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1.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 281: 516-517, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042628

RESUMO

Reproduction of knowledge, especially tacit knowledge can be expensive during a pandemic. One of the most common causes is the reduced information accessibility during the translation process. Having the ability to assess the linguistic complexity of any given contents could potentially improve knowledge reproduction. Authors conduct two cross-linguistic studies on the World Health Organization (WHO)'s emergency learning platform to assess the linguistic complexity of two online courses in 10 languages. Morpho-syntactically annotated treebanks, unannotated materials from Wikipedia and language-specific corpora are set as control groups. Preliminary findings reveal a clear reduced complexity of learning contents in the most candidate languages while retaining the maximum amount of information. Creating a baseline study on low-resourced languages on the learning genre could be potentially useful for measuring impact of normative products at country and local level.


Assuntos
Linguística , Multilinguismo , Idioma , Pandemias , Organização Mundial da Saúde
2.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 281: 377-381, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042769

RESUMO

Transfer learning has demonstrated its potential in natural language processing tasks, where models have been pre-trained on large corpora and then tuned to specific tasks. We applied pre-trained transfer models to a Spanish biomedical document classification task. The main goal is to analyze the performance of text classification by clinical specialties using state-of-the-art language models for Spanish, and compared them with the results using corresponding models in English and with the most important pre-trained model for the biomedical domain. The outcomes present interesting perspectives on the performance of language models that are pre-trained for a particular domain. In particular, we found that BioBERT achieved better results on Spanish texts translated into English than the general domain model in Spanish and the state-of-the-art multilingual model.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Feminino , Idioma , Aprendizagem , Aprendizado de Máquina
3.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 216: 103308, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892263

RESUMO

We examined whether and how language produced by others influences self-language processes. This study addressed this issue by looking at effects of comprehension on language switching in cued and voluntary switching contexts. During voluntary language switching, Chinese-English bilinguals were more likely to repeat the language they previously used themselves than to repeat the language produced by others. Furthermore, during both voluntary and cued language switching, bilinguals showed larger switch costs when switching between languages themselves than when switching after hearing another language. This suggests that cross-language interference may primarily stem from the self-language system rather than from language produced by others.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Compreensão , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos
6.
Brain Nerve ; 73(3): 203-210, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678611

RESUMO

Multilingualism is merely a parametric variation in the faculty of natural language, and it is possible to simultaneously acquire multiple languages, including dialects, at any age. While acquisition of a native language, which occurs in synchrony with development of the brain, is a multiple-step process, second language acquisition is continuous. Here, we introduce the Cumulative-Enhancement model, which states that acquisition of one additional language is beneficial for the subsequent acquisition of another. We further discuss how syntax-related networks, including multiple language areas in the brain, become functional during the course of language acquisition.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem
7.
Brain Nerve ; 73(3): 211-215, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678612

RESUMO

Wernicke's receptive speech area in a multilingual has separately located areas, each specific for a respective language. Such specific areas will not be established by learning respective languages through grammatical literal translation. Effective foreign language education is to establish a restricted area within the receptive speech area specific to the language to be learned by listening and conversation training.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Fala
8.
Brain Nerve ; 73(3): 217-222, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678613

RESUMO

It has been well recognized that patients with comparable dementia severity may show different levels of brain pathology. This is commonly explained by cognitive or brain reserve theory: patients with more reserve can tolerate more severe brain pathologies because the reserve can compensate for the neuropathological processes. Various life experiences contribute to the reserve, one of which may be multilingualism. Multilinguals need to select the appropriate language for a conversational partner and to keep other languages inactivated. Such experiences reinforce the multilingual executive functions, and change neuroanatomical and neurophysiological features of the brain, which some researchers propose can serve as a reserve and prevent dementia. The earliest such report was Bialystok et al.'s (2007) paper, which demonstrated multilinguals showing signs of dementia approximately four years later than monolinguals. This finding seemed to support the hypothesis of multilingualism as a reserve, and was followed by many other reports testing the same. Notwithstanding the initial excitement, the data obtained so far have been mixed at best in terms of the possibility of multilingualism influencing the neuropathological processes of dementia. This paper summarizes recent findings on multilingualism and the reserve theory, and discusses identified research issues that need to be resolved.


Assuntos
Reserva Cognitiva , Multilinguismo , Encéfalo , Função Executiva , Humanos , Idioma
9.
Brain Nerve ; 73(3): 223-229, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678614

RESUMO

Our studies in Brazil and Taiwan revealed that the prevalence of dementia was independent of environment, culture, and use of multilingualism. However, language deterioration in dementia was found to be related to its frequency of use and the environment, and both language, and deterioration were asymmetric. Although the cognitive reserve and protective effect of multilingualism on dementia were shown, the decline in language function was found to be related to psychiatric symptoms of dementia, delusions, and depression which were relieved by providing a reliable language environment. It was suggested that language function evaluation should be considered for dementia care.


Assuntos
Reserva Cognitiva , Demência , Multilinguismo , Brasil/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Humanos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
10.
Brain Nerve ; 73(3): 231-238, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678615

RESUMO

Multilingual aphasia is synonymous with polyglot aphasia and is often indistinguishable from bilingual aphasia. Multilingual aphasia, including bilingual aphasia, has been of interest from the perspectives of impairment and recovery patterns in each language, factors involved in recovery, and variations in cerebral lateralization of language function in each language. Early premorbid language proficiency and language use have been shown to play a crucial role in the manifestation of bilingual aphasia. Paradis (1989) classified the recovery pattern from bilingual aphasia into nine patterns and demonstrated that multiple variables, including age of language acquisition and language proficiency are involved in multiple dimensions. Previous studies on crossed aphasia have suggested the involvement of the right hemisphere in the cerebral lateralization of language function. However, a subsequent meta-analysis demonstrated that early bilingual individuals who acquired both languages by the age of 6 years had a bilateral organization of both languages. In contrast, late bilingual and monolingual individuals who acquired a second language after the age of 6 years had the lateralization of language function in the left hemisphere for both languages.


Assuntos
Afasia , Multilinguismo , Afasia/diagnóstico , Afasia/etiologia , Criança , Humanos , Idioma
11.
Brain Nerve ; 73(3): 247-255, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678616

RESUMO

Language mapping is commonly practiced in brain tumors and epilepsy surgeries. It is done by direct electrical stimulation of the brain during awake craniotomy or by placing subdural electrodes on the brain's surface, or both. Studies of the language mapping in bi- or multi-lingual patients have concluded that they have both "language-specific areas," in which symptoms are evoked upon stimulation in one specific language and not in the other languages, and "common areas" or "overlapping areas," in which positive findings are evoked in all languages evaluated. The distribution of the pattern of language areas associated with each language, however, varies widely from patient to patient due to multiple factors such as the age of language acquisition, the language proficiency level, the amount of exposure to each language, the location of the lesions, the duration of the diseases, and other factors. Language mapping in bi- or multi-lingual patients should be done by screening all languages the patient speaks.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Multilinguismo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estimulação Elétrica , Humanos , Idioma
13.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 57(3): 316-317, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728783
14.
Trends Cogn Sci ; 25(5): 355-364, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771449

RESUMO

Cognitive reserve is characterized by a dissociation between cognitive level and brain structure, thereby reducing the impact of deteriorating brain structure on cognitive function. Cognitive reserve is therefore a promising approach to maintaining cognitive function and protecting against symptoms of dementia. The present paper evaluates evidence supporting the claim that bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve. Four types of evidence are presented: (i) brain and cognitive function in healthy aging, (ii) age of onset of symptoms of dementia, (iii) relation between clinical level and neuropathology for patients, and (iv) rate of cognitive decline in later stages of dementia. In all cases, bilinguals revealed patterns that were consistent with the interpretation of protection from cognitive reserve when compared with monolinguals.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Reserva Cognitiva , Multilinguismo , Encéfalo , Cognição , Humanos
15.
Cogn Process ; 22(2): 339-351, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591489

RESUMO

This study investigated whether a short training (8 weeks) in the second-language (English) has any facilitative effect on components of executive functions in young adults. A pre-post design was used with two groups of participants: one group (experimental group) of students received English language training for eight weeks, and another group (control group) matched on age and background did not. Executive function tasks (Flanker, Stroop, and color-shape switching task) along with the object naming and working memory tasks were administered before and after the training. We observed that the experimental group demonstrated significant improvement in task switching, working memory capacity, and language skills. Findings from the study provide evidence that short training in second-language can enhance some components of executive functions besides improving language skills in young adult students. This finding contributes to a better understanding of language training and executive function among young adult bilinguals.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Multilinguismo , Humanos , Idioma , Memória de Curto Prazo , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401547

RESUMO

Children from low-SES (socioeconomic status) and minority language immigrant families are at risk of vocabulary difficulties due to the less varied and complex language in the home environment. Children are less likely to be involved in home language activities (HLA) in interaction with adults in low-SES than in higher-SES families. However, few studies have investigated the HLA variability among low-SES, minority language bilingual immigrant families. This longitudinal study analyzes the frequency and duration of HLA and their predictive roles for expressive vocabulary acquisition in 70 equivalent low-SES monolingual and bilingual toddlers from minority contexts. HLA and vocabulary were assessed at 24 and 30 months in the majority language (Italian) and in total (majority+minority language) using parent and teacher reports. The frequency and duration of HLA in interaction with adults in total, but not in the majority language, at 24 months were similar for the two groups. These activities uniquely accounted for expressive vocabulary at 30 months, after accounting for total vocabulary at 24 months, in both groups. In conclusion, a minority-majority language context is not an additional risk factor for vocabulary acquisition if HLA is considered in interaction with adults in both languages. HLA are proximal environmental protective factors for vocabulary acquisition.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Pobreza , Vocabulário , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Multilinguismo , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 83(4): 1878-1896, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398659

RESUMO

Bilinguals' observed perceptual shift across language contexts for shared acoustic properties between their languages supports the idea that bilinguals, but not monolinguals, develop two phonemic representations for the same acoustic property. This phenomenon is known as the double phonemic boundary. This investigation replicated previous findings of bilinguals' double phonemic boundary across a series of go/no-go tasks while controlling for known confounding effects in speech perception (i.e., contrast effects) and differences in resource allocation between bilinguals and monolinguals (i.e., left-hand or right-hand response). Using a range-base language cueing approach, we designed 2 experiments. The first experiment tested whether a voice onset time (VOT) range representative of either Spanish or English phonetic categories can cue bilinguals, but not monolinguals, to use language-specific perceptual routines. The second experiment tested a VOT range with a mixture of Spanish and English phonetic categories to determine whether directing attention to a specific phonetic category can disambiguate the competition of the nonattended category. The results for Experiment 1 showed that bilinguals can rely on the distributional patterns of their native phonetic categories to activate specific language modes. Experiment 2 showed that attention can change the weight given to a native phonetic distinction. However, this process is restricted by the internal phonetic composition of the native language(s).


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Idioma , Fonética
18.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0232671, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400694

RESUMO

This study examined the effect of using a digital game-based language learning mobile application "Liulishuo" (speaking English fluently) to develop complexity, accuracy, and fluency of English monologic oral production among 30 English language learners in China. Monologic oral production was measured using the same narrative picture description task in pre- and post-tests. The learners followed the "Imitation of English Monologues" game 30 minutes each time, twice a week, for 20 weeks. The oral production was measured using six indices: the mean words per T-unit and lexical density (i.e., complexity), the mean repairs and errors per 100 words (i.e., accuracy), speech rate and the mean length of pauses (i.e., fluency). The paired sample t-tests showed that the participants produced more complex monologic speech, had significantly fewer errors, and increased speech rate, but the mean repairs and mean length of pauses remained unchanged. The unchanged repairs and pauses could be possibly due to the non-proceduralized linguistic knowledge in oral production, which may require a more extended period of treatment. Our study showed positive effects of using a digital game-based language learning mobile application on the improvement of complexity, accuracy, and fluency of English language learners in China' monologic oral production with varying effects.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Linguística/métodos , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aplicativos Móveis , Multilinguismo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 52(1): 225-238, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464985

RESUMO

Purpose Children with autism have an increased likelihood of reading difficulties. The reasons for this are numerous and varied, but many children with autism can learn to read when they are provided with evidence-based early reading instruction. Method Here, we provide an overview of some of the factors that impact early reading development for children with autism and a rationale for the provision of comprehensive early reading instruction consistent with the recommendations of the National Reading Panel (NRP). We discuss research on NRP instruction for children with autism, including some of our own empirical studies. We also discuss some areas of research that were not emphasized by the NRP but that we view as important. We offer recommendations that extend beyond NRP guidelines in order to advance knowledge and improve practice. Conclusions Comprehensive early reading instruction holds great promise for children with autism, but there are gaps in our understanding that need to be addressed. These include the most effective method(s) for tailoring reading instruction to the needs of the individual while optimizing delivery to small groups of children, supporting skills and making other accommodations not outlined by the NRP, and consideration of bilingualism and of reading instruction in languages other than English, among other issues. While our focus in this review article is early reading instruction for children with autism who use oral language, we acknowledge that there is a major gap in the literature concerning reading instruction for those who do not use oral language. We hope that this review article will be helpful to clinicians, educators, and researchers alike, as well as children with autism and their families, friends, and support networks.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Compreensão , Idioma , Multilinguismo , Leitura , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino
20.
Neuroimage ; 227: 117586, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346131

RESUMO

Acquiring a new language requires individuals to simultaneously and gradually learn linguistic attributes on multiple levels. Here, we investigated how this learning process changes the neural encoding of natural speech by assessing the encoding of the linguistic feature hierarchy in second-language listeners. Electroencephalography (EEG) signals were recorded from native Mandarin speakers with varied English proficiency and from native English speakers while they listened to audio-stories in English. We measured the temporal response functions (TRFs) for acoustic, phonemic, phonotactic, and semantic features in individual participants and found a main effect of proficiency on linguistic encoding. This effect of second-language proficiency was particularly prominent on the neural encoding of phonemes, showing stronger encoding of "new" phonemic contrasts (i.e., English contrasts that do not exist in Mandarin) with increasing proficiency. Overall, we found that the nonnative listeners with higher proficiency levels had a linguistic feature representation more similar to that of native listeners, which enabled the accurate decoding of language proficiency. This result advances our understanding of the cortical processing of linguistic information in second-language learners and provides an objective measure of language proficiency.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonética , Adulto Jovem
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