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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 70, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994870

RESUMO

Biochar derived from banana peels can be used as an alternative nutrient in the soil that can promote crop growth while reducing fertiliser usage. Biochar stability has proportional relationship to biochar residence time in the soil and potassium is one of the vital nutrients needed for plant growth. This research aims at providing optimum pyrolysis operating conditions like temperature, residence time, and heating rate using banana peels as feedstock. An electrical tubular furnace was used to conduct the pyrolysis process to convert banana peels into biochar. The elemental compositions of biochar are potassium, oxygen (O), and carbon (C) content. The O:C ratio was used as the biochar stability indicator. Analysis of results showed that operating temperature has the most remarkable effect on biochar yield, biochar stability, and biochar's potassium content. In addition, a multilayer feedforward artificial neural network model was developed for the pyrolysis process. Eleven training algorithms were selected to model the multi-input multi-output neural network (MIMO). The most suitable training algorithm was identified through four performance criterions which are root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and regression (R2). The results show that the Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm has the lowest error. From the chosen training algorithm, neural network was trained, and optimum operating parameters for banana peel were predicted at 490 °C, 110 min, and 11 °C/min with a high yield of 47.78%, O/C ratio of 0.2393, and 14.04 wt. % of potassium.


Assuntos
Musa , Pirólise , Carvão Vegetal , Monitoramento Ambiental , Redes Neurais de Computação , Nutrientes , Solo , Temperatura
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130639, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348199

RESUMO

In this work, an ingredient containing non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), obtained from overripe bananas, was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vapor sorption isotherms. Soluble sugars from overripe bananas were extracted using ethanol, resulting in a solid NSP-rich fraction. The physical properties of this new ingredient and its response to temperature and water interactions are needed for its application as a fiber flour aggregate in food preparations. Results from thermal analyses, including gelatinization, glass transition and fusion, allowed building state diagrams, then compared to vapor sorption isotherms which resulted similar to a Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) type III isotherm at 25 °C, for NSP and standards samples as arabinoxylan and polygalacturonic acid. A good fit was obtained for the glass transition curves using the Kwei model. This approach enabled us to explore the stability of the material, regarding safety limits for microbial deterioration and structural changes due to glass transition.


Assuntos
Musa , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Farinha/análise , Polissacarídeos , Temperatura , Água
3.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113854, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607141

RESUMO

Insights into thermal degradation behaviour, kinetics, reaction mechanism, possible synergism, and thermodynamic analysis of co-pyrolysis of carbonaceous materials are crucial for efficient design of co-pyrolysis reactor systems. Present study deals with comprehensive kinetics and thermodynamic investigation of co-pyrolysis of petroleum coke (PC) and banana leaves biomass (BLB) for realizing the co-pyrolysis potential. Thermogravimetric non-isothermal studies have been performed at 10, 20, and 30 °C/min heating rates. Synergistic effect between PC and BLB was determined by Devolatilization index (Di) and mass loss method. Kinetic parameters were estimated using seven model-free methods. Standard activation energy for PC + BLB blend from FWO, KAS, Starink, and Vyazovkin methods was ≈165 kJ/mol and that from Friedman and Vyazovkin advanced isoconversional methods was ≈171 kJ/mol. The frequency factor calculated for the blend from Kissinger method was found to be in the range of 106-1016s-1. Devolatilization index (Di) showed synergistic effect of blending. The data pertaining to co-pyrolysis was found to fit well with R2 (second order) and D3 (three dimensional) from Z(α) master plot. Thermodynamic parameters, viz. ΔH ≈ 163 kJ/mol and ΔG ≈ 151 kJ/mol were calculated to determine the feasibility and reactivity of the co-pyrolysis process. The results are expected to be useful in the design of petcoke and banana leaves biomass co-pyrolysis systems.


Assuntos
Coque , Musa , Petróleo , Biomassa , Cinética , Folhas de Planta , Pirólise , Termodinâmica , Termogravimetria
4.
Food Chem ; 371: 131121, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555709

RESUMO

Active packaging that can be used to release active molecules food products during storage has been a central part in food science research over the last decades. This paper presents the development of an active film made from banana starch incorporated with curcumin-loaded orange oil nanoemulsion. Results showed that inclusion of the curcumin-loaded nanoemulsions reduced water vapor permeability, given the hydrophobic nature of curcumin. Likewise, elongation at break was also increased due to the plasticizing effect of the nanoemulsion. Finally, this paper reports the release profiles of curcumin from the active film into different food simulants. Results showed that curcumin release is diffusion driven in both aqueous and non-aqueous food simulants, however it seems that while the complete nanoemulsion droplets are released in the aqueous simulant, in non-aqueous simulant only curcumin molecules are released.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Filmes Comestíveis , Musa , Embalagem de Alimentos , Amido
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 330-340, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The natural abundance of stable isotope 15 N (δ15 N) in production systems has emerged as an alternative to distinguish organic products from conventional ones. This study evaluated the use of δ15 N values recorded for nitrogen fertilizers, soil and plant tissue in order to set the differences between organic and conventional agricultural production systems applied to rice, potatoes, apple and banana crops. RESULTS: Values of δ15 N recorded for N sources ranged from +5.58‰ to +18.27‰ and from -3.55‰ to +3.19‰ in organic and synthetic fertilizers, respectively. Values recorded for δ15 N in food from organic rice, potatoes and banana farms were higher than values recorded for δ15 N in conventional farms; the same was observed for values recorded for δ15 N in leaves from the four crops. CONCLUSION: Results have allowed for differentiation between production systems due to values of δ15 N recorded in leaves of all crops and food, for rice, potatoes and banana trees. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Alimentos Orgânicos/análise , Alimentos Orgânicos/normas , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Certificação , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Malus/química , Musa/química , Oryza/química , Solanum tuberosum/química
6.
Food Chem ; 366: 130539, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284191

RESUMO

The exploration of novel functional packaging films is of great scientific and technological interest. Herein, a novel chitosan/hollow g-C3N4/curcumin (CS-HCNS-Cur) biocomposite films was successful fabricated with integrated functions of slow release, antimicrobial activity and food freshness preservation. CS-HCNS-Cur films take the advantages of the excellent thermal stability and slow-release ability of HCNS to curcumin. Among the characterizations including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, atomic force microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mechanical properties and the rheological properties measurements confirmed the successful fabrication of CS-HCNS-Cur films. The averaged water contact angle and water vapor permeability of this film were 105.83° and 105.03 × 10-5 g·mm (m2·h·kPa)-1, respectively. This film showed pH-responsive and slow-release ability. Moreover, this film can effectively store bananas for 10 days. Therefore, CS-HCNS-Cur films have promising potential for applications in functional food packaging.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Curcumina , Musa , Nanopartículas , Grafite , Compostos de Nitrogênio , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
7.
Gene ; 809: 146041, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710526

RESUMO

Plant immunity to pathogen infections is a dynamic response that involves multiple organelles and defence signalling systems such as hypersensitive response (HR) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR). The latter requires the function of Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, a common plant protein family with diverse roles in plant innate immunity. Our previous proteomics study showed that a PR gene (ITC1587_Bchr9_P26466_MUSBA) was differentially regulated during a compatible banana-M. incognita interaction, substantiating the isolation of this gene in the current study. Here, we successfully isolated and characterised Pathogenesis-related-10 (PR10) gene with ß-1,3-glucanase and ribonuclease (RNase) activities from two Musa acuminata cultivars (denoted as MaPR10) namely Berangan and Grand Naine (ITC1256). We found that MaPR10 cloned sequences possess glycine-rich loop domain and shared conserved motifs specific to PR10 gene group, confirming its identity as a member of this group. Interestingly, we also found a catalytic domain sequence for glycoside hydrolase family 16 (EXDXXE), unique only to MaPR10 cloned sequences. Two peptide variants closely related to the reference sequence ITC1587_Bchr9_P26466_MUSBA namely MaPR10-BeB5 and MaPR10-GNA5 were overexpressed and purified to test for their functionality. Here, we confirmed that both protein variants possess ß-1,3-glucanase and ribonuclease (RNase) activities, and inhibit the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus, a human opportunistic pathogen. To our knowledge, this is the first PR10 plant proteins with such properties to be reported thus far.


Assuntos
Musa/genética , Musa/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tylenchoidea/patogenicidade , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus fumigatus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Cebolas/genética , Filogenia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
8.
Food Chem ; 374: 131731, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896958

RESUMO

The chitosan (CTS) solutions supplemented with chitosan-montmorillonite (CTS-MMT) nanocomposites at various concentrations were prepared for free-standing films by the casting technique. Incorporating 2% CTS-MMT nanocomposites into the free-standing CTS films could improve the water-resistance and oxygen barrier of the film. For the postharvest experiment, CTS and CTS supplemented with CTS-MMT nanocomposite solutions were applied as banana fruit coating by the dipping technique. The CTS supplemented with 2% CTS-MMT showed a significant retarding in peel color change, reduced electrolyte leakage, and MDA content, while CTS coating could maintain fruit firmness and reduce plasma membrane destruction for only the first few days. In addition, the CTS supplemented with 2% CTS-MMT coating could reduce ethylene production and respiration rate of the banana fruit. Overall results suggest that the CTS supplemented with 2% CTS-MMT nanocomposites is a novel coating material for maintaining the postharvest quality of 'Hom Thong' banana fruit.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Musa , Nanocompostos , Bentonita , Frutas
9.
Food Chem ; 374: 131794, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906803

RESUMO

A novel film composed of xanthan gum (XG) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was prepared (XH). The films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The light transmittance, mechanical properties and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) indicated the good compatibility between XG and HPMC with hydrogen-bond interaction and XG had a significant effect on the chemical structure, crystalline texture and microstructure of the XH composite film. The best XH sample with optimum XG concentration of 2 g/L was used as food packaging via coating onto banana, whereby the weight loss rate on banana was able to decreased from 25 ± 3% (without XH coating) to 16 ± 4% (with XH coating). Consequently, the release of flavor substances was also decreased. Banana shelf life has qualitatively improved with XH composite film for food preservation and affirmed the uses in food packaging applications.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos , Musa , Derivados da Hipromelose , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
10.
Food Chem ; 375: 131708, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922276

RESUMO

In this research, the Ag2O-TiO2-Bi2WO6(ATB) ternary heterojunction photocatalyst was synthesized by hydrothermal and surface deposition method, and the ATB/PVA composite film with ethylene photocatalytic degradation performance was constructed by the casting method. The structure and properties of ATB and ATB/PVA films were characterized and applied to banana preservation. The results showed that the addition of ATB could improve the mechanical properties, thermal stability, oxygen and moisture resistance, and reduce the crystallinity and light transmittance of PVA films. Compared with TiO2, Bi2WO6 and TB photocatalysts, ATB had the best photocatalytic degradation effect of ethylene under LED light. Compared with blank group, the ethylene concentration decreased by 17.17%. This was mainly attributed to the formation of heterostructure among Ag2O, TiO2 and Bi2WO6, which promoted the separation and transfer of photogenerated carriers. The ATB/PVA composite coating could effectively prevent the respiration of the bananas by inhibiting gas exchange and degrading ethylene, which reduced the weight loss, inhibited glycogen decomposition, improved the pulp hardness, increased titratable acid content, reduced the PPO activity, hindered the phenol oxidation and keep better apparent color of bananas. The safety study suggested that the ATB/PVA film is safe for bananas packaging application.


Assuntos
Musa , Álcool de Polivinil , Catálise , Etilenos , Titânio
11.
J Environ Manage ; 304: 114311, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929427

RESUMO

Water is essential for the continuation of life, moreover, clean water is of great importance on the basis of a healthy life. However, one of the biggest problems of our age is water scarcity and the rapid pollution of existing water resources. Besides, solid food wastes are becoming a growing problem day by day. Therefore, both environmentally friendly, effective and innovative techniques are required in the reuse of solid waste in the treatment of wastewater that is generated at enormous levels. In this study, the thermally activated persulfate (TAP) oxidation method was applied to remove the color and total organic carbon (TOC) of an industrial dye, malachite green (MG). The effects of different levels of experimental variables such as concentration of the oxidising agent, K2S2O8, (0.048 mM-0.55 mM), temperature (336 K-370 K) and treatment time (1.6 min-18.4 min) on the color and TOC removal of MG were investigated. Color removal efficiencies of 97.3% and TOC removal efficiencies of 56.4% were achieved. Evaluation of the effects of the experimental variables on the responses and the optimisation of the TAP method was performed using the response surface method (RSM). The accuracy of the method was assessed by ANOVA. Catalytical efficiencies of hydrochars synthesized in the subcritical water medium (SWM) and obtained from solid food wastes such as banana peel (BP) and watermelon peel (WM) as well as bay leaf (BL) were evaluated. The synthesized hydrochars were characterised by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) BET analyses. The most effective hydrochar in the catalysis of K2S2O8 was BP hydrochar as 83.6% of color removal was obtained using 0.048 mM K2S2O8 and 2 g/L BP hydrochars at 353 K in 10 min.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Laurus , Musa , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Catálise , Folhas de Planta , Corantes de Rosanilina
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(12)2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928201

RESUMO

A novel acid-tolerant actinobacterium (strain LPG 2T), which formed fragmented substrate mycelia, was isolated from bio-fertiliser of Musa spp. collected from Lampang Province, Thailand. Its morphological and chemotaxonomic properties, e.g., the presence of mycolic acid and MK-8 (H4ω-cycl) in the cells, showed that strain LPG 2T was a member of the genus Nocardia. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that this strain was closely related to Nocardia otitidiscaviarum NBRC 14405T (98.7 %). The low average nucleotide identity-blast and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values (<78.6 and <24.0 %, respectively), and several phenotypic differences between strain LPG 2T and its related Nocardia type strains, indicated that the strain merits classification as representing a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which we propose the name Nocardia acididurans sp. nov. The type strain is LPG 2T (=TBRC 11242T=NBRC 114293T).


Assuntos
Musa , Nocardia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fertilizantes , Nocardia/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tailândia
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(50): 15301-15313, 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898197

RESUMO

"Hongmeiren" bananas are popular because of their red peel. Two extraction methods solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and headspace solid-phase microextraction, combined with gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were used to analyze the volatile components of "Hongmeiren" bananas. A total of 86 aroma compounds were identified by GC-MS, 62 of which were identified as the major aroma-active compounds with an odor activity value ≥ 1 or modified frequency ≥ 30%. Ethyl (E)-2-butenoate, 4-undecanone, and α-phellandrene were found in bananas for the first time. Sensory experiments showed that eight sweet-associated odorants could significantly achieve the sweetness enhancement effect at 30 g/L sucrose solution by odor-induced changes in taste perception. These experiments suggest that selected odorants can achieve sugar reduction, but with consideration of the sugar concentration. The study of the sweetness enhancement effect of individual compounds provides a more direct theoretical support for sugar reduction in the food industry.


Assuntos
Musa , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria , Percepção , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
14.
Med J Aust ; 215(11): 536-540, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate how suturing orange and banana peels, pig skin, and synthetic skin compares with the experience of suturing human skin. DESIGN: Interventional study of simple interrupted, vertical mattress, and subcuticular suturing on the four test materials. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING: Fifteen consultants and six trainees in surgical and emergency medicine specialties at a New South Wales regional teaching hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was completion of simple interrupted, vertical mattress, and subcutaneous sutures. Secondary outcomes (assessed in a questionnaire) were similarity of suturing each material to suturing human skin, suitability of each material for practising each suture type, and similarity of each material to human anatomic skin types. RESULTS: All 21 participants completed simple interrupted sutures in bananas and pig and synthetic skins, and 15 in orange skin (P = 0.002). All 21 participants completed vertical mattress sutures in pig and synthetic skins, 18 in bananas, and six in oranges (P < 0.001). The numbers of completed subcuticular sutures were lower for the two fruits (orange, zero; banana, two) than for pig and synthetic skins (each, 21; P < 0.001). Banana peel was rated as somewhat similar to human skin and recommended for practising simple interrupted and vertical mattress suturing. CONCLUSIONS: Bananas are not only useful as healthy snacks between theatre cases, but also for practising and improving simple and vertical mattress suturing skills. However, less portable and nourishing materials are required for subcuticular suturing practice, such as pig skin or synthetic skin.


Assuntos
Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Técnicas de Sutura/educação , Animais , Citrus sinensis , Frutas , Musa , New South Wales , Pele , Pele Artificial , Cirurgiões/educação , Suínos , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto
15.
Planta ; 254(6): 115, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743252

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The banana development was inhibited under the long-term magnesium deficiency (MD) stress, resulting in the leaf chlorosis. MYB108 and WRKY75 are involved in regulating the growth and development of banana leaves and roots under long-term MD. Magnesium deficiency (MD) causes plant growth inhibition, ageing acceleration, yield reduction and quality decline of banana (Musa paradisiaca AA), but the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying the changes in response to long-term MD conditions remain unknown. In this study, a long-term MD experiment was performed with banana seedlings at the four-leaf stage. Compared to those in the control group, the growth of leaves and roots of seedlings in the long-term MD treatment experimental groups was inhibited, and the Mg content and chlorophyll contents were decreased. Leaves and roots of seedlings from the control and experimental groups were subsequently collected for RNA sequencing to identify the genes that respond to long-term MD. More than 50 million reads were identified from each sample, resulting in the detection of 3500 and 948 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the leaves and roots, respectively. MYB and WRKY transcription factors (TFs) involved in plant stress responses were selected for further analysis, and 102 MYB and 149 WRKY TFs were differentially expressed. Furthermore, two highly differentially expressed candidate genes, MYB108 and WRKY75, were functionally analyzed using Arabidopsis mutants grown under long-term MD conditions. The results showed that the density of root hairs on the wild type (WT) was than that on the myb108 and wrky75 mutants under MD, implying that the mutants were more sensitive to MD than the WT. This research broadens our understanding the underlying molecular mechanism of banana seedlings adapted to the long-term MD condition.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Magnésio , Musa , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Musa/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
16.
Food Res Int ; 149: 110706, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600698

RESUMO

Banana peel is a source of polysaccharides: pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Recent studies have shown that these carbohydrate fractions can be converted into oligomers, which have applications in food, feed and pharmaceuticals, claiming important technical, functional and biological activities. Potential prebiotic activity of pectin and cellulose oligosaccharides obtained from banana peel was already reported. Based on technologies developed for fractionation and extraction of polysaccharides, such as pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose, banana peel can be explored to obtain functional oligosaccharides.


Assuntos
Musa , Oligossacarídeos , Pectinas , Polissacarídeos , Prebióticos
17.
Phytomedicine ; 93: 153750, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is an asymptomatic bone disorder leading to altered bone microarchitecture, mineralization and strength. Musa paradisiaca has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in various diseases. Its impact on postmenopausal osteoporosis has not been investigated yet. PURPOSE: The intention of the current study was to evaluate the bone regeneration and osteoprotective potential of extract and fraction of M. paradisiaca flower in ovariectomized (Ovx) Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, a model of post-menopausal bone loss. The study also aims to identify osteogenic compounds from active fraction. METHODS: Ethanolic extract (MFE) and butanolic fraction (MFE-Bu) from flower of M. paradisiaca were prepared and their efficacy was tested in rat femur osteotomy model at different doses. Effective dose from both extract (250 mg/kg) and fraction (50 mg/kg) were taken for study in osteopenic bone loss model. PTH was taken as reference standard (20 µg/kg/twice a week). Bones were harvested at autopsy for dynamic and static histomorphometry. Serum was collected for ELISA. Pure compounds were isolated from butanolic fraction (MFE-Bu), and were assessed for their osteogenic effect. RESULTS: MFE and MFE-Bu were observed for their potential in bone healing and prevention of bone loss. Both MFE and MFE-Bu promoted new bone regeneration at injury site as assessed by microCT and calcein dye labeling studies. These also led to restoration of bone microarchitecture deteriorated as a result of osteopenia and improved bone biomechanical properties. Extract as well as the fraction exhibited dual bone anabolic and anti-resorptive properties where they elevated serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), a bone formation marker and suppressed serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-1), a bone resorption marker. As many as four osteogenic compounds were isolated from MFE-Bu. Oleracein-E was found to be the most potent osteogenic agent based on osteoblast differentiation, mineralization assays, qPCR and protein expression studies. CONCLUSION: Our studies demonstrates that ethanolic extract from the flower of M. paradisiaca and its butanolic fraction exhibit dual osteogenic and anti-resorptive potential, and have an advantage over PTH which though promotes bone formation but is also bone catabolic in nature.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas , Musa , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Flores , Humanos , Osteogênese , Ovariectomia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 415, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conservation of plant genetic resources, including the wild relatives of crops, plays an important and well recognised role in addressing some of the key challenges faced by humanity and the planet including ending hunger and biodiversity loss. However, the genetic diversity and representativeness of ex situ collections, especially that contained in seed collections, is often unknown. This limits meaningful assessments against conservation targets, impairs targeting of future collecting and limits their use. We assessed genetic representation of seed collections compared to source populations for three wild relatives of bananas and plantains. Focal species and sampling regions were M. acuminata subsp. banksii (Papua New Guinea), M. balbisiana (Viet Nam) and M. maclayi s.l. (Bougainville, Papua New Guinea). We sequenced 445 samples using suites of 16-20 existing and newly developed taxon-specific polymorphic microsatellite markers. Samples of each species were from five populations in a region; 15 leaf samples from different individuals and 16 seed samples from one infructescence ('bunch') were analysed for each population. RESULTS: Allelic richness of seeds compared to populations was 51, 81 and 93% (M. acuminata, M. balbisiana and M. maclayi respectively). Seed samples represented all common alleles in populations but omitted some rarer alleles. The number of collections required to achieve the 70% target of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation was species dependent, relating to mating systems. Musa acuminata populations had low heterozygosity and diversity, indicating self-fertilization; many bunches were needed (> 15) to represent regional alleles to 70%; over 90% of the alleles from a bunch are included in only two seeds. Musa maclayi was characteristically cross-fertilizing; only three bunches were needed to represent regional alleles; within a bunch, 16 seeds represent alleles. Musa balbisiana, considered cross-fertilized, had low genetic diversity; seeds of four bunches are needed to represent regional alleles; only two seeds represent alleles in a bunch. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate empirical measurement of representation of genetic material in seeds collections in ex situ conservation towards conservation targets. Species mating systems profoundly affected genetic representation in seed collections and therefore should be a primary consideration to maximize genetic representation. Results are applicable to sampling strategies for other wild species.


Assuntos
Musa/genética , Banco de Sementes , Sementes/genética , Alelos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Papua Nova Guiné , Polinização , Vietnã
19.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110616, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507760

RESUMO

Low temperature leads to abnormal ripening and poor quality of the harvested banana fruit, which is an urgent problem limiting the development of industry in China. To comprehensively understand the mechanism underlying low-temperature-affected ripening, we performed comparative RNA-Seq analysis of ethylene-induced ripening of banana fruit after 3 days of pre-storage at 7 °C and 22 °C. A total of 986 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in both RT-0 d versus RT-3 d, LT-0 d versus LT-3 d, RT-0 d versus LT-0 d and RT-3 d versus LT-3 d, and the RNA-Seq outputs of 15 randomly selective DEGs were verified using qRT-PCR. Among the 986 DEGs obtained in the four groups, 9 MYB genes (MaMYB75/281/219/4/151/156/3/37 and MaMYB3R1) and 32 genes related to carotenoid biosynthesis (MaPSY1/2a), flavor formation (MaLOX6, MaADH7, MaAAT1), sucrose transport (MaSUS2/4), ethylene production (MaSAM1, MaACO9/10/12, MaACS1/12), starch degradation (MaAMY1A/1B, MaPHS1/2, MaMEX2, MapGlcT1) and cell wall degradation (MaPG3/X1, MaPME25/41, MaXTH5/7/22/23/25, MaEXP2/20/A1/A15) were characterized. Combining transcription factor binding site (TFBS) analysis as well as cis-acting element analysis, the regulatory network of low-temperature-affected ripening mediated by MYBs were constructed. The data generated in this study may unravel the transcriptional regulatory network of MYBs associated with low-temperature-affected ripening and provide a solid foundation for future studies.


Assuntos
Musa , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Musa/genética , Musa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502265

RESUMO

TGA transcription factor is a member of the D subfamily of the basic region-leucine zippers (bZIP) family. It is a type of transcription factor that was first identified in plants and is the main regulator in plant development and physiological processes, including morphogenesis and seed formation in response to abiotic and biotic stress and maintaining plant growth. The present study examined the sequence of the MaTGA8 transcription factor, the sequence of which belonged to subfamily D of the bZIP and had multiple cis-acting elements such as the G-box, TCA-element, TGACG-element, and P-box. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses showed that MaTGA8 was significantly down-regulated by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (Foc TR4). Under the induction of salicylic acid (SA), MaTGA8 was down-regulated, while different members of the MaNPR1 family responded significantly differently. Among them, MaNPR11 and MaNPR3 showed an overall upward trend, and the expression level of MaNPR4, MaNPR8, and MaNPR13 was higher than other members. MaTGA8 is a nuclear-localized transcription factor through strong interaction with MaNPR11 or weaker interaction with MaNPR4, and it is implied that the MaPR gene can be activated. In addition, the MaTGA8 transgenic Arabidopsis has obvious disease resistance and higher chlorophyll content than the wild-type Arabidopsis with the infection of Foc TR4. These results indicate that MaTGA8 may enhance the resistance of bananas to Foc TR4 by interacting with MaNPR11 or MaNPR4. This study provides a basis for further research on the application of banana TGA transcription factors in Foc TR4 stress and disease resistance and molecular breeding programs.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Musa/genética , Musa/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/química , Fusariose/genética , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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