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1.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 117: 124-135, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343542

RESUMO

This study aims to assess and determine the oral-administration of probiotic, Lactobacillus pentosus BD6 on growth performance, immunity and disease resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Lac. pentosus BD6 effectively inhibited the growth of aquatic pathogens, which was used in the test. Shrimp were fed with the control diet (without probiotic supplement) for 60 days and the probiotic-containing diets at 107, 108, 109, and 1010 cfu kg-1, respectively. Shrimp fed with the diet containing probiotic at the doses of 109-10 cfu kg-1 showed significant increase in growth performance as well as feed efficiency than that of the control. After a challenge test with Vibrio alginolyticus, shrimp fed with a probiotic diet at a dose of 1010 cfu kg-1 showed a significantly lower mortality as compared to the control and that of shrimp fed the diet containing probiotic at the levels up to 107-8 cfu kg-1. In addition, a therapeutic potential of Lac. pentosus BD6 was discovered because the cumulative mortalities of shrimp fed with probiotic and pathogen V. parahaemolyticus simultaneously were significantly lower when compared to control shrimp. Probiotic in diet at a dose of 109-10 cfu kg-1 significantly increased PO activity of shrimp, while shrimp receiving probiotic at the doses of 108-10 cfu kg-1 showed significant increase in lysozyme activity and phagocytic activity. Shrimp fed with the diet containing probiotic at the level of 1010 cfu kg-1 also indicated higher gene expression of prophenoloxidase (proPO) I, but not proPO II, lipopolysaccharide and ß-1,3-glucan-binding protein and penaeidin 4. Analysis of the bacterial microbiota of the shrimp intestine revealed that oral administration of probiotic increased the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria and reduced the abundance of harmful pathogenic bacteria in the gut flora of shrimp. Despite no statistically significant difference, an analysis of microbial diversity recorded higher species richness, Shannon-Weaver diversity index and evenness in the probiotic group, compared to the control group. It was concluded that Lac. pentosus BD6 has great antibacterial ability against a wide range of pathogens and has therapeutic potential to reduce the mortality of shrimp infected with V. parahaemolyticus. Additionally, dietary Lac. pentosus BD6 at the level of 1010 cfu kg-1 was recommended to improve growth performance, immunity and disease resistance of shrimp against V. alginolyticus.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus pentosus , Penaeidae , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Vibrioses/prevenção & controle , Vibrio alginolyticus , Administração Oral , Animais , Catecol Oxidase/imunologia , Resistência à Doença , Precursores Enzimáticos/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Expressão Gênica , Hemócitos/imunologia , Hemolinfa/imunologia , Muramidase/imunologia , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penaeidae/imunologia , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Fagocitose , Vibrioses/mortalidade , Vibrioses/veterinária
2.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 117: 179-187, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391940

RESUMO

The association of vaccines with immunostimulants such as ß-glucan, promote the production of cytokines, competent immune cells and antibodies. However, differences between ß-glucan types and trials make it difficult to understand ß-glucan's mechanism of action. In this study, three trials were carried out with control and fish fed ß-glucan, the first trial occurred at 15 days; the second trial occurred at 30 days when we associated ß-glucan and vaccine; and the third trial occurred at 15 days post-challenge with Streptococcus agalactiae in tilapia (O. niloticus) in order to investigate immune-related gene expression in the head kidney and spleen using real-time qPCR. We found increases in HSP70, IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-10, Lys and C3 predominantly in the head kidney, except for IgM expression, which prevailed in the spleen, under vaccinated + ß-glucan action. This demonstrates the trade-off presented by the head kidney and spleen after immunostimulation in order to produce acquired immunity, as well as an increase in HSP70 expression in vaccinated + ß-glucan fish. The results suggest that ß-glucan stimulates the immune response through damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) recognition. Therefore, these dynamics of the immune response promote a more robust defense against disease.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Rim Cefálico/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacinas Estreptocócicas/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Ciclídeos/genética , Ciclídeos/microbiologia , Citocinas/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Rim Cefálico/imunologia , Muramidase/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Baço/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/genética , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus agalactiae
3.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 117: 248-252, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418556

RESUMO

The waste recycling of lemon peel, as a functional feed additive in aquafeed was evaluated by estimating the effects of fermented lemon peel (FLP) supplementation in diet on growth performance, innate immune responses, and susceptibility to Photobacterium damselae of grouper, Epinephelus coioides. A basal diet was added FLP at 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%. Four tested diets were each fed to juvenile grouper (initial weight: 15.89 ± 0.10 g, triplicate groups) in a recirculation rearing system for eight weeks. Fish fed diets with 0%-3% FLP exhibited higher (p < 0.05) final weight, weight gain, and feed efficiency than fish fed the 5% FLP-diet. After challenge test, fish fed the 3% FLP-diet appeared the lowest mortality, followed by fish fed the 1% FLP-diet, and lowest in fish fed 0% and 5% FLP-diets. Plasma lysozyme activities were higher in fish fed diets with FLP than in fish fed the FLP-free control diet before challenge test. After challenge, fish fed diets with 1% and 3% FLP showed highest lysozyme activities, followed by fish fed the diet with 5% FLP, and lowest in fish fed the control diet. Hepatic malondialdehyde content was higher in fish fed the control diet than in fish fed diets with 1%-3% FLP. Results found that diets supplemented with 1%-3% fermented lemon peel can enhance lysozyme activity and resistance to pathogen P. damselae of grouper.


Assuntos
Citrus , Suplementos Nutricionais , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Frutas , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Muramidase/imunologia , Perciformes , Photobacterium , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Fermentação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Fígado/imunologia , Malondialdeído/imunologia , Muramidase/sangue , Perciformes/sangue , Perciformes/imunologia , Perciformes/microbiologia
4.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 117: 253-261, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418557

RESUMO

The sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus is considered a good candidate for aquaculture, but bacterial diseases are a major challenge in culture conditions. The innate immunological defenses of L. variegatus to bacterial challenges were assessed through hematology parameters, in vitro phagocytosis, lysozyme activity and total plasma protein concentrations in cell-free coelomic fluid. Adult sea urchins were inoculated with Microccocus lysodeikticus, Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the cavity coelomic. Filtrated and sterile seawater (FSW) injected and non-injected sea urchins were used as control groups. Righting time, external aspects and behavior of sea urchins were evaluated. Twenty-four hours post-inoculation, we found an increase in the population of colorless spherule cells (CLS), phagocytosis, and humoral responses in sea urchins challenged by bacterial inoculations. Righting time was not affected by the treatments and apparent external signs of disease were not observed at least during 96h post-inoculation. The immunological system of L. variegatus quickly eliminated pathogenic microorganisms. CLS and lysozyme activity cooperate in the immune defenses of L. variegatus, showing an extraordinary efficiency for adjusting the immune defenses under stress caused by microbes. We recommend that the cellular and humoral markers serve as routine tests to monitor health status in sea urchins.


Assuntos
Lytechinus/imunologia , Animais , Escherichia coli , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Imunidade Inata , Lytechinus/citologia , Lytechinus/microbiologia , Micrococcus , Muramidase/imunologia , Fagocitose , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária , Vibrio parahaemolyticus
5.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 117: 291-298, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419600

RESUMO

This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of Sargassum polycystum extract administration in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). S. polycystum methanolic extract was administered orally using feeding needles to individual rainbow trout at the dose of 0 (control), 1 (S1), 3 (S3) and 5 (S5) mg/100 µl/per fish twice a day for 7 days. On 1st, 5th, 3rd and 7th day, blood and tissues were collected from the fish and changes in humoral immune responses and immune-related gene expressions were determined. The result of oxidative radical production showed no difference during early stage of the experiment and was lately decreased (P < 0.05). Lysozyme activity increased on 3rd and 7th day of the study in S5 fish group and on 5th day in S3 group compared to control (P < 0.05). Myeloperoxidase activity had an increased level on the 1st and 3rd day in S1, S5 and S5 fish groups, respectively. IL-1ß gene was significantly up-regulated in kidney and intestine in all experimental groups (except on the 1st day, in the intestine of S5 fish group) compared to control (P < 0.05). IL-8 gene expression was elevated on 1st and 3rd day in kidney of all experimental fish groups. IL-6 transcript enhanced in a dose-dependent manner on 3rd and 7th day. IL-10 and IL-12 genes were also up-regulated. Survival in all treated fish groups challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila was significantly increased compared to that of control. The highest survival rate was recorded in S5 fish group (83.65%) followed by S3 fish group (82.62%). Our results suggest that S. polycystum aqueous methanolic extract is an effective immunostimulant and provide protection against A. hydrophila infection in rainbow trout at a dose of 3-10 mg/20 g body weight/day.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Aeromonas hydrophila , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Sargassum , Administração Oral , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/mortalidade , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/mortalidade , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Muramidase/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/genética , Oncorhynchus mykiss/microbiologia , Peroxidase/imunologia
6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 116: 52-60, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216786

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary bile acids (BAs) on intestinal healthy status of tongue sole in terms of immunity, antioxidant status, digestive ability, mucosal barrier-related genes expression and microbiota. Three experimental diets were prepared with BA levels at 0 mg/kg (CT), 300 mg/kg (BA1) and 900 mg/kg (BA2) in a commercial basal diet. Each diet was fed to three replicates with 120 fish (10.87 ± 0.32 g) in each tank. After an 8-week feeding trial, growth parameters were significantly enhanced in both BAs supplementary groups (P < 0.05), and compared with CT group, survival rate in BA2 group was significantly improved (P < 0.05). Intestinal lysozyme activity and contents of immunoglobulin M and complement 3 were significantly increased in both BAs supplementary groups (P < 0.05), suggesting an enhancement effect on the non-specific immune response. BAs inclusion also significantly improved intestinal antioxidant capabilities by increasing antioxidase activities and decreasing malondialdehyde levels. In addition, compared with CT group, intestinal digestive ability was substantially enhanced as indicated by the significantly increased lipase activity in BA2 group (P < 0.05) and significantly increased amylase activity in BA1 and BA2 groups (P < 0.05). Coincidentally, BAs inclusion significantly upregulated the relative expression of intestinal mucosal barrier-related genes (P < 0.05). Further, dietary BAs distinctly remodeled intestinal microbiota by decreased the abundance of some potential pathogenic bacteria. In conclusion, dietary BAs supplementation is an effective way to improve the intestinal healthy status of tongue sole.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Linguados , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatase Alcalina/imunologia , Amilases/metabolismo , Animais , Complemento C3/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Linguados/genética , Linguados/imunologia , Linguados/metabolismo , Linguados/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Lipase/metabolismo , Muramidase/imunologia , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética
7.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 116: 98-106, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252543

RESUMO

Medicinal herbs are used for growth promotion, disease control and other health benefits in aquaculture industry. Here, we examined the effect of dietary laurel-leaf cistus (Cistus laurifolius) ethanolic extract on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, haematological profile and nonspecific immune responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). In addition, resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection was examined. Common carp was fed diets containing 0 (Control), 0.1 (CL0.1), 0.5 (CL0.5) and 1 (CL1) g kg-1 laurel-leaf cistus extract for 45 days. After 30 days, superoxide anion production (SAP) increased in CL0.1 and CL0.5 fish groups and at the end of the study all experimental fish groups had higher SAP compared to that of the control (P ˂ 0.05). Lysozyme activity (LA) was elevated in CL0.5 and CL1 treated groups on 30th day (P < 0.05), and this increase was only observed in C0.1 fish group at the end of study compared to control (P ˂ 0.05). Myeloperoxidase activity was significantly increased in CL0.5 and CL1 fish groups at the end of study. IL-1ßgene expression was significantly increased in treated fish in a dose-depended manner. Similar results were observed for transcription of IL-6 and IL-8 (P < 0.05). Anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-10 and TGF-ß were highly up-regulated in the intestine and head kidney of CL treated fish groups compared to control (P < 0.05). At the end of experiment, significantly higher final body weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate were obtained in CL0.1 treated fish group compared to control. However, growth was negatively affected in CL1 fish group (P < 0.05). CL1 fish group had also a significantly higher FCR. Amylase activity was significantly increased in all experimental fish groups compared to control (P ˂ 0.05). Trypsin activity was decreased in CL0.1 and CL1 fish groups (P ˂ 0.05). WBC and RBC were significantly increased (P ˂ 0.05) in CL0.5 and CL1 fish groups, whereas haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean cell, mean cell haemoglobin contents were no significantly changed among control and treatment groups. Result of challenge test with A. hydrophila exhibited that survival rate in all treatment groups was significantly higher than that of control. These findings demonstrated that laurel-leaf cistus at 0.1 g kg-1 can be a suitable candidate for growth promotion, immune system induction and infection control in fish.


Assuntos
Carpas , Cistus , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aeromonas hydrophila , Amilases/metabolismo , Animais , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Carpas/sangue , Carpas/genética , Carpas/imunologia , Carpas/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Etanol/química , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Rim Cefálico/citologia , Rim Cefálico/imunologia , Lipase/metabolismo , Muramidase/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Solventes/química , Superóxidos/imunologia , Tripsina/metabolismo
8.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 116: 107-114, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256133

RESUMO

An eight-week investigation was conducted to access the potential impact of dietary watermelon rind powder (WMRP) and L. plantarum CR1T5 (LP) administered individually or in combination on immunity, disease resistance, and growth rate of Nile tilapia fingerlings cultured in a biofloc system. Three hundred twenty fish (average weight 16.57 ± 0.14 g) were distributed into 16 tanks at a rate of 20 fish per tank. The fish were fed different diets: Diet 1 (0 g kg-1 WMRP and 0 CFU g-1 L. plantarum) (control), Diet 2 (40 g kg-1 WMRP), Diet 3 (108 CFU g-1 LP), and Diet 4 (40 g kg-1 WMRP + 108 CFU g-1 LP) for eight weeks. A completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications was applied. Skin mucus, serum immunity, and growth parameters were analyzed every 4 weeks, and a challenge study against S. agalactiae was conducted at the end of the experiment. The findings showed that the inclusion of WMRP + LP, administrated individually or in a mixture, significantly (P<0.05) stimulated growth, skin mucus, and serum immune parameters of Nile tilapia fingerlings compared with the control. The highest values were detected in fish fed the combination of WMRP and LP, as opposed to individual administration of either WMRP or LP, in which no significant differences were detected. Within the challenge study, the relative percent survival (RPS) in Diet 2, Diet 3, and Diet 4 was 48.0%, 52.0%, and 68.0%, respectively. Fish fed 40 g kg-1 WMRP + LP produced significantly higher RPS and protection against S. agalactiae than the other treated groups. Current results suggest that the dual administration of WMRP and LP maybe an effective feed additive for Nile tilapia grown in an indoor biofloc system, capable of improving growth parameters and increasing resistance to S. agalactiae infection.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Lactobacillus plantarum , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Simbióticos , Ração Animal , Animais , Aquicultura , Ciclídeos/sangue , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Resistência à Doença , Contagem de Leucócitos , Micrococcus , Muco/enzimologia , Muco/imunologia , Muramidase/imunologia , Peroxidase/imunologia , Fagocitose , Pós , Explosão Respiratória , Pele/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle , Streptococcus agalactiae
9.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 117: 299-310, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274421

RESUMO

Fermentation strategy is well documented to improve the nutritional value of agricultural waste by-products such olive cake (OC), which, in turn, provides healthy, safe, and affordable feedstuff. This study assessed the combined impact of Aspergillus oryzae-fermented OC (AFOC) on the growth performance, intestinal morphometry, blood biochemistry, lysozyme activity, gut immune-related genes, and flesh quality of Nile tilapia. We divided 225 fish into five groups and further subdivided into three replicates (n = 15 each) and fed them five diets (Control, AFOC5, AFOC10, AFOC15, AFOC20) to determine AFOC nutritional value and its optimized incorporation level in the diet. The trial continued for 3 months. The crude protein content of OC improved by 7.77% after A. oryzae fermentation, while lipid content decreased by 14.19%. In addition, growth and feed utilization significantly improved at (10.8-11.2) % AFOC dietary level. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) significantly improved, and the serum lysozyme level was significantly higher in the AFOC10 group compared to other groups. Interestingly, gut-related inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) revealed higher relative mRNA expression in the AFOC10 group compared to other groups. The histomorphometric parameters was greatly influenced by the AFOC incorporation level (10%-20%). These findings suggested that A. orzae fermentation modifies the nutritional quality of OC, as seen through its positive impact on the growth performance, local and systemic immunity, and intestinal absorptive capacity of Nile tilapia. The recommended dose for dietary AFOC was around 11.


Assuntos
Aspergillus oryzae , Ciclídeos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Olea , Animais , Bioensaio , Ciclídeos/sangue , Ciclídeos/genética , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Fermentação , Expressão Gênica , Testes Hematológicos , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Muramidase/imunologia , Valor Nutritivo
10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 117: 1-16, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274424

RESUMO

The effect of cinnamaldehyde (CM) enriched diet on immunity and cytokine gene expression in Channa striatus against Aphanomyces invadans is reported. C. striatus was uniformly divided into eight groups (n = 25 fish each) and fed with formulated diets with 0, 5, 10, and 15 mg kg-1 CM enriched diet. In healthy and infected groups fed with 5 mg kg-1 diet the leukocytes count increased significantly after 4th week; with 10 mg kg-1 CM diet the increase manifested after 6th week, but with 15 mg kg-1 not even after 8th week. In both groups, 5 mg kg-1 CM diet resulted in a significant increase in the serum total protein, albumin, and globulin levels after 4th week, whereas with other diets this effect was observed only after 6th week. Similarly, with any enriched diet the lysozyme activity increased significantly, but with 15 mg kg-1 CM diet only after 6th week. In both groups the complement activity and lymphocyte production increased significantly when fed with 5 mg kg-1 CM diet after 4th week while with other enriched diets only after 6th week. The phagocytic activity increased significantly in both groups fed with 5 mg kg-1 CM diet after 6th week, whereas the SOD activity increased after 4th week. The IgM production increased significantly in both groups fed with 5 mg kg-1 CM diet after 2nd week, while with 5 and 10 mg kg-1 CM diet after 4th week. In both groups, the expression of CXCR3α was significant on 4th week when fed with 10 mg kg-1 CM diet, while in the healthy group fed with 15 mg kg-1 CM diet the expression manifested earlier than 4th week. However, when fed with 10 and 15 mg kg-1 CM diets the increase was observed on 6th week; whereas, the expression of MHC-I reached the maximum on 6th week with any enriched diet. The results indicate that in C. striatus the innate immunity and expression of cytokine and immune related genes were significantly modulated when fed with 5 mg kg-1 CM diet on 4th week against A. invadans.


Assuntos
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Aphanomyces , Doenças dos Peixes , Peixes/genética , Peixes/imunologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções , Acroleína/administração & dosagem , Animais , Ativação do Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Infecções/genética , Infecções/imunologia , Infecções/veterinária , Contagem de Leucócitos , Muramidase/imunologia , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia
11.
Transfusion ; 61(7): 2169-2178, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the significant adverse clinical consequences of RBC alloimmunization, our understanding of the signals that induce immune responses to transfused RBCs remains incomplete. Though RBC storage has been shown to enhance alloimmunization in the hen egg lysozyme, ovalbumin, and human Duffy (HOD) RBC alloantigen mouse model, the molecular signals leading to immune activation in this system remain unclear. Given that the nonclassical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I molecule CD1D can bind to multiple different lysophospholipids and direct immune activation, we hypothesized that storage of RBCs increases lysophospholipids known to bind CD1D, and further that recipient CD1D recognition of these altered lipids mediates storage-induced alloimmunization responses. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We used a mass spectrometry-based approach to analyze the changes in lysophospholipids that are induced during storage of mouse RBCs. CD1D knockout (CD1D-KO) and wild-type (WT) control mice were transfused with stored HOD RBCs to measure the impact of CD1D deficiency on RBC alloimmunization. RESULTS: RBC storage results in alterations in multiple lysophospholipid species known to bind to CD1D and activate the immune system. Prior to transfusion, CD1D-deficient mice had lower baseline levels of polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) relative to WT mice. In response to stored RBC transfusion, CD1D-deficient mice generated similar levels of anti-HOD IgM and anti-HOD IgG. CONCLUSION: Although storage of RBCs leads to alteration of several lysophospholipids known to be capable of binding CD1D, storage-induced RBC alloimmunization responses are not impacted by recipient CD1D deficiency.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD1d/imunologia , Preservação de Sangue , Transfusão de Sangue , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Isoanticorpos/biossíntese , Isoantígenos/imunologia , Lisofosfolipídeos/sangue , Reação Transfusional/imunologia , Alarminas/sangue , Alarminas/imunologia , Animais , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Antígenos CD1d/genética , Antígenos CD1d/metabolismo , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Duffy/genética , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Duffy/imunologia , Feminino , Imunização , Imunoglobulina G/biossíntese , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/biossíntese , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Isoanticorpos/imunologia , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Muramidase/imunologia , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia
12.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 1053-1062, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999343

RESUMO

In the present study, antioxidant activity, immune responses, and growth performance of rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed with diets supplemented with dandelion (Taraxacum officinalis) and lichen (Usnea barbata) extracts were assessed. Four different concentrations of aqueous methanolic extract of the plants (0% (control), 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% (D, dandelion; L, lichen) were added to the diets, and fish were fed for 75 days. On the 15th, 45th, and 75th day of the study, liver antioxidant enzyme activities were determined, and immune responses were determined every 15th day. The results showed that SOD activity increased in the fish group of 0.1% D on the 15th and 45th day compared to control; however, it was lower in all the lichen extract-treated groups than in control at almost all sampling times, except on the 15th day in the 0.1% L group. CAT activity showed an increased value (P < 0.05) in 0.5% L and 1% L treated fish groups on the 15th day, in fish of 1% D and 1% L groups on 45th and on 75th day in 0.1% D group. GPX activity increased on the 15th day of the study in fish of 0.1% D group, on the 45th day in 1% D and 1% L groups and on the 75th day in fish of 0.5% D, 0.1% D, and 0.5% L groups (P < 0.05). G6PDH enhanced in all treatment groups compared to control on the 15th day, except in 0.1% L and 0.5% L groups. An elevated G6PDH activity was also observed on the 75th day of the study in 0.5% D, 1% D, and 0.5% L fish groups. An increase on lipid peroxidation (LP) was observed in all L groups on the 45th day of the study. Lysozyme activity was determined to be the highest in 0.5% and 1% L on the 45th day, in 0.1% L on the 60th day and in the 0.5% L fish group on the 75th day compared to control (P < 0.05). Myeloperoxidase was found to be the highest at the end of the study in 1% L fish group compared to the control (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we suggest the use of dandelion to combat oxidative stress and to lower FCR and the use of lichen to modulate the immune response in rainbow trout. The use of such products will be economical for aquaculture and harmless for the environment.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Taraxacum , Usnea , Animais , Dieta , Radicais Livres/sangue , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Muramidase/sangue , Muramidase/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Peroxidase/sangue
13.
Food Chem ; 355: 129587, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857721

RESUMO

The efficiency of laccase-catalyzed protein cross-linking can be impacted by substrate protein structure and competing reactions. In this study, chemical grafting of ferulic acid (FA) on protein surface was applied to modulate the cross-linking of two inflexible globular proteins, lysozyme (LZM) and ovalbumin (OVA). The extent of FA-grafting was positively correlated with protein cross-linking extent, and determined the molecular weight profile and structures of the cross-linked product. While laccase-catalyzed reactions (with or without free FA mediator) did not lead to evident cross-linking of the native proteins, oligomeric (up to 16.4%), polymeric (up to 30.6%) FA-LZMs and oligomeric FA-OVA (5.1-31.1%) were obtained upon the enzymatic treatments. The cross-linking on the grafted FA sites occurred mainly through the formation of 8-5'-noncyclic-dehydro-diferulic linkages. The effects of investigated cross-linking approach on the emulsifying, foaming properties and the immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding capacity of LZM and OVA were also evaluated in relation to the structural properties of cross-linked proteins.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Lacase/metabolismo , Muramidase/imunologia , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Fenóis/química , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Biocatálise , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Humanos , Peso Molecular , Muramidase/química , Ovalbumina/química , Oxirredução
14.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 49(2): 6-14, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641288

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: It was urgent to explain the role of egg yolk allergen sensitization to the egg allergic population and we would evaluate the diagnostic value of allergen components in whole eggs, including egg white and egg yolk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Firstly, we collected 99 positive and 21 negative sera against egg allergy. Then we used modified enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to survey specific IgE (sIgE) to all-proven and single component in eggs, Ovomucoid (Gal d 1), Ovalbumin (Gal d 2), Ovotransferrin (Gal d 3), Lysozyme C (Gal d 4), Serum Albumin (Gal d 5), and YGP42(Gal d 6) in allergic and non-allergic populations. Last but not least, we studied the sIgE reactivities to egg allergen components by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: Among egg-allergic individuals, nearly 10% were sensitized to five of six egg allergen components, and the cross-reaction frequency between two egg yolk allergens with Gal d 1 was about 30% in the groups diagnosed with egg allergy or non-allergy. The best component-combination diagnosis in egg allergy of Gal d 1+ Gal d 6 demonstrated the largest area under curve (AUC) of 0.994. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that there were individual differences in allergenicity of different egg allergen components, especially in the samples negative to egg allergy diagnosed but sensitive to egg yolk components. It was indicated that component resolved diagnosis of egg yolk improved the value for egg allergy management indispensably.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/diagnóstico , Gema de Ovo/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Alérgenos/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Conalbumina/efeitos adversos , Conalbumina/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/sangue , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/imunologia , Clara de Ovo/efeitos adversos , Gema de Ovo/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Lactente , Masculino , Muramidase/efeitos adversos , Muramidase/imunologia , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Ovomucina/efeitos adversos , Ovomucina/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245608, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465122

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence has suggested a correlation of tumor infiltrating B cells (TiBcs) and a good prognosis of cancer diseases. In some cases, TiBcs appear to have experienced antigen stimulation since they have undergone class-switching and somatic hypermutation and formed tertiary lymphoid structures around tumors together with T cells. Assuming TiBcs include those that recognize some tumor antigens, we sought to investigate their possible usefulness for cell-mediated immunotherapies. To expand usually small number of TiBcs in vitro, we modified our B cell culture system: we transduced B cells with ERT2-Bach2 so that they grow unlimitedly provided with tamoxifen, IL-21 and our original feeder cells. Such cells differentiate into plasma cells and produce antibodies upon withdrawal of tamoxifen, and further by addition of a Bach2-inhibitor in vitro. As a preliminary experiment, thus expanded splenic B cells expressing a transgenic antigen receptor/antibody against hen egg lysozyme were intravenously injected into mice pre-implanted with B16 melanoma cells expressing membrane-bound HEL in the skin, which resulted in suppression of the growth of B16 tumors and prolonged survival of the recipient mice. To test the usefulness of TiBcs for the immunotherapy, we next used APCmin/+ mice as a model that spontaneously develop intestinal tumors. We cultured TiBcs separated from the tumors of APCmin/+ mice as above and confirmed that the antibodies they produce recognize the APCmin/+ tumor. Repeated injection of such TiBcs into adult APCmin/+ mice resulted in suppression of intestinal tumor growth and elongation of the survival of the recipient mice. Serum antibody from the TiBc-recipient mice selectively bound to an antigen expressed in the tumor of APCmin/+ mice. These data suggest a possibility of the novel individualized cancer immunotherapy, in which TiBcs from surgically excised tumor tissues are expanded and infused into the donor patients.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Intestinais/terapia , Melanoma Experimental/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental/terapia , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Imuno-Histoquímica , Interleucinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Intestinais/imunologia , Neoplasias Intestinais/mortalidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Muramidase/imunologia , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia
16.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(1): 153-162, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242190

RESUMO

A completely randomized experimental design carried out to investigate the effects of different levels of Pediococcus acidilactici (PA) including 0 (basal diet as a control diet), 1 × 106, 2 × 106, 4 × 106, and 8 × 106 colony-forming unit (CFU) per gram of the diet for 60 days on the mucosal immunity responses, growth, and reproductive performance, in zebrafish, Danio rerio (with mean weigh ± SE: 120 ± 10 mg). The obtained results revealed that the best growth and reproduction indices were related to the concentration of 4 × 106 CFU PA g-1 diet (P < 0.05). The maximum activities of mucosal immune responses including total protein, alternative complement system, IgM, and lysozyme were observed in the fish fed with 4 × 106 CFU PA g-1 diet (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the maximum alkaline phosphatase activity of skin mucus was recorded in the fish fed with 8 × 106 CFU PA g-1 diet (P < 0.05). Fish fed with 4 × 106 CFU PA g-1 diet had the highest villus length and width of the intestine (P < 0.05). Supplementing the diet with 4 × 106 CFU PA g-1 diet more significantly enhanced Cyp19a gene expression in comparison with this in other groups. Hence, PA with a concentration of 4 × 106 CFU g-1 diet can be considered as a proper level of probiotic for improving the health, growth, and reproductive performance of the D. rerio.


Assuntos
Pediococcus acidilactici , Probióticos/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra , Fosfatase Alcalina/imunologia , Animais , Aromatase/genética , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Feminino , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Muco/enzimologia , Muco/imunologia , Muramidase/imunologia , Reprodução , Pele/enzimologia , Pele/imunologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixe-Zebra/imunologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
17.
Front Immunol ; 11: 581070, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133099

RESUMO

Vaccination plays a critical role in the protection of humans and other animals from infectious diseases. However, the same vaccine often confers different protection levels among individuals due to variation in genetics and/or immunological histories. While this represents a well-recognized issue in humans, it has received little attention in fish. Here we address this knowledge gap in a proteomic study of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum), using non-lethal repeated blood sampling to establish the plasma protein response of individual fish following immunization. Six trout were immunized with adjuvanted hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) and peripheral blood sampled at ten time points from day 0 to day 84 post-injection. We confirm that an antigen-specific antibody response to HEL was raised, showing differences in timing and magnitude among individuals. Using label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we quantified the abundance of 278 plasma proteins across the timecourse. As part of the analysis, we show that this approach can distinguish many (but not all) duplicated plasma proteins encoded by paralogous genes retained from the salmonid-specific whole genome duplication event. Global variation in the plasma proteome was predominantly explained by individual differences among fish. However, sampling day explained a major component of variation in abundance for a statistically defined subset of 41 proteins, representing 15% of those detected. These proteins clustered into five groups showing distinct temporal responses to HEL immunization at the population level, and include classical immune (e.g. complement system members) and acute phase molecules (e.g. apolipoproteins, haptoglobins), several enzymes and other proteins supporting the immune response, in addition to evolutionarily conserved molecules that are as yet uncharacterized. Overall, this study improves our understanding of the fish plasma proteome, provides valuable marker proteins for different phases of the immune response, and has implications for vaccine development and the design of immune challenge experiments.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/sangue , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/sangue , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Proteoma/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Aviárias/imunologia , Proteínas Sanguíneas/classificação , Proteínas Sanguíneas/imunologia , Proteínas do Ovo/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Ovo/imunologia , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/classificação , Imunização/veterinária , Masculino , Muramidase/administração & dosagem , Muramidase/imunologia , Filogenia , Proteômica
18.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 106: 959-966, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890760

RESUMO

A 56-day research was performed to examine the influence of graded levels (0 (control), 0.5, 1 and 2%) of Fern (Adiantum capillus-veneris) leaves powder (FLP) in diet on immune competence and growth of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, initial weight = 20 g). The serum total immunoglobulins content and lysozyme activity in the 1 and 2% FLP groups remarkably increased compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). The skin mucosal lysozyme activity enhanced with increasing dietary FLP level in a dose-response manner. Fish fed on the FLP-supplemented diets had higher skin-mucosal superoxide dismutase activity than the control (P < 0.05). However, serum antioxidant enzymes were not affected by dietary fern (P > 0.05). The serum bactericidal activity against human and fish pathogens increased with enhancing the FLP level in diet against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (EHEC ATCC 43895), Escherichia coli (CI), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and Aeromonas hydrophila. The serum antibacterial activity against Yersinia ruckeri in the 2% FLP group was higher than the other treatments. Furthermore, the serum bactericidal activity against P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) only observed in fish fed on the 1 and 2% FLP-supplemented diets. The skin mucosal bactericidal activity and inhibitory effects increased with enhancing the FLP level in diet against E. coli, K. pneumonia, Y. ruckeri and A. hydrophila in a dose response manner. Moreover, the skin mucosal bactericidal activity against S. aureus only observed in fish fed on 1 and 2% FLP-supplemented diets. The weight gain values in the 1 and 2% FLP groups were higher than the other treatments (P < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) improved with increasing FLP level in diet in a dose-response manner (P < 0.05). By considering serum and mucosal bactericidal activities against different pathogenic bacteria, the supplementation of 2% FLP in diet is recommended for C. carpio during grow-out phase.


Assuntos
Adiantum , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpas/imunologia , Muco/imunologia , Muramidase/imunologia , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Soro , Pele/imunologia , Animais , Carpas/sangue , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Catalase/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Muco/enzimologia , Muramidase/sangue , Folhas de Planta , Pós , Superóxido Dismutase/imunologia
19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 106: 675-684, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858188

RESUMO

The effect of diet enriched with dried lemon (Citrus limon) peel was fed to Labeo rohita at three different levels (0, 1, 2.5, and 5 g kg-1) for a period of 60 days; the impact of the diet on the hematology, antioxidant activity and immunological reaction and gene expression against Aeromonas sorbia is reported. In both un-challenged and challenged groups treated with 2.5 g and 5 g kg-1 dried lemon peel diets, the enhanced significant changes are: the weight gain and specific growth rate, white blood cell and total protein content, the antioxidants: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione activities, the respiratory burst, alternative complement pathway, complement C3, and total immunoglobulin M levels. Similarly, the heat shock protein-70 and -90, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, interleukin-1ß and -8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, transforming growth factor beta, and immunoglobulin M were up-regulated significantly. Any dried lemon peel enriched diet increased the phagocytic and lysozyme activities significantly in both groups. In the un-challenged group treated with 0 g kg-1 diet or in both groups treated with 2.5 g kg-1 diet the SR was 100%. These results indicate that in both un-challenged and challenged-treated groups the 2.5 and 5 g kg-1 dried lemon peel enriched diets positively modulate growth rate, physiology, and antioxidant status, innate-adaptive immune response as well as antioxidant and immune related gene expression in L. rohita against A. sorbia.


Assuntos
Aeromonas , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citrus , Cyprinidae , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Frutas , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Animais , Catalase/genética , Catalase/imunologia , Complemento C3/imunologia , Cyprinidae/genética , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cyprinidae/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Glutationa/imunologia , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Rim Cefálico/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Muramidase/imunologia , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/imunologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10365, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587281

RESUMO

Plant viruses are biologically safe for mammals and can be successfully used as a carrier/platform to present foreign epitopes in the course of creating novel putative vaccines. However, there is mounting evidence that plant viruses, their virus-like and structurally modified particles may also have an immunopotentiating effect on antigens not bound with their surface covalently. Here, we present data on the adjuvant properties of plant viruses with various shapes (Tobacco mosaic virus, TMV; Potato virus X, PVX; Cauliflower mosaic virus, CaMV; Bean mild mosaic virus, BMMV) and structurally modified TMV spherical particles (SPs). We have analysed the effectiveness of immune response to individual model antigens (ovalbumin, OVA/hen egg lysozyme, HEL) and to OVA/HEL in compositions with plant viruses/SPs, and have shown that CaMV, TMV and SPs can effectively induce total IgG titers to model antigen. Some intriguing data were obtained when analysing the immune response to the plant viruses/SPs themselves. Strong immunity was induced to CaMV, BMMV and PVX, whereas TMV and SPs stimulated considerably lower self-IgG titers. Our results provide new insights into the immunopotentiating properties of plant viruses and can be useful in devising adjuvants based on plant viruses.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Epitopos/imunologia , Imunização/métodos , Muramidase/imunologia , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Vírus de Plantas/classificação , Vírus de Plantas/imunologia , Animais , Camundongos , Muramidase/administração & dosagem , Ovalbumina/administração & dosagem
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