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2.
JASA Express Lett ; 2(1): 015201, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36154221

RESUMO

Japanese and English use temporal cues within vowels, suggesting an audio-processing advantage for temporally-cued contrasts, while Spanish does not. Using a categorial AXB discrimination task, this study investigated how American English-speaking monolinguals and early and late Spanish-English bilinguals perceive three types of temporally-contrasting Japanese pairs: vowel length (kado/kaado), consonant length (iken/ikken), and syllable number (hjaku/hijaku). All groups performed worse than Japanese controls for the vowel length and syllable number contrasts, but only early bilinguals differed from controls for consonant length. This research contributes to a better understanding of how the first-learned language influences speech perception in a second language.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala , Meios de Contraste , Humanos , Japão , Idioma , Fonética , Estados Unidos
3.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 8195075, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156977

RESUMO

Cross-language information cognitive retrieval has grown in importance as a study area due to the multilingual character of Internet resources and the diversifying languages spoken by users. This paper analyses and illustrates the key characteristics of Japanese literature from three aspects: ideological structure, structural form, and emotional expression, and makes a straightforward comparison with Chinese literature using a number of well-known Japanese literary masterpieces as examples. An important aspect of this literature is that it is full of lingering feelings, leaving room for the readers to imagine. The lingering charm is endless, obscure, and meaningful, which is the traditional style of Japanese literature. It also focuses on the depoliticization of Japanese literature, that is, the relative separation between literature and politics. The subjectivity of Japanese writing, which goes beyond just conveying feelings but involves less objective description, is related to this. The process of cross-language information retrieval in foreign nations is primarily separated into three stages, according to the changes in research objects. Currently, adding a language conversion mechanism to a monolingual information retrieval system serves as the primary language information retrieval solution. Currently, nearly 40% of the global popularity of literature comes from Japan. In this article, the background and concept of cross-language information retrieval are introduced, and its types, system models, and several key cross-language information retrieval methods are explained, and some solutions to the factors influencing the cross-language information retrieval effect are suggested.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Cognição , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Japão
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 533-540, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073435

RESUMO

Captions have been found to benefit diverse learners, supporting comprehension, memory for content, vocabulary acquisition, and literacy. Captions may, thus, be one feature of universally designed learning (UDL) environments [1, 4]. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether captions are always useful, or whether their utility depends on individual differences, specifically proficiency in the language of the audio. To study this, we presented non-native speakers of English with an audio-visual recording of an unscripted seminar-style lesson in English retrieved from a University website. We assessed English language proficiency with an objective test. To test comprehension, we administered a ten-item comprehension test on the content of the lecture. Our secondary aim was to compare the effects of different types of captions on viewer comprehension. We, therefore, created three viewing conditions: video with no captions (NC), video with premade captions (downloaded from the university website) (UC) and video with automatically generated captions (AC). Our results showed an overall strong effect of proficiency on lecture comprehension, as expected. Interestingly, we also found that whether captions helped or not depended on proficiency and caption type. The captions provided by the University website benefited our learners only if their English language proficiency was high enough. When their proficiency was lower, however, the captions provided by the university were detrimental and performance was worse than having no captions. For the lower proficiency levels, automatic captions (AC) provided the best advantage. We attribute this finding to pre-existing characteristics of the captions provided by the university website. Taken together, these findings caution institutions with a commitment to UDL against thinking that one type of caption suits all. The study highlights the need for testing captioning systems with diverse learners, under different conditions, to better understand what factors are beneficial for whom and when.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Humanos , Idioma , Aprendizagem , Vocabulário
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 298: 19-23, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073449

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to present the use of Medical Informatics Multilingual Ontology (MIMO) to index digital health resources that are (and will be) included in SaNuRN (project to teach digital health). MIMO currently contains 1,379 concepts and is integrated into HeTOP, which is a cross-lingual multiterminogy server. Existing teaching resources have been reindexed with MIMO concepts and integrated into a dedicated website. A total of 345 resources have been indexed with MIMO concepts and are freely available at https://doccismef.chu-rouen.fr/dc/#env=sanurn. The development of a multilingual MIMO for enhancing the quality and the efficiency of international projects is challenging. A specific semantic search engine has been deployed to give access to digital health teaching resources.


Assuntos
Informática Médica , Multilinguismo , Ferramenta de Busca , Semântica
7.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 5296946, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35965766

RESUMO

Machine translation relies on parallel sentences, the number of which is an important factor affecting the performance of machine translation systems, especially in low-resource languages. Recent advances in learning cross-lingual word representations from nonparallel data by machine learning make a new possibility for obtaining bilingual sentences with minimal supervision in low-resource languages. In this paper, we introduce a novel methodology to obtain parallel sentences via only a small-size bilingual seed lexicon about hundreds of entries. We first obtain bilingual semantic by establishing cross-lingual mapping in monolingual languages via a seed lexicon. Then, we construct a deep learning classifier to extract bilingual parallel sentences. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our methodology by harvesting Uyghur-Chinese parallel sentences and constructing a machine translation system. The experiments indicate that our method can obtain large and high-accuracy bilingual parallel sentences in low-resource language pairs.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Semântica , Traduções
8.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 229: 103693, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933798

RESUMO

In bilingual word recognition, cross-language activation has been found in unimodal bilinguals (e.g., Chinese-English bilinguals) and bimodal bilinguals (e.g., American Sign language-English bilinguals). However, it remains unclear how signs' phonological parameters, spoken words' orthographic and phonological representation, and language proficiency affect cross-language activation in bimodal bilinguals. To resolve the issues, we recruited deaf Chinese sign language (CSL)-Chinese bimodal bilinguals as participants. We conducted two experiments with the implicit priming paradigm and the semantic relatedness decision task. Experiment 1 first showed cross-language activation from Chinese to CSL, and the CSL words' phonological parameter affected the cross-language activation. Experiment 2 further revealed inverse cross-language activation from CSL to Chinese. The Chinese words' orthographic and phonological representation played a similar role in the cross-language activation. Moreover, a comparison between Experiments 1 and 2 indicated that language proficiency influenced cross-language activation. The findings were further discussed with the Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (BIA+) model, the deaf BIA+ model, and the Bilingual Language Interaction Network for Comprehension of Speech (BLINCS) model.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Línguas de Sinais , China , Humanos , Idioma , Semântica
9.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 224: 105515, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933882

RESUMO

The effects of bilingualism on executive functions (EFs) and intelligence are still controversially discussed. Most studies have focused on performance differences without considering the underlying structure of cognitive abilities. Thus, we examined whether the structure of EFs and the relations of EFs with intelligence differ between mono- and bilingual children. A total of 240 elementary school children (mean age = 8 years 6 months; 133 monolinguals and 95 bilinguals) performed two tasks measuring working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and fluid intelligence, respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that one common EF factor provided the best fit to the data in both language groups, indicating that bilingualism is not associated with differences in the EF structure at this age. Moreover, there were no latent performance differences in either EFs or intelligence between mono- and bilingual children. However, we found a stronger relation between a common EF factor and fluid intelligence in bilingual children as compared with monolingual children, implying a closer coupling of EFs and intelligence abilities in bilingual children. This contributes to explaining the previous heterogeneous findings on the task level because more closely coupled cognitive functioning can be slightly beneficial for some tasks and irrelevant or even slightly obstructive for others.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Multilinguismo , Criança , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Humanos , Inteligência , Idioma , Memória de Curto Prazo
10.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(9): 3531-3538, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36044913

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Both monolingual and bilingual children use learning constraints and heuristics to acquire new words from their environment. Overall, fast mapping abilities seem to be similar in both populations, but monolinguals rely more than bilinguals on the mutual exclusivity strategy. Our study probes the robustness of these results in a large group of children learning different language combinations, with a newly devised language-fair task that relies as little as possible on previous linguistic knowledge, in order to avoid disadvantaging bilingual children. METHOD: We tested 138 3- to 5-year-old mono- and bilingual children in their dominant language (German, French, Italian, or Turkish) in a computerized task starting with a fast mapping phase, followed by a mutual exclusivity phase, using only invented nonobjects and nonwords. RESULTS: As hypothesized, monolingual and bilingual children showed similar results during the initial fast mapping stage, but monolinguals relied significantly more on the mutual exclusivity strategy than their bilingual peers. CONCLUSIONS: The language-fair design of our task supports the idea that differences in mutual exclusivity strategy use between mono- and bilingual children really stem from their specific linguistic background, and not from potential familiarity differences with respect to the test words. We discuss the implications of our results for bilingual language assessment in clinical or educational contexts. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.20669214.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Linguística
11.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(8): 3195-3216, 2022 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917458

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Twenty years ago, von Hapsburg and Peña (2002) wrote a tutorial that reviewed the literature on speech audiometry and bilingualism and outlined valuable recommendations to increase the rigor of the evidence base. This review article returns to that seminal tutorial to reflect on how that advice was applied over the last 20 years and to provide updated recommendations for future inquiry. METHOD: We conducted a focused review of the literature on masked-speech recognition for bilingual children and adults. First, we evaluated how studies published since 2002 described bilingual participants. Second, we reviewed the literature on native language masked-speech recognition. Third, we discussed theoretically motivated experimental work. Fourth, we outlined how recent research in bilingual speech recognition can be used to improve clinical practice. RESULTS: Research conducted since 2002 commonly describes bilingual samples in terms of their language status, competency, and history. Bilingualism was not consistently associated with poor masked-speech recognition. For example, bilinguals who were exposed to English prior to age 7 years and who were dominant in English performed comparably to monolinguals for masked-sentence recognition tasks. To the best of our knowledge, there are no data to document the masked-speech recognition ability of these bilinguals in their other language compared to a second monolingual group, which is an important next step. Nonetheless, individual factors that commonly vary within bilingual populations were associated with masked-speech recognition and included language dominance, competency, and age of acquisition. We identified methodological issues in sampling strategies that could, in part, be responsible for inconsistent findings between studies. For instance, disparities in socioeconomic status (SES) between recruited bilingual and monolingual groups could cause confounding bias within the research design. CONCLUSIONS: Dimensions of the bilingual linguistic profile should be considered in clinical practice to inform counseling and (re)habilitation strategies since susceptibility to masking is elevated in at least one language for most bilinguals. Future research should continue to report language status, competency, and history but should also report language stability and demand for use data. In addition, potential confounds (e.g., SES, educational attainment) when making group comparisons between monolinguals and bilinguals must be considered.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Linguística , Fala
12.
Int J Speech Lang Pathol ; 24(3): 283-293, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920691

RESUMO

Purpose: Papua New Guinea (PNG) has extreme linguistic diversity reflected in its three national languages and sociolinguistic diversity comprising over 380 vernaculars or Tokples, English and the lingua francas, which include Tok Pisin (TP). This first clinical cross-sectional study of consonant acquisition in TP-speaking children sought to identify universal features and the impact of age on phonological development.Method: A local picture naming task was developed and used to elicit a speech sample from 80 children (aged 3;0-6;11). Phonetic and phonemic inventories and developmental phonological processes were analysed across the sample and also in 12-month age groups.Result: Statistically significant differences were found between the Percentage Consonants Correct (PCC) of the 3YO and other age groups. Mean PCC increased with age, but high variation within age groups meant differences were not statistically significant. Universal features observed included the early acquisition of plosives and late mastery of /r/. Language-specific features included processes such as fricatisation and earlier acquisition of /ʤ/ before /s/. Creolisation was seen in morphophonemic condensation and the influence of loanwords.Conclusion: This study demonstrates both universal and language-specific features amidst wide diversity influencing phonological acquisition in creolising TP. This first phonological study of TP consonant development will inform future clinical speech-language pathology practice in PNG.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Papua Nova Guiné , Fonética , Medida da Produção da Fala
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(36): e2203906119, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037359

RESUMO

We exploit the phenomenon of cross-modal, cross-language activation to examine the dynamics of language processing. Previous within-language work showed that seeing a sign coactivates phonologically related signs, just as hearing a spoken word coactivates phonologically related words. In this study, we conducted a series of eye-tracking experiments using the visual world paradigm to investigate the time course of cross-language coactivation in hearing bimodal bilinguals (Spanish-Spanish Sign Language) and unimodal bilinguals (Spanish/Basque). The aim was to gauge whether (and how) seeing a sign could coactivate words and, conversely, how hearing a word could coactivate signs and how such cross-language coactivation patterns differ from within-language coactivation. The results revealed cross-language, cross-modal activation in both directions. Furthermore, comparison with previous findings of within-language lexical coactivation for spoken and signed language showed how the impact of temporal structure changes in different modalities. Spoken word activation follows the temporal structure of that word only when the word itself is heard; for signs, the temporal structure of the sign does not govern the time course of lexical access (location coactivation precedes handshape coactivation)-even when the sign is seen. We provide evidence that, instead, this pattern of activation is motivated by how common in the lexicon the sublexical units of the signs are. These results reveal the interaction between the perceptual properties of the explicit signal and structural linguistic properties. Examining languages across modalities illustrates how this interaction impacts language processing.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Línguas de Sinais , Humanos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011978

RESUMO

Recent inconsistent empirical findings on the impact of context on foreign language development (FLD) are related to some conflicting context views, which hinders healthy FLD. Given this, an ecocontextualized approach/perspective is presented as a "recipe", holding that inter-intrastratally interactive context-oriented learning starts with the alignment of implicit sound-meaning mapping (phonic listening and speaking only) with the low cognitive levels of early starters and physical objects/visual realia in the proximate context, and only when the learners' cognitive levels develop several years later can it turn to explicit formal learning through abstract written language and contents. Based on this view, a sound-meaning mapping prioritizing (SMMP) route to healthy/sustainable FLD is proposed and testified via questionnaires and an interview/oral test. Results showed: (1) SMMP early starters surpassed the non-SMMP (NSMMP) early starters (learning reading, listening, speaking, and writing simultaneously) in oral proficiency at the late stage despite their homogeneity at the early stage; (2) oral, especially listening abilities, could not be well developed at the late stage by NSMMP learners; (3) written proficiency could be developed later by both types. These findings reveal the SMMP route to healthy/sustainable FLD in the Chinese context.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aprendizagem , Leitura
15.
Infant Behav Dev ; 68: 101753, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944297

RESUMO

Although linguistic and nonlinguistic cues help young children infer meaning when presented with unfamiliar words, little is known about how syntactic information and early bilingual experience shape word learning. This study examined how monolingual and bilingual 24- to 30-month-olds' disambiguation of novel words during a mutual exclusivity task differs as a function of syntactic cues, age, and productive vocabulary. English monolinguals and Spanish-English bilinguals were presented with familiar and novel objects within a syntactic context (e.g., "Give me the blick!") or in isolation (e.g., "Blick!"). Results showed that monolinguals and bilinguals adhered to mutual exclusivity more often when provided with syntactic cues than when those cues were absent. Furthermore, bilinguals' mutually exclusive disambiguation of novel words increased with age, but only when syntactic cues were available. These results provide insight into factors that influence children's disambiguation of novel words. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Sinais (Psicologia) , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Vocabulário
16.
Qual Health Res ; 32(12): 1843-1857, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36017592

RESUMO

Doctors and patients rely on verbal and nonverbal resources to co-construct clinical empathy. In language-discordant consultations, interpreters' communicative actions might compromise this process. We aim to explore doctors, patients, and professional interpreters' perspectives on their own and others' actions during their empathic interaction in interpreter-mediated consultations (IMCs). We analyzed 20 video stimulated recall interviews with doctors, patients, and interpreters using qualitative content analysis. Doctors and patients found ways to connect with each other on the level of empathic communication (EC) that is not limited by interpreters' alterations or disengaged demeanor. Some aspects of doctors and interpreters' professional practices might jeopardize the co-construction of EC in IMCs. The co-construction of EC in IMCs is not only subject to participants' communicative (inter)actions, but also to organizational and subjective factors. These results provide evidence of the transactional process between the behavioral, cognitive, and affective components of clinical empathy in the context of IMCs.


Assuntos
Empatia , Multilinguismo , Comunicação , Barreiras de Comunicação , Humanos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Tradução
17.
J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ ; 27(4): 324-337, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35989645

RESUMO

Increasing cultural and linguistic diversity among children and families brings new challenges for early intervention professionals. The purpose of this study was to identify the specific roles and needs of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who practice in early intervention settings with culturally and linguistically diverse families of d/Deaf multilingual learners (DMLs). Thirteen SLPs completed an online survey about their practices and needs. Interviews were conducted with five parents of DMLs. Results showed that SLPs have lower self-satisfaction with families of DMLs compared to mainstream families. Parents were highly satisfied with the support they received. Both groups of participants reported a need for specific tools or adaptations, especially if there was no shared language. Thematic analysis identified three themes: communication and partnership, professional resources for responding to diversity, and diversity of parental profiles. This article provides an insight into the perspectives of both professionals and culturally and linguistically diverse parents, and identifies specific aspects of early intervention services with parents of DMLs: developing partnership in the context of cultural and/or linguistic differences, discussing topics related to multilingualism, and providing highly adaptable family-centered services.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Comunicação , Multilinguismo , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Criança , Diversidade Cultural , Humanos , Pais , Patologistas , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Fala
18.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 558, 2022 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have established that foreign language anxiety (FLA) has a significant impact on learners' language acquisition and performance. FLA is a unique form of anxiety that occurs in response to a certain circumstance. Even though a growing amount of research has extended to the examination of skill-based anxiety in specific, such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing, little used corresponding skilled-based FLA scales to assess learners' skill-based FLA at one group of learners. To fill a void in this line of research, the study aimed to explore learners' primary FLA by comparing their four language skill-specific FLAs with four different skill-based FLA scales. Additionally, we wished to investigate the variables that influence learners' FLA. METHODS: All participants in the study were first-year medical students. Individual instructors delivered and collected a total of 1023 questionnaires using an open questionnaire platform during normal English lessons in the mid-semester. SPSS 24.0 (Statistical Package for Social Science 24 version) was used to analyze all statistics. Internal validity tests were undertaken on each scale to ascertain the component structure of certain modified scales. The study employed the independent sample t-test and a statistical description to investigate students' major FLA and its variables. RESULTS: With a mean value of 106.863, the predominant FLA arouses from English listening anxiety. English reading anxiety was the lowest, with a mean score of 62.726. Male and female students both demonstrated the greatest degree of FLA in English listening and the least anxiety in English reading. However, their mean difference was not statistically significant (t = 1.220). By comparing the mean scores for four skill-based FLAs across language proficiency groups, it became clear that the scores for the medium were much higher than the average, with average scores of ESA: 91.988, ELA: 106.864, EWA: 74.157, ERA: 62.726, respectively, and the higher-level group scored lower than the average. Students' prior English learning achievements are negatively connected with their FLA, with r values of -.207 (ELA), -.143 (EWA), and - .204 (ERA). The self-evaluation of students' English listening, writing, and reading abilities was considerably adversely connected with FLA, but the self-evaluation of their English-speaking abilities was favorably correlated with FLA. CONCLUSION: A comparison of students' FLA revealed that the primary skill-based FLA is related to English listening anxiety. Regardless of gender or language proficiency level, FLA was mainly driven by foreign language listening anxiety in all individuals. Prior language achievement and students' self-evaluation are associated with their FLA.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Estudantes de Medicina , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , China , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino
19.
Ann Dyslexia ; 72(3): 532-551, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920971

RESUMO

This study examined whether syntactic awareness was related to reading comprehension difficulties in either first language (L1) Chinese or second language (L2) English, or both, among Hong Kong Chinese-English bilingual children. Parallel L1 and L2 metalinguistic and reading measures, including syntactic word-order, morphological awareness, phonological awareness, vocabulary, word reading, reading comprehension, and cognitive measures of nonverbal intelligence and working memory, were administered to 224 fourth-graders. Five groups of comprehenders were identified using a regression approach: (1) 12 poor in Chinese-only (PC), (2) 18 poor in English-only (PE), (3) six poor in both Chinese and English (PB), (4) 14 average in both Chinese and English (AB), and (5) seven good in both (GB). The results of multivariate analyses of covariance showed that (1) the PB group performed worse than the AB and GB groups in both L1 Chinese and L2 English syntactic awareness; (2) the PC and PE groups performed worse than the AB and GB groups in Chinese syntactic awareness; (3) the PE group had lower performance than the PC, AB, and GB groups in English syntactic awareness; and (4) no significant group difference was found in L2 morphological awareness or vocabulary across both languages. By suggesting that weakness in syntactic awareness can serve as a universal indicator for identifying poor comprehenders in either or both L1 Chinese and L2 English among Hong Kong Chinese-English bilingual children, these findings demonstrate the fundamental role of syntactic awareness in bilingual reading comprehension.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Multilinguismo , Criança , Cognição , Hong Kong , Humanos , Idioma , Leitura
20.
Cognition ; 229: 105236, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027789

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests a broad relationship between individual differences in auditory processing ability and the rate and ultimate attainment of language acquisition throughout the lifespan, including post-pubertal second language (L2) speech learning. However, little is known about how the precision of processing of specific auditory dimensions relates to the acquisition of specific L2 segmental contrasts. In the context of 100 late Japanese-English bilinguals with diverse profiles of classroom and immersion experience, the current study set out to investigate the link between the perception of several auditory dimensions (F3 frequency, F2 frequency, and duration) in non-verbal sounds and English [r]-[l] perception and production proficiency. Whereas participants' biographical factors (the presence/absence of immersion) accounted for a large amount of variance in the success of learning this contrast, the outcomes were also tied to their acuity to the most reliable, new auditory cues (F3 variation) and the less reliable but already-familiar cues (F2 variation). This finding suggests that individuals can vary in terms of how they perceive, utilize, and make the most of information conveyed by specific acoustic dimensions. When perceiving more naturalistic spoken input, where speech contrasts can be distinguished via a combination of numerous cues, some can attain a high-level of L2 speech proficiency by using nativelike and/or non-nativelike strategies in a complementary fashion.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala , Percepção Auditiva , Humanos , Idioma , Fonética
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