la promoción de la igualdad de género). En una perspectiva interdisciplinaria, el presente estudio pretende contribuir al marketing y al comportamiento organizacional. Los futuros trabajos conducen a la elaboración de focus group y entrevistas en profundidad reuniendo algunos agentes de la toma de decisión (en la óptica de la empresa) y consumidores (en la óptica de la demanda).

ABSTRACT Studies show us that women face more difficulties in business (management, accounting, finance, behavioral sciences and people management) than their male counterparts because of stereotypical considerations about their role, which have negative consequences on opportunities on the workplace. So, leadership emerges in this research with a reinforced role and as a crucial way in supporting marketing management (specifically the case of communication and advertising) and in its relation to sexism and gender equality. It is necessary to understand to what extent the media and the advertising industry influences the stereotypes that will dictate the rise or not of female leadership. The present work aims to contribute, theoretically, to the understanding of this phenomenon, gathering some of the main contributions of the existent literature. Future studies should lead researchers to empirically test the role of leadership in shaping organizations' communication policies and plans (specifically, promoting gender equality). In an interdisciplinary perspective, this study intends to contribute to marketing and to organizational behavior. Future work will help to the elaboration of a focus group and in-depth interviews bringing together some decision-making agents (in the company's perspective) and consumers (from a demand perspective).

Humanos , Feminino , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Publicidade/ética , Marketing/ética , Sexismo/psicologia , Capacidade de Liderança e Governança/ética , Administração de Recursos Humanos , Competência Profissional , Mulheres/psicologia , Trabalho/ética , Ciências do Comportamento , Características Culturais/história , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Educação/tendências , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/ética , Igualdade de Gênero , Identidade de Gênero
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(1): 52-59, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851844


Young women posting their edited face photographs on social networking sites have become a popular phenomenon, but an excessively retouched face image sometimes gives a strange impression to its viewers. This study investigates what personal characteristics facilitate a bias toward an excessively edited face image. Thirty young Asian women evaluated the attractiveness and naturalness of their face images, which were edited in eight different levels-from mild to excessive-by expanding their eyes and thinning their chin. The mildly retouched face was evaluated as more attractive than the original face, but the excessively retouched face was evaluated as unattractive and unnatural in comparison with the original face. The preferred face edit level was higher for one's own face than for others. Moreover, participants with higher autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) scores were found to regard excessively edited face images as more attractive. The attention to detail subscale of the AQ showed a significant positive correlation with the preferred face edit level. The imagination subscale, on the contrary, showed a significant negative correlation with the preferred face edit level. The pupil response for self-face images was significantly larger than those for others' face images, but this difference decreased with higher AQ scores. This study suggests that an increased attractiveness in their mildly retouched face promotes this behavior of retouching one's own face, but autistic traits, which are insensitive to the creepiness of the excessively retouched face, might pose a potential risk to inducing retouch dependence.

Face/anatomia & histologia , Fotografação , Autoimagem , Mídias Sociais , Mulheres/psicologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Adulto Jovem