Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.165
Filtrar
1.
Orv Hetil ; 161(32): 1322-1330, 2020 08.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750020

RESUMO

International migration is a current and growing phenomenon, which has become an increasingly critical issue in Europe since 2013 and this has posed new challenges to the healthcare systems of the European Union (EU). The need for 'culturally competent' healthcare systems that can adapt and respond to the needs of a changing population while taking into account cultural, religious, linguistic and gender diversity, has become more and more an agenda across Europe. Nowadays, it is widely accepted that inequalities in health conditions are mainly due to socio-economic factors, and disparities are particularly evident among certain ethnic and cultural minority groups. Additionally, minorities often face difficulties during their attempts in accessing healthcare, including linguistic and cultural barriers. These barriers are primarily manifested in communication and other interactions between the patient and the healthcare provider. Communication difficulties and misunderstandings may lead to frustration and prejudice among caregivers and also to a lack of cooperation from patients, and consequently, may contribute to poorer health outcomes. Therefore, in order to ensure the highest quality of care for migrants, ethnic or other minority populations in our increasingly diverse societies, it is of crucial importance to overcome the difficulties arising from linguistic, cultural and religious differences. To achieve these goals, an important step is the development of intercultural competences within the healthcare system. Our paper discusses the concept, content and opportunities for the development of intercultural competence in clinical and healthcare settings. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(32): 1322-1330.


Assuntos
Barreiras de Comunicação , Competência Cultural , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Comunicação , Diversidade Cultural , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Hungria , Grupos Minoritários , Multilinguismo , Migrantes
2.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 270: 18-22, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570338

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop a simple method to map the French International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision (ICD-10) with the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10 CM). We sought to map these terminologies forward (ICD-10 to ICD-10 CM) and backward (ICD-10 CM to ICD-10) and to assess the accuracy of these two mappings. We used several terminology resources such as the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, Bioportal, the latest version available of the French ICD-10 and several official mapping files between different versions of the ICD-10. We first retrieved existing partial mapping between the ICD-10 and the ICD-10 CM. Then, we automatically matched the ICD-10 with the ICD-10-CM, using our different reference mapping files. Finally, we used manual review and natural language processing (NLP) to match labels between the two terminologies. We assessed the accuracy of both methods with a manual review of a random dataset from the results files. The overall matching was between 94.2 and 100%. The backward mapping was better than the forward one, especially regarding exact matches. In both cases, the NLP step was highly accurate. When there are no available experts from the ontology or NLP fields for multi-lingual ontology matching, this simple approach enables secondary reuse of Electronic Health Records (EHR) and billing data for research purposes in an international context.


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Multilinguismo , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Idioma , Unified Medical Language System
3.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 270: 347-351, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570404

RESUMO

The amount of digital data derived from healthcare processes have increased tremendously in the last years. This applies especially to unstructured data, which are often hard to analyze due to the lack of available tools to process and extract information. Natural language processing is often used in medicine, but the majority of tools used by researchers are developed primarily for the English language. For developing and testing natural language processing methods, it is important to have a suitable corpus, specific to the medical domain that covers the intended target language. To improve the potential of natural language processing research, we developed tools to derive language specific medical corpora from publicly available text sources. n order to extract medicine-specific unstructured text data, openly available pub-lications from biomedical journals were used in a four-step process: (1) medical journal databases were scraped to download the articles, (2) the articles were parsed and consolidated into a single repository, (3) the content of the repository was de-scribed, and (4) the text data and the codes were released. In total, 93 969 articles were retrieved, with a word count of 83 868 501 in three different languages (German, English, and Spanish) from two medical journal databases Our results show that unstructured text data extraction from openly available medical journal databases for the construction of unified corpora of medical text data can be achieved through web scraping techniques.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados , Multilinguismo , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Unified Medical Language System
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234928, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579582

RESUMO

Are bilinguals more creative than monolinguals? Some prior research suggests bilinguals are more creative because the knowledge representations for their second language are similarly structured to those of highly creative people. However, there is contrasting research showing that the knowledge representations of bilinguals' second language are actually structured like those of less creative people. Finally, there is growing skepticism about there being differences between bilinguals and monolinguals on non-language tasks (e.g., the bilingual advantage for executive control). We tested whether bilinguals tested in their second language are more or less creative than both monolinguals and bilinguals tested in their first language. Participants also took a repeated semantic fluency test that we used to estimate individual semantic networks for each participant. We analyzed our results with Bayesian statistics and found support for the null hypothesis that bilingualism offers no advantage for creativity. Further, using best practices for estimating semantic networks, we found support for the hypothesis that there is no association between an individual's semantic network and their creativity. This is in contrast with published research, and suggests that some of those findings may have been the result of idiosyncrasies, outdated methods for estimating semantic networks, or statistical noise. Our results call into question reported relations between bilingualism and creativity, as well as semantic network structure as an explanatory mechanism for individual differences in creativity.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Multilinguismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234699, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544210

RESUMO

Bilingualism was implemented in the Community of Madrid (Spain) more than ten years ago, through the incorporation of the English language in the teaching methods of certain schools. Since that time, various research projects have been carried out, with the objective of comparing the academic performance of students in bilingual schools with those in non-bilingual schools. The present paper makes use of primary education data from the Department of Education and Research for the Community of Madrid in an effort to analyze whether or not bilingualism results in the relative improvement of educational outcomes achieved in primary schools in the Region of Madrid, in Spain. More specifically, the data used is from sixth grade classrooms, given that, generally speaking, in this grade all schools give a standardized test which measures academic performance in Math, Science and Technology, Spanish Language Arts and English Language Arts. Our assessment makes use of a multinomial logit model, and includes the most common variables found in the research on the determination of educational outcomes (variables related to whether or not schools are bilingual, which is the main focus of this paper), as well as other less common variables considered to be relevant. These include absenteeism, satisfaction levels among families and students, and the percentage of students in second chance programs. The results show that bilingualism does not lower children performance in the subjects taught in English or in the subjects taught in Spanish. Academic performance in Mathematics, Science and Technology, and Spanish Language Arts is similar with respect to those schools which are not bilingual. However, results in English are significantly higher in bilingual schools when compared to non-bilingual schools.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/normas , Sucesso Acadêmico , Multilinguismo , Criança , Humanos , Estudos de Linguagem/normas , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Espanha , Estudantes
6.
Soins ; 65(843-844): 47-50, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563510

RESUMO

Children of migrants develop and grow up with two languages, that of their family and that learnt at school, and within the two corresponding worlds. This transcultural situation entails a degree of vulnerability, and these children need to learn to reconcile the two worlds. In the setting of care, these different worlds and languages should be taken into account for what they are. This is an ethical requirement, and also a pragmatic approach, contributing to the efficacy of the care of these children. In this article we analyse the factors to take into account for all to provide adequate care for children of migrants, and we explore the modes of referral to specialised transcultural consultations if necessary.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Multilinguismo , Migrantes , Criança , Humanos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231089, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348318

RESUMO

How well L2 English is understood and how L2 English speakers perceive one another within varying communication contexts has been studied relatively rarely, even though most speakers of English in the world are L2 speakers. In this matched-guise experiment (N = 1699) the effects of L1 and L2 English accents and communication context were tested on speech understandability (intelligibility, comprehensibility, interpretability) and speaker evaluations (status, affect, dynamism). German (N = 617), Spanish (N = 540), and Singaporean listeners (N = 542) were asked to evaluate three accents (Dutch-accented English, standard British English, standard American English) in three communication contexts (Lecture, Audio Tour, Job Pitch). The main finding is that the Dutch-accented English accent was understood as well as the two L1 English accents. Furthermore, Dutch-accented English evoked equally positive evaluations to the two L1 English accents in German listeners, and more positive evaluations than the two L1 English accents in Spanish and Singaporean listeners. These results suggest that accent training aimed at achieving an L1 English accent may not always be necessary for (Dutch) English language learners, especially when they are expected to mostly interact with other L2 speakers of English. More generally, our results indicate that L2 English speakers' understanding and their evaluation of L1 and L2 Englishes would not seem to reflect traditional language norms. Instead, they seem to reflect the socio-cultural embedding of a language norm in a Lingua Franca English speech community that does not view accent varieties as a hindrance to successful communication.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Singapura , Espanha , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230710, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243455

RESUMO

When speaking a foreign language, non-native speakers can typically be readily identified by their accents. But which aspects of the speech signal determine such accents? Speech pauses occur in all languages but may nonetheless vary in different languages with regard to their duration, number or positions in the speech stream, and therefore are one potential contributor to foreign speech production. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether non-native speakers pause 'with a foreign accent'. We recorded native English speakers and non-native speakers of German or Serbo-Croatian with excellent English reading out an English text at three different speech rates, and analyzed their vocal output in terms of number, duration and location of pauses. Overall, all non-native speakers were identified by native raters as having non-native accents, but native and non-native speakers made pauses that were similarly long, and had similar ratios of pause time compared to total speaking time. Furthermore, all speakers changed their pausing behavior similarly at different speech rates. The only clear difference between native and non-native speakers was that the latter made more pauses than the native speakers. Thus, overall, pause patterns contributed little to the acoustic characteristics of speakers' non-native accents, when reading aloud. Non-native pause patterns might be acquired more easily than other aspects of pronunciation because pauses are perceptually salient and producing pauses is easy. Alternatively, general cognitive processing mechanisms such as attention, planning or memory may constrain pausing behavior, allowing speakers to transfer their native pause patterns to a second language without significant deviation. We conclude that pauses make a relatively minor contribution to the acoustic characteristics of non-native accents.


Assuntos
Fala , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231288, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315339

RESUMO

We evaluate brain structure sensitivity to verbal interference in a sentence interpretation task, building on previously reported evidence that those with better control of verbal interference show higher grey matter density in the posterior paravermis of the right cerebellum. We compare brain structure sensitivity to verbal interference control across two groups, English monolingual (N = 41) and multilingual (N = 46) adults. Using voxel-based morphometry, our primary goal was to identify and explore differences in regional patterns of grey matter sensitivity to performance on the sentence interpretation task, controlling for group variability in age, nonverbal reasoning and vocabulary knowledge. There was no group difference in performance but there was a significant group effect in grey matter sensitivity to task performance in our region of interest: stronger sensitivity in the paravermis in bilinguals compared to monolinguals in accuracy performance in the high (relative to low) verbal interference condition. This effect was observed when the linguistic interference was presented in an unfamiliar language (Greek) but not when presented in the familiar language (English). Our findings suggest that multilanguage acquisition mediates regional involvement within the language network, conferring enhanced functional plasticity within structures (including the paravermis) in the service of control of linguistic interference.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230412, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203524

RESUMO

Much of the literature surrounding bilingual spoken word recognition is based on bilinguals of non-tonal languages. In the Mandarin spoken word recognition literature, lexical tones are often considered as equally important as segments in lexical processing. It is unclear whether and how lexical tones contribute to bilingual language processing. One recent study demonstrates that tonal bilinguals require the availability of both tonal and segmental information to induce cross-language lexical competition during bilingual lexical access, even without phonological overlap between the target and non-target language. The current study investigates whether overt phonological overlap between the target and non-target language would equally require both tonal and segmental information available to induce cross-language lexical competition. We employed two auditory lexical decision experiments with both Mandarin-English bilinguals and English monolinguals to test whether inter-lingual homophones (IH) would induce lexical competition from the non-target language, L1 Mandarin. Our results show that cross-language lexical competition was only observed with the presence of lexical tones, in addition to segmental overlap.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Semântica , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , China , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Fonética , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
11.
J Vis Exp ; (156)2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176205

RESUMO

The Stroop task in its many variations has been used in fields such as psychology, linguistics, and neuroscience to examine questions regarding the automaticity of reading, language processing, and cognitive control, among others. When looking at bilingual individuals, this task can be used to obtain measures of language interference and control in both a bilingual's first language (L1) and second language (L2), as well as for testing the bilingual advantage hypothesis. The Stroop task presents participants with color terms written in congruent colors (e.g., the word RED written in red font), incongruent colors (e.g., the word RED written in green font), in addition to noncolor terms for control (e.g., the word TREE presented in any color), and uses the reaction times from the different conditions to assess the degree of interference and facilitation. In the covert version of the Stroop bilingual task (i.e., participants respond by pressing a button rather than naming aloud), stimuli in the L1 and the L2 are typically presented in separate blocks. While this allows for a simple, yet effective assessment of processing and cognitive control in each language, it fails to capture any potential differences in processing and control within bilingual young adult groups. The present task combines single-language blocks with a novel mixed-language block to increase the level of difficulty of the task, thus making it suitable for testing cognitive control in young adults. Representative results showing differences between performance in the single-language vs. mixed-language blocks are presented, and the benefits of a mixed-language block are discussed.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Teste de Stroop , Protocolos Clínicos , Percepção de Cores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Leitura , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230575, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the clinical dental consultation, multi-party configurations predominate with the presence of parents/ primary caregivers in pediatric dentistry adding another layer of complexity. In managing child oral healthcare, parents/ primary caregivers are critical, especially in dental caries prevention. This study aimed (1) to identify the structure of oral health literacy (OHL) talk in interpreter-mediated pediatric dentistry and (2) to analyze interpreter contributions to the communication strategies: patient-centered direct interpreting (PC-DI), patient-centered mediated interpreting (PC-MI), clinician-centered direct interpreting (CC-DI), and clinician-centered mediated interpreting (CC-MI). METHODS: Visual text analysis (VTA) of video recorded pediatric clinical consultations in Hong Kong utilized Discursis™ software to illustrate temporal and topical structures and their distribution across turns-at-talk. Conversation analysis (CA) was applied to analyze turn-taking of the identified OHL talk qualitatively. The mixed-method approach of combining VTA and CA was applied to analyze the patterns and features of the recorded OHL talk. RESULTS: The conceptual recurrences of the 77 transcribed video recordings were plotted visually. CC- and PC-OHL talk were identified by the recurrence patterns of monochromatic and multi-colored triangular clusters formed by off-diagonal boxes, respectively. CA of interpreter-mediated turns supported earlier findings regarding patterns of MI in multilingual adult dental consultations; however, the role of the interpreter in parent/ primary caregiver education and patient management was more distinctive in the pediatric dentistry. CONCLUSIONS: The mixed-method approach assisted in unpacking the complexities of the multi-party interactions, supported identification of effective communication strategies, and illustrated the roles of the dental professionals in initiating CC- and PC-OHL talk in pediatric dentistry. The intervention showed the implication of the professional education of evidence-based practices for clinicians in balancing agenda management and the communicative dimension of OHL with the help of VTA and CA in multilingual consultations.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Médicos/psicologia , Adulto , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Multilinguismo , Pais/psicologia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Odontopediatria , Relações Médico-Paciente , Gravação em Vídeo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229902, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160213

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate whether early-English education benefits the perception of English phonetic contrasts that are known to be perceptually confusable for Dutch native speakers, comparing Dutch pupils who were enrolled in an early-English programme at school from the age of four with pupils in a mainstream programme with English instruction from the age of 11, and English-Dutch early bilingual children. Children were 4-5-year-olds (start of primary school), 8-9-year-olds, or 11-12-year-olds (end of primary school). Children were tested on four contrasts that varied in difficulty: /b/-/s/ (easy), /k/-/É¡/ (intermediate), /f/-/θ/ (difficult), /ɛ/-/æ/ (very difficult). Bilingual children outperformed the two other groups on all contrasts except /b/-/s/. Early-English pupils did not outperform mainstream pupils on any of the contrasts. This shows that early-English education as it is currently implemented is not beneficial for pupils' perception of non-native contrasts.


Assuntos
Idioma , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Fonética , Acústica da Fala
14.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229857, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150570

RESUMO

Previous research established that young children are sensitive to prosodic cues discriminating between syntactic structures of otherwise similarly sounding sentences in a language unknown to them. In this study, we explore the role of working memory that children might deploy for the purpose of the sentence-level prosodic discrimination. Nine-year old Slovenian monolingual and bilingual children (N = 70) were tested on a same-different prosodic discrimination task in a language unknown to them (French) and on the working memory measures in the form of forward and backward digit span and non-word repetition tasks. The results suggest that both the storage and processing components of the working memory are involved in the prosodic discrimination task.


Assuntos
Idioma , Memória de Curto Prazo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala , Aprendizagem Verbal
15.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(2): 233-238, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141602

RESUMO

Background: English is the language of instructions in many medical schools in the Arab world. Its use may create a language barrier and adversely affect an individual's learning and later professional life. Aims: This study examined the views of final-year Arab medical students of a language barrier and its effect on their learning and academic performance, and their language preference for medial education. Methods: All final-year medical students (n = 142, 62% females) at the Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain, were invited to respond to a self-completed questionnaire. Differences in responses according to English proficiency and sex were assessed. Results: Of the 142 students, 99 (70%) responded. Most students did not feel a language barrier irrespective of their proficiency in English (P = 0.088). Most respondents did not think that language issues made studying more difficult, although there was a significant difference in responses between students considered proficient in English and those less proficient (P = 0.005). Most students (82%) were not aware or were not sure of medical terms in Arabic, but 66% were confident that they would be able to communicate with patients in Arabic. About half of the students (51%) supported medicine being taught only in English and 36% supported teaching in Arabic and English. Conclusions: Most students thought that learning in English did not affect their academic learning and performance. However, a good proportion supported being taught medicine in Arabic and English.


Assuntos
Barreiras de Comunicação , Educação Médica/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Barein , Competência Clínica , Compreensão , Educação Médica/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Multilinguismo , Faculdades de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
16.
Public Health Res Pract ; 30(1)2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Multilingual patient education materials (PEMs) in Australia are normally prepared initially in English (source text) and then translated into other languages. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the source texts for publicly available multilingual diabetes PEMs in Australia were written at the reading level recommended by health literacy guidelines (eighth-grade reading level). STUDY TYPE: Nonexperimental descriptive study. METHODS: All publicly accessible multilingual fact sheets on diabetes self-management from the Diabetes Australia and National Diabetes Services Scheme websites were collected. Readability was analysed using five different readability indices: Flesch Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Gunning Fog Score (GFS), Coleman Liau Index (CLI), Simplified Measure of Gobbledygook Index (SMOG) and Automated Readability Index (ARI). The average number of syllables per word and the average number of words per sentence were also calculated. RESULTS: The average reading grade level of included PEMs was above Grade 10 (mean 10.4; standard deviation [SD] 0.9). The average number of syllables per word was 1.5 (SD 0.1), and the average number of words per sentence was 17 (SD 0.9). CONCLUSIONS: English-language source texts for national multilingual diabetes PEMs examined in this study were written at a readability level significantly higher than that recommended in health literacy guidelines. This was likely due to the use of polysyllabic words and complex medical terms, which are especially problematic when they are not defined. Improving readability of English-language source texts may help to ensure that the translated PEMs are more readable and accessible to their target readers. In conjunction with addressing other features that can make written materials easier to understand, this may help to better support diabetes self-management.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Diabetes Mellitus , Multilinguismo , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/normas , Austrália , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Idioma , Leitura , Autocuidado
17.
Dyslexia ; 26(1): 18-35, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043745

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the relationship between reading difficulties in native language (NL: Polish) and English as a foreign language in dyslexia in English and Polish students, respectively, and to develop a model of relations between NL phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, verbal short-term memory, and reading in English. Thirteen English students with dyslexia (ED), 15 without (END) and 16 Polish students with dyslexia (PD) and 16 without (PND) participated. We found that dyslexic deficits and different phoneme-to-grapheme correspondence rules between Polish and English interfered with the accuracy and fluency of word and nonword decoding and word recognition. Whereas END scored higher than PD and PND in all reading measures, ED did not, despite a NL advantage. When compared with PND, ED performed equal in nonword decoding, which depends to a higher degree on phoneme-to-grapheme conversion rather than lexical access. When compared with PD, ED performed equally in nonword fluency, which is most likely a nonscript-dependant skill. More variance in reading was explained by NL than FL factors, even if analogical NL/FL skills predicted a given variable. While in ED and END, these relationships agreed with the literature; in PD and PND, NL phonological awareness was not beneficial for English as a foreign language reading.


Assuntos
Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Fonética , Leitura , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Polônia , Estudantes , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia
18.
Brain Cogn ; 139: 105510, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923805

RESUMO

In two experiments, we compared the dynamics of corticospinal excitability when processing visually or linguistically presented tool-oriented hand actions in native speakers and sequential bilinguals. In a third experiment we used the same procedure to test non-motor, low-level stimuli, i.e. scrambled images and pseudo-words. Stimuli were presented in sequence: pictures (tool + tool-oriented hand action or their scrambled counterpart) and words (tool noun + tool-action verb or pseudo-words). Experiment 1 presented German linguistic stimuli to native speakers, while Experiment 2 presented English stimuli to non-natives. Experiment 3 tested Italian native speakers. Single-pulse trascranial magnetic stimulation (spTMS) was applied to the left motor cortex at five different timings: baseline, 200 ms after tool/noun onset, 150, 350 and 500 ms after hand/verb onset with motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles. We report strong similarities in the dynamics of corticospinal excitability across the visual and linguistic modalities. MEPs' suppression started as early as 150 ms and lasted for the duration of stimulus presentation (500 ms). Moreover, we show that this modulation is absent for stimuli with no motor content. Overall, our study supports the notion of a core, overarching system of action semantics shared by different modalities.


Assuntos
Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Idioma , Córtex Motor , Multilinguismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Braço , Feminino , Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
19.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 41: 100740, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999562

RESUMO

Inhibitory control is a core executive function (EF) skill, thought to involve cognitive 'interference suppression' and motor 'response inhibition' sub-processes. A few studies have shown that early bilingualism shapes interference suppression but not response inhibition skills, however current behavioral measures do not fully allow us to disentangle these subcomponents. Lateralized Readiness Potentials (LRPs) are centroparietal event-related potentials (ERPs) that track motor response-preparations between stimulus-presentation and behavioral responses. We examine LRPs elicited during successful inhibitory control on a nonverbal Stroop task, in 6-8 year-old bilingual (n = 44) and monolingual (n = 48) children from comparable socio-economic backgrounds. Relative to monolinguals, bilinguals showed longer and stronger incorrect-response preparations, and a more mature pattern of correct-response preparation (shorter peak-latencies), underlying correct responses on Stroop-interference trials. Neural markers of response-inhibition were comparable between groups and no behavioral differences were found between-groups on the Stroop task. Results suggest group differences in underlying mechanisms of centroparietal motor-response preparation mechanisms in this age group, contrary to what has been shown using behavioral tasks previously. We discuss neural results in the context of speed-accuracy trade-offs. This is the first study to examine neural markers of motor-responses in bilingual children.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Teste de Stroop/normas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
20.
Brain Lang ; 202: 104725, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978619

RESUMO

Reading relies on a left-lateralized brain system, including occipito-temporal (OTC), temporo-parietal, and inferior frontal (IFC) cortices. Neuroimaging studies have investigated whether activation in these cortices is modulated by a language's orthographic depth (consistency of grapheme-to-phoneme conversion). In Spanish-English bilinguals, some but not all studies have reported activation differences between the two languages during reading. Here, we studied Spanish-English early bilingual adults living in the United States (N = 25; 17 females, 8 males). We examined local activity, functional connectivity, and spatially distributed activity patterns during English and Spanish word reading. We found overlap in local activity for the two languages in the left IFC, but no differences in activation between them and few differences in functional connectivity (none of which were in pairs of regions known to be involved in reading); yet, there were spatially distributed patterns of brain activity that differentiate English and Spanish in regions of bilateral cerebellum/left OTC, the left superior occipital gyrus, the left IFC, and the left medial frontal gyrus. Overall, we found no evidence for differences in local activation or functional connectivity during English versus Spanish word processing in regions known to be involved in reading, yet we found brain-based evidence that Spanish-English bilinguals distinguish between the two languages.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Multilinguismo , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA