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1.
Trop Biomed ; 39(1): 55-59, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507925

RESUMO

Ticks are important vectors of arthropod-borne diseases and they can transmit a wide variety of zoonotic pathogens to humans, domestic and wild animals. Rickettsia japonica is a member of SFG rickettsiae causing Japanese spotted fever (JSF) and can transmit to humans via infected ticks. In this study, we report the first case of Rickettsia japonica in Haemaphysalis hystricis tick collected from a roadkill Burmese ferret-badger ( Melogale personata ) in Loei province, northeastern Thailand. According to the DNA sequences and phylogenetic analyses of the outer membrane protein A and B genes ( ompA and ompB), the detected R. japonica was identical to those found in JSF patients in Korea, Japan, and China, and closely related to Rickettsia detected by ompA in a tick from Thailand. Further study on the prevalence of R. japonica and diversity of mammalian reservoir hosts will be useful to gain a better understanding of JSF epidemiology.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Mustelidae , Rickettsia , Carrapatos , Animais , Furões , Humanos , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Filogenia , Rickettsia/genética , Tailândia , Carrapatos/microbiologia
4.
Metabolomics ; 18(5): 30, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The European badger (Meles meles) is a known wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and a better understanding of the epidemiology of bTB in this wildlife species is required for disease control in both wild and farmed animals. Flow infusion electrospray-high-resolution mass spectrometry (FIE-HRMS) may potentially identify novel metabolite biomarkers based on which new, rapid, and sensitive point of care tests for bTB infection could be developed. OBJECTIVES: In this foundational study, we engaged on assessing the baseline metabolomic variation in the non-bTB infected badger population ("metabotyping") across Wales. METHODS: FIE-HRMS was applied on thoracic fluid samples obtained by post-mortem of bTB negative badgers (n = 285) which were part of the Welsh Government 'All Wales Badger Found Dead' study. RESULTS: Using principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analyses, the major sources of variation were linked to sex, and to a much lesser extent age, as indicated by tooth wear. Within the female population, variation was seen between lactating and non-lactating individuals. No significant variation linked to the presence of bite wounds, obvious lymphatic lesions or geographical region of origin was observed. CONCLUSION: Future metabolomic work when making comparisons between bTB infected and non-infected badger samples will only need be sex-matched and could focus on males only, to avoid lactation bias.


Assuntos
Mustelidae , Tuberculose Bovina , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Masculino , Metabolômica , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5426, 2022 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361851

RESUMO

Settlements are usually shared at different times by semi-fossorial mammals. Porcupine reproductive pair shows high den-site fidelity, but no data are available on the spatio-temporal inhabitation of settlements. In this investigation, the spatio-temporal inhabitation of settlements by crested porcupine families was investigated using camera-trapping as well as the ethological factors affecting the settlements selection. The crested porcupine resulted to be the main inhabitant of settlements surveyed in the present study. Each settlement was inhabited exclusively by one porcupine family. Five out of six porcupine families, each alternatively and complementarily inhabited the same two settlements. In all the five monitored families, settlements selection doesn't follow a seasonal pattern. Settlement inhabitation of porcupines resulted positively affected by cohabitation with badger, while presence of porcupettes did not affect settlements selection. Long periods of settlement inhabitation were positively affected both by the presence of porcupettes and cohabitation with badger. The pattern of settlements inhabitation in relation to their availability and porcupine population density as well as factors promoting porcupine-badger cohabitation should be further investigated. New ethological knowledge obtained in this investigation could be involved in the evaluation of the ecological epidemiology of infectious diseases between porcupine and badger within a one health approach and may be a useful tool for a sustainable management of semi-fossorial mammals.


Assuntos
Mustelidae , Porcos-Espinhos , Animais , Humanos
8.
Zootaxa ; 5092(4): 401-428, 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391196

RESUMO

Six new species of Bebelis Thomson, 1864 are described: B. wappesi, B. tinga, and B. skillmani, from Bolivia (Santa Cruz); B. nearnsi, from Bolivia (La Paz); B. parana, from Argentina (Corrientes); and B. imitatrix, from Argentina (Mendoza). Bebelis concisa Galileo Martins, 2006 and B. angusta (Fisher, 1947) are synonymized with B. modesta (Belon, 1903); B. inaequalis (Fisher, 1947) is synonymized with B. obliquata (Breuning, 1940); B. schwarzi (Fisher, 1947) is synonymized with B. picta Pascoe, 1875; and B. acuta geometrica (Bates, 1880) and B. laetabilis (Belon, 1903) are synonymized with B. acuta Pascoe, 1875. New states records for B. angusta and B. cuprina (Belon, 1903) are provided. Bebelis zeteki (Fisher, 1947) is revalidated and Bebelis aurulenta (Belon, 1903) is illustrated for the first time. A provisional key to species of Bebelis is provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Mustelidae , Aranhas , Animais
11.
J Anim Ecol ; 91(5): 1024-1035, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35322415

RESUMO

Apex predators play key roles in food webs and their recovery can trigger trophic cascades in some ecosystems. Intra-guild competition can reduce the abundances of smaller predators and perceived predation risk can alter their foraging behaviour thereby limiting seed dispersal by frugivorous carnivores. However, little is known about how plant-frugivore mutualisms could be disturbed in the presence of larger predators. We evaluated the top-down effect of the regional superpredator, the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus, on the number of visits and fruits consumed by medium-sized frugivorous carnivores, as well as the foraging behaviour of identified individuals, by examining the consumption likelihood and the foraging time. We carried out a field experiment in which we placed Iberian pear Pyrus bourgaeana fruits beneath fruiting trees and monitored pear removal by frugivorous carnivores, both inside and outside lynx ranges. Using camera traps, we recorded the presence of the red fox Vulpes vulpes, the Eurasian badger Meles meles and the stone marten Martes foina, as well as the number of fruits they consumed and their time spent foraging. Red fox was the most frequent fruit consumer carnivore. We found there were fewer visits and less fruit consumed by foxes inside lynx ranges, but lynx presence did not seem to affect badgers. We did not observe any stone marten visits inside lynx territories. The foraging behaviour of red foxes was also altered inside lynx ranges whereby foxes were less efficient, consuming less fruit per unit of time and having shorter visits. Local availability of fruit resources, forest coverage and individual personality also were important variables to understand visitation and foraging in a landscape of fear. Our results show a potential trophic cascade from apex predators to primary producers. The presence of lynx can reduce frugivorous carnivore numbers and induce shifts in their feeding behaviour that may modify the seed dispersal patterns with likely consequences for the demography of many fleshy-fruited plant species. We conclude that knowledge of the ecological interactions making up trophic webs is an asset to design effective conservation strategies, particularly in rewilding programs.


Los depredadores ápice juegan papeles clave en las cadenas tróficas y su recuperación puede dar lugar a cascadas tróficas en algunos ecosistemas. La competición intra-gremial puede reducir las abundancias de los depredadores más pequeños y el riesgo de depredación percibido puede alterar su comportamiento de forrajeo, llegando a limitar la dispersión de semillas de los carnívoros frugívoros. Sin embargo, se sabe poco sobre cómo un mutualismo planta-animal podría ser alterado en presencia de grandes depredadores. Aquí evaluamos los efectos en cascada del superdepredador regional, el lince ibérico Lynx pardinus, sobre el número de visitas y frutos consumidos por los carnívoros frugívoros de mediano tamaño, a la vez que el comportamiento de alimentación de individuos identificados, examinando la probabilidad de consumo y el tiempo de forrajeo. Llevamos a cabo un experimento en el que colocamos frutos de piruétano Iberian pear bajo árboles productores y monitoreamos la remoción de peras por los carnívoros frugívoros, tanto dentro como fuera de territorios de lince. Mediante el uso de cámaras trampa, registramos la presencia de zorro rojo Vulpes vulpes, tejón europeo Meles meles y garduña Martes foina, además del número de frutos que consumieron y el tiempo que emplearon forrajeando. El zorro rojo fue el carnívoro consumidor de frutos más frecuente. Encontramos que había menos visitas y un menor consumo de frutos por zorros dentro de los territorios del lince, pero la presencia de lince no pareció afectar a los tejones. No registramos ninguna visita de garduña dentro de los territorios de los linces. El comportamiento de forrajeo de los zorros rojos fue también alterado dentro del rango de distribución del lince, donde los zorros fueron menos eficientes, consumieron menos frutos por unidad de tiempo y realizaron visitas más cortas. La disponibilidad local de frutos, la cobertura forestal y la personalidad individual también fueron variables importantes para entender los patrones de visita y forrajeo en un paisaje del miedo. Nuestros resultados muestran una cascada trófica potencial desde un superdepredador hasta los productores primarios. La presencia de lince puede reducir la abundancia de carnívoros frugívoros e inducir cambios en sus patrones de alimentación que pueden modificar los patrones de dispersión de semillas con probables consecuencias para la demografía de muchas especies de plantas de fruto carnoso. Concluimos que el conocimiento de las interacciones ecológicas que componen las redes tróficas es esencial para diseñar estrategias de conservación eficaces, especialmente en programas de reintroducción.


Assuntos
Carnívoros/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Frutas/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Raposas/fisiologia , Lynx/fisiologia , Mustelidae/fisiologia , Simbiose
12.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 12(5)2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266526

RESUMO

Insect body color is an easily assessed and visually engaging trait that is informative on a broad range of topics including speciation, biomaterial science, and ecdysis. Mutants of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster have been an integral part of body color research for more than a century. As a result of this long tenure, backlogs of body color mutations have remained unmapped to their genes, all while their strains have been dutifully maintained, used for recombination mapping, and part of genetics education. Stemming from a lesson plan in our undergraduate genetics class, we have mapped sable1, a dark body mutation originally described by Morgan and Bridges, to Yippee, a gene encoding a predicted member of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Deficiency/duplication mapping, genetic rescue, DNA and cDNA sequencing, RT-qPCR, and 2 new CRISPR alleles indicated that sable1 is a hypomorphic Yippee mutation due to an mdg4 element insertion in the Yippee 5'-UTR. Further analysis revealed additional Yippee mutant phenotypes including curved wings, ectopic/missing bristles, delayed development, and failed adult emergence. RNAi of Yippee in the ectoderm phenocopied sable body color and most other Yippee phenotypes. Although Yippee remains functionally uncharacterized, the results presented here suggest possible connections between melanin biosynthesis, copper homeostasis, and Notch/Delta signaling; in addition, they provide insight into past studies of sable cell nonautonomy and of the genetic modifier suppressor of sable.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Mustelidae , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Asas de Animais
13.
Oecologia ; 198(4): 995-1009, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35305156

RESUMO

The alternative prey hypothesis (APH) states that temporally synchronous population fluctuations of microtine rodents and other small herbivores are caused by generalist predators that show functional and numerical responses to the abundance of microtines. This would lead to an increased predation of alternative prey in the low phase of the microtine population fluctuations. One candidate for such a predator is the tree-climbing pine marten (Martes martes), which includes bird eggs in its diet, among them eggs of the cavity-nesting boreal owl (Aegolius funereus). I used long-term data to test whether pine marten predation of boreal owl eggs in nest boxes varied as predicted by the APH. The probability of predation of owl nests situated < 45 km from a site where microtines were trapped in spring during four decades increased with microtine trapping index, which is opposite to the prediction from the APH. As the data set was limited to one nest per box, I extended it spatially and temporally using the clutch size of each boreal owl nest as a proxy for the actual microtine abundance at the site. The probability of nest predation increased with clutch size. However, the effects of microtine index and owl clutch size became non-significant when I controlled for habitat, and in particular cavity age, which had an overriding effect. The increase in predation probability with cavity age suggests that the long-term spatial memory of pine marten is an important factor in the pattern of its nest predation in tree cavities.


Assuntos
Mustelidae , Estrigiformes , Animais , Arvicolinae , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Taiga
14.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 3991870, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35310578

RESUMO

This article appoints a novel model of rough set approximations (RSA), namely, rough set approximation models build on containment neighborhoods RSA (CRSA), that generalize the traditional notions of RSA and obtain valuable consequences by minifying the boundary areas. To justify this extension, it is integrated with the binary version of the honey badger optimization (HBO) algorithm as a feature selection (FS) approach. The main target of using this extension is to assess the quality of selected features. To evaluate the performance of BHBO based on CRSA, a set of ten datasets is used. In addition, the results of BHOB are compared with other well-known FS approaches. The results show the superiority of CRSA over the traditional RS approximations. In addition, they illustrate the high ability of BHBO to improve the classification accuracy overall the compared methods in terms of performance metrics.


Assuntos
Mel , Mustelidae , Algoritmos , Animais
17.
Vet Rec ; 190(6): e1384, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2013, badger culling has been part of the UK Government's strategy for controlling bovine tuberculosis (bTB) within a high-risk area (HRA) in England. Government surveillance data now enables an examination of bTB herd incidence and prevalence, its headline indicators, within and outside cull areas over the period 2009-2020. METHODS: Analysis compared herd incidence and prevalence data from within and outside badger culling areas. A range of models (GLMs, GLMMs, GAMs and GAMMs) were used to analyse incidence and prevalence in culled and unculled areas using frequentist and Bayesian approaches. Change in incidence across ten county areas within the HRA for the period 2010-2020 was also compared. RESULTS: Analyses based on Defra published data using a variety of statistical methodologies did not suggest that badger culling affected herd bTB incidence or prevalence over the study period. In 9 of 10 counties, bTB incidence peaked and began to fall before badger culling commenced. LIMITATIONS: There are limitations around the data available on culling location, temporal information and other confounding factors. As such, further analysis of any future datasets that may be released on bTB levels in areas where badger culling has been implemented is warranted. CONCLUSION: This examination of government data obtained over a wide area and a long time period failed to identify a meaningful effect of badger culling on bTB in English cattle herds. These findings may have implications for the use of badger culling in current and future bTB control policy.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Mustelidae , Tuberculose Bovina , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Incidência , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/prevenção & controle
19.
J Vet Med Sci ; 84(3): 454-456, 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35110459

RESUMO

Paragonimiasis is a zoonotic trematode infection caused by Paragonimus spp. To determine the recent status of Paragonimus infections in wild animals, this study investigated Paragonimus spp. in 39 raccoon dogs and 54 Japanese badgers from March 2019 to January 2021 in Miyazaki Prefecture, and examined metacercariae in freshwater crabs. Triploid P. westermani was found in one raccoon dog (2.6%), and metacercariae were recovered from Eriocheir japonica captured near the infected animal collected. One Japanese badger (1.9%) harbored P. skrjabini miyazakii; this prevalence was lower than the approximately 30% that was reported in the 1970s. Results indicated that zoonotic Paragonimus was sporadically prevalent in wild animals. Further investigation in various animals is awaited to elucidate current wildlife reservoirs for those Paragonimus.


Assuntos
Mustelidae , Paragonimíase , Paragonimus , Animais , Japão/epidemiologia , Paragonimíase/epidemiologia , Paragonimíase/veterinária , Cães Guaxinins
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(1): e20200099, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018999

RESUMO

Filaria lorenzo n. sp. is described in the Lesser Grison, Galictis cuja from northern Patagonia, Argentina. The new species can be differentiated from the eight species of Filaria from the Old World by the shape of the sclerotized preesophageal ring. The four remaining species of the genus parasitize American Mephitidae and/or Mustelidae. Filaria carvalhoi from Brazil and F. texensis from USA lack a preesophageal ring, whereas F. taxideae from USA and F. conepati from Argentina share with our specimens a preesophageal ring mostly mushroom shaped. Our specimens differ from F. taxideae by lacking lateral alae, by a different ornamentation of the female tail and by the male lacking adcloacal papillae. The new species also differs from F. conepati by the shape of the preesophageal ring and by the shape of the eggs. The indirect examination of the types of F. conepati and F. carvalhoi, corroborated the existence of differences between these two species, allowing us to refute their synonymy, as proposed by some authors. Our results extend the taxonomy of Filaria to 13 species and comprise the first report of a filarioid nematode for an Argentinean mustelid, and the first report for Patagonia.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Mustelidae , Nematoides , Animais , Argentina , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino
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