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1.
Gene ; 762: 145102, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882331

RESUMO

The Angiotensin system is implicated in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. First, ACE2 is the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and expression of the ACE2 gene could regulate the individuals susceptibility to infection. In addition, the balance between ACE1 and ACE2 activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases and could play a role in the severity of COVID-19. Functional ACE1/ACE2 gene polymorphisms have been associated with the risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and could thus also contribute to the outcome of COVID-19. We studied 204 COVID-19 patients (137 non-severe and 67 severe-ICU cases) and 536 age-matched controls. The ACE1 insertion/deletion and ACE2 rs2285666 polymorphism were determined. Variables frequencies were compared between the groups by logistic regression. We also sequenced the ACE2 coding nucleotides in a group of patients. Severe COVID-19 was associated with hypertension male gender (p < 0.001), hypertension (p = 0.006), hypercholesterolaemia (p = 0.046), and the ACE1-DD genotype (p = 0.049). In the multiple logistic regression hypertension (p = 0.02, OR = 2.26, 95%CI = 1.12-4.63) and male gender (p = 0.002; OR = 3.15, 95%CI = 1.56-6.66) remained as independent significant predictors of severity. The ACE2 polymorphism was not associated with the disease outcome. The ACE2 sequencing showed no coding sequence variants that could explain an increased risk of developing COVID-19. In conclusion, an adverse outcome of COVID-19 was associated with male gender, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and the ACE1 genotype. Our work suggested that the ACE1-I/D might influence COVID-19 severity, but the effect was dependent on the hypertensive status. This result requires further validation in other large cohorts.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Mutação INDEL , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4301, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879317

RESUMO

Copy-number aberrations (CNAs) and whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are frequent somatic mutations in cancer but their quantification from DNA sequencing of bulk tumor samples is challenging. Standard methods for CNA inference analyze tumor samples individually; however, DNA sequencing of multiple samples from a cancer patient has recently become more common. We introduce HATCHet (Holistic Allele-specific Tumor Copy-number Heterogeneity), an algorithm that infers allele- and clone-specific CNAs and WGDs jointly across multiple tumor samples from the same patient. We show that HATCHet outperforms current state-of-the-art methods on multi-sample DNA sequencing data that we simulate using MASCoTE (Multiple Allele-specific Simulation of Copy-number Tumor Evolution). Applying HATCHet to 84 tumor samples from 14 prostate and pancreas cancer patients, we identify subclonal CNAs and WGDs that are more plausible than previously published analyses and more consistent with somatic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and small indels in the same samples.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Duplicação Gênica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Masculino , Taxa de Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Análise de Célula Única , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4740, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958755

RESUMO

The immune system can recognize and attack cancer cells, especially those with a high load of mutation-induced neoantigens. Such neoantigens are abundant in DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient, microsatellite-unstable (MSI) cancers. MMR deficiency leads to insertion/deletion (indel) mutations at coding microsatellites (cMS) and to neoantigen-inducing translational frameshifts. Here, we develop a tool to quantify frameshift mutations in MSI colorectal and endometrial cancer. Our results show that frameshift mutation frequency is negatively correlated to the predicted immunogenicity of the resulting peptides, suggesting counterselection of cell clones with highly immunogenic frameshift peptides. This correlation is absent in tumors with Beta-2-microglobulin mutations, and HLA-A*02:01 status is related to cMS mutation patterns. Importantly, certain outlier mutations are common in MSI cancers despite being related to frameshift peptides with functionally confirmed immunogenicity, suggesting a possible driver role during MSI tumor evolution. Neoantigens resulting from shared mutations represent promising vaccine candidates for prevention of MSI cancers.


Assuntos
Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Vigilância Imunológica , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Taxa de Mutação , Seleção Genética , Microglobulina beta-2/genética
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21107, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756090

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Infertility is a common medical condition that affects nearly 15% of the world population. Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is one of the most severe forms of male infertility. Some common structural variants, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and genetic factors were reported to be associated with NOA. However, the underlying etiology and genetic mechanism(s) remain largely unclear. This report aimed to describe the associated mutation of the heat shock factor-2 (HSF2) gene in Chinese infertile men with NOA. PATIENT CONCERNS: An apparently healthy 27-year-old man with a body mass index (BMI) of 23.31 kg/m had a 2-year history of primary infertility. DIAGNOSES: The semen analysis of the patient showed a sperm concentration of 0/mL in 6.5 mL of semen. The patient was diagnosed with NOA by performing the comprehensive examinations including a detailed medical history, physical examination, chromosome analysis, Y-chromosome microdeletions, semen analysis, and hormone profiles. INTERVENTIONS: The couple received artificial insemination by donor (AID) and a healthy girl was born after the embryo transfer. OUTCOMES: We found a novel deletion-insertion variation c.326_326delinsGGAAGGTGAGCTATTGT in the exon 3 of the HSF2 gene by performing next-generation sequencing on him who was diagnosed NOA. We performed Sanger sequencing on this patient and confirmed the heterozygous missing insertion mutation in the patient. This is a novel mutation. The variant was heterozygous and categorized as pathogenic. LESSONS: A novel deletion-insertion variation c.326_326delinsGGAAGGTGAGCTATTGT in the exon 3 of HSF2 gene HSF2 is predicted to be pathogenic and associated with the occurrence of NOA.


Assuntos
Azoospermia/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Mutação INDEL/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3800, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733040

RESUMO

Frameshift insertion/deletions (fs-indels) are an infrequent but highly immunogenic mutation subtype. Although fs-indels are degraded through the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway, we hypothesise that some fs-indels escape degradation and elicit anti-tumor immune responses. Using allele-specific expression analysis, expressed fs-indels are enriched in genomic positions predicted to escape NMD, and associated with higher protein expression, consistent with degradation escape (NMD-escape). Across four independent melanoma cohorts, NMD-escape mutations are significantly associated with clinical-benefit to checkpoint inhibitor (CPI) therapy (Pmeta = 0.0039). NMD-escape mutations are additionally found to associate with clinical-benefit in the low-TMB setting. Furthermore, in an adoptive cell therapy treated melanoma cohort, NMD-escape mutation count is the most significant biomarker associated with clinical-benefit. Analysis of functional T cell reactivity screens from personalized vaccine studies shows direct evidence of fs-indel derived neoantigens eliciting immune response, particularly those with highly elongated neo open reading frames. NMD-escape fs-indels represent an attractive target for biomarker optimisation and immunotherapy design.


Assuntos
Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/genética , Transferência Adotiva , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Mutação da Fase de Leitura/genética , Humanos , Mutação INDEL/genética , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Linfócitos T/transplante , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
7.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2367-2372, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757058

RESUMO

Mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) infect almost all mammals, and there are some reports on MRVs in China. In this study, a novel strain was identified, which was designated as HLJYC2017. The results of genetic analysis showed that MRV HLJYC2017 is a reassortant strain. According to biological information analysis, different serotypes of MRV contain specific amino acid insertions and deletions in the σ1 protein. Neutralizing antibody epitope analysis revealed partial cross-protection among MRV1, MRV2, and MRV3 isolates from China. L3 gene recombination in MRV was identified for the first time in this study. The results of this study provide valuable information on MRV reassortment and evolution.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Orthoreovirus de Mamíferos/genética , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Infecções por Reoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , China/epidemiologia , Quirópteros , Cervos , Fezes/virologia , Expressão Gênica , Mutação INDEL , Camundongos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Orthoreovirus de Mamíferos/classificação , Orthoreovirus de Mamíferos/imunologia , Orthoreovirus de Mamíferos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/imunologia , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Reoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia , Sorogrupo , Suínos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236590, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735595

RESUMO

Zingiber montanum (Z. montanum) and Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) are important medicinal and ornamental herbs in the genus Zingiber and family Zingiberaceae. Chloroplast-derived markers are useful for species identification and phylogenetic studies, but further development is warranted for these two Zingiber species. In this study, we report the complete chloroplast genomes of Z. montanum and Z. zerumbet, which had lengths of 164,464 bp and 163,589 bp, respectively. These genomes had typical quadripartite structures with a large single copy (LSC, 87,856-89,161 bp), a small single copy (SSC, 15,803-15,642 bp), and a pair of inverted repeats (IRa and IRb, 29,393-30,449 bp). We identified 111 unique genes in each chloroplast genome, including 79 protein-coding genes, 28 tRNAs and 4 rRNA genes. We analyzed the molecular structures, gene information, amino acid frequencies, codon usage patterns, RNA editing sites, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and long repeats from the two chloroplast genomes. A comparison of the Z. montanum and Z. zerumbet chloroplast genomes detected 489 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 172 insertions/deletions (indels). Thirteen highly divergent regions, including ycf1, rps19, rps18-rpl20, accD-psaI, psaC-ndhE, psbA-trnK-UUU, trnfM-CAU-rps14, trnE-UUC-trnT-UGU, ccsA-ndhD, psbC-trnS-UGA, start-psbA, petA-psbJ, and rbcL-accD, were identified and might be useful for future species identification and phylogeny in the genus Zingiber. Positive selection was observed for ATP synthase (atpA and atpB), RNA polymerase (rpoA), small subunit ribosomal protein (rps3) and other protein-coding genes (accD, clpP, ycf1, and ycf2) based on the Ka/Ks ratios. Additionally, chloroplast SNP-based phylogeny analyses found that Zingiber was a monophyletic sister branch to Kaempferia and that chloroplast SNPs could be used to identify Zingiber species. The genome resources in our study provide valuable information for the identification and phylogenetic analysis of the genus Zingiber and family Zingiberaceae.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Genômica , Filogenia , Zingiberaceae/genética , Códon/genética , Mutação INDEL , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Edição de RNA
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236709, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the development of second-generation sequencing technology, more and more DNA sequence variations have been detected. Exon sequencing is the first choice for sequencing many cancer genes, and it can be better used to identify disease status by detecting gene variants. PCR sequence is an effective method to capture that sequence of an exon in the process of sequencing. Exon sequencing sequence contains PCR primer sequence, the correct position of the sequence can be determined by PCR primer sequence, which can be found in SNP, Indel mutation point by comparing the sequence of PCR primer sequence. RESULTS: In this paper, a matching algorithm based on the PCR primer sequence is proposed, which can effectively sequence the position of PCR primer sequence and find out the key position sequence. Then the sequencing sequence is sorted and the number of the same sequence is counted to reduce the matching times. Then, the sequenced sequence was matched with PCR primer sequence, so that the DNA position could be accurately matched and the variation in the sequenced sequence could be found more quickly. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the traditional sequence matching method, PCR primer sequence matching method can match many sequences and find more variation. It also showed a high recall rate in the recall rate.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , DNA/química , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Primers do DNA/metabolismo , Éxons , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 96, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chloroplast genome sequence data is very useful in studying/addressing the phylogeny of plants at various taxonomic ranks. However, there are no empirical observations on the patterns, directions, and mutation rates, which are the key topics in chloroplast genome evolution. In this study, we used Calycanthaceae as a model to investigate the evolutionary patterns, directions and rates of both nucleotide substitutions and structural mutations at different taxonomic ranks. RESULTS: There were 2861 polymorphic nucleotide sites on the five chloroplast genomes, and 98% of polymorphic sites were biallelic. There was a single-nucleotide substitution bias in chloroplast genomes. A â†’ T or T â†’ A (2.84%) and G â†’ C or C â†’ G (3.65%) were found to occur significantly less frequently than the other four transversion mutation types. Synonymous mutations kept balanced pace with nonsynonymous mutations, whereas biased directions appeared between transition and transversion mutations and among transversion mutations. Of the structural mutations, indels and repeats had obvious directions, but microsatellites and inversions were non-directional. Structural mutations increased the single nucleotide mutations rates. The mutation rates per site per year were estimated to be 0.14-0.34 × 10- 9 for nucleotide substitution at different taxonomic ranks, 0.64 × 10- 11 for indels and 1.0 × 10- 11 for repeats. CONCLUSIONS: Our direct counts of chloroplast genome evolution events provide raw data for correctly modeling the evolution of sequence data for phylogenetic inferences.


Assuntos
Calycanthaceae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Mutação/genética , Nucleotídeos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Bases , Cloroplastos/genética , Inversão Cromossômica/genética , Loci Gênicos , Mutação INDEL/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235942, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804931

RESUMO

Genome editing is now widely used in plant science for both basic research and molecular crop breeding. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) technology, through its precision, high efficiency and versatility, allows for editing of many sites in plant genomes. This system has been highly successful to produce knock-out mutants through the introduction of frameshift mutations due to error-prone repair pathways. Nevertheless, recent new CRISPR-based technologies such as base editing and prime editing can generate precise and on demand nucleotide conversion, allowing for fine-tuning of protein function and generating gain-of-function mutants. However, genome editing through CRISPR systems still have some drawbacks and limitations, such as the PAM restriction and the need for more diversity in CRISPR tools to mediate different simultaneous catalytic activities. In this study, we successfully used the CRISPR-Cas9 system from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9) for the introduction of frameshift mutations in the tetraploid genome of the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum). We also developed a S. aureus-cytosine base editor that mediate nucleotide conversions, allowing for precise modification of specific residues or regulatory elements in potato. Our proof-of-concept in potato expand the plant dicot CRISPR toolbox for biotechnology and precision breeding applications.


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Mutação INDEL , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genoma de Planta , Plasmídeos/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
12.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2355-2359, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748178

RESUMO

Two Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophages, KSAP7 and KSAP11, were isolated from sewage and characterized. Based on morphology and DNA sequences, they were assigned to the genus Silviavirus, subfamily Twortvirinae, family Herelleviridae, whose members are hypothesized to be suitable for bacteriophage therapy. The KSAP7 and KSAP11 genomes were 137,950 and 138,307 bp in size, respectively. Although their DNA sequences were almost identical, evidence of site-specific DNA rearrangements was found in two regions. Changes in the number of PIEPEK amino acid sequence repeats encoded by orf10 and the insertion/deletion of a 541-bp sequence that includes a possible tail-related gene were identified.


Assuntos
Caudovirales/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Fagos de Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Caudovirales/classificação , Caudovirales/isolamento & purificação , Rearranjo Gênico , Tamanho do Genoma , Mutação INDEL , Japão , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Terapia por Fagos , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fagos de Staphylococcus/classificação , Fagos de Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
14.
Gene ; 761: 145046, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781192

RESUMO

Many studies have shown that the LDB2 gene plays a regulatory role in retinal development and the cell cycle, but its biological role remains unclear. In this study, a 31-bp indel in the LDB2 gene was found for the first time on the basis of 2797 individuals from 10 different breeds, which led to different genotypes among individuals (II, ID and DD). Among these genotypes, DD was the most dominant. Association analysis of an F2 resource population crossed with the Gushi (GS) chicken and Anka chicken showed that the DD genotype conferred a significantly greater semi-evisceration weight (SEW, 1108.665 g ± 6.263), evisceration weight (EW, 927.455 g ± 5.424), carcass weight (CW, 1197.306 g ± 6.443), breast muscle weight (BMW, 71.05 g ± 0.574), and leg muscle weight (LMW, 100.303 g ± 0.677) than the ID genotype (SEW, 1059.079 g ± 16.86; EW, 879.459 g ± 14.446; CW, 1141.821 g ± 17.176; BMW, 67.164 g ± 1.523; and LMW, 96.163 g ± 1.823). In addition, LDB2 gene expression in different breeds was significantly higher in the breast muscles and leg muscles than in other tissues. The expression level in the breast muscle differed significantly among stages of GS chicken development, with the highest expression observed at 6 weeks. The expression levels in the pectoral muscles differed significantly among Ross 308 genotypes. In summary, we studied the relationships between a 31-bp indel in the LDB2 gene and economic traits in chickens. The indel was significantly correlated with multiple growth and carcass traits in the F2 resource population and affected the expression of the LDB2 gene in muscle tissue. In short, our study revealed that the LDB2 gene 31-bp indel can be used as a potential genetic marker for molecular breeding.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Cruzamento/métodos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Mutação INDEL , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Carne , Músculos Peitorais , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Produtos Avícolas
15.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 273, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exome and genome sequencing is becoming the method of choice for rare disease diagnostics. One of the key challenges remaining is distinguishing the disease causing variants from the benign background variation. After analysis and annotation of the sequencing data there are typically thousands of candidate variants requiring further investigation. One of the most effective and least biased ways to reduce this number is to assess the rarity of a variant in any population. Currently, there are a number of reliable sources of information for major population frequencies when considering single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and small insertion and deletions (INDELs), with gnomAD as the most prominent public resource available. However, local variation or frequencies in sub-populations may be underrepresented in these public resources. In contrast, for structural variation (SV), the background frequency in the general population is more or less unknown mostly due to challenges in calling SVs in a consistent way. Keeping track of local variation is one way to overcome these problems and significantly reduce the number of potential disease causing variants retained for manual inspection, both for SNVs and SVs. RESULTS: Here, we present loqusdb, a tool to solve the challenge of keeping track of any type of variant observations from genome sequencing data. Loqusdb was designed to handle a large flow of samples and unlike other solutions, samples can be added continuously to the database without rebuilding it, facilitating improvements and additions. We assessed the added value of a local observations database using 98 samples annotated with information from a background of 888 unrelated individuals. CONCLUSIONS: We show both how powerful SV analysis can be when filtering for population frequencies and how the number of apparently rare SNVs/INDELs can be reduced by adding local population information even after annotating the data with other large frequency databases, such as gnomAD. In conclusion, we show that a local frequency database is an attractive, and a necessary addition to the publicly available databases that facilitate the analysis of exome and genome data in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Interface Usuário-Computador , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3469, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651386

RESUMO

Insertions and deletions (InDels) are frequently observed in natural protein evolution, yet their potential remains untapped in laboratory evolution. Here we introduce a transposon-based mutagenesis approach (TRIAD) to generate libraries of random variants with short in-frame InDels, and screen TRIAD libraries to evolve a promiscuous arylesterase activity in a phosphotriesterase. The evolution exhibits features that differ from previous point mutagenesis campaigns: while the average activity of TRIAD variants is more compromised, a larger proportion has successfully adapted for the activity. Different functional profiles emerge: (i) both strong and weak trade-off between activities are observed; (ii) trade-off is more severe (20- to 35-fold increased kcat/KM in arylesterase with 60-400-fold decreases in phosphotriesterase activity) and (iii) improvements are present in kcat rather than just in KM, suggesting adaptive solutions. These distinct features make TRIAD an alternative to widely used point mutagenesis, accessing functional innovations and traversing unexplored fitness landscape regions.


Assuntos
Mutação INDEL/genética , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Mutagênese/genética , Mutagênese/fisiologia , Hidrolases de Triester Fosfórico/genética , Hidrolases de Triester Fosfórico/metabolismo , Biologia Sintética/métodos
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3644, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686686

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a biologically heterogeneous disease. To characterize its mutational profile, we conduct targeted sequencing of 205 genes for 2,105 CRC cases with survival data. Our data shows several findings in addition to enhancing the existing knowledge of CRC. We identify PRKCI, SPZ1, MUTYH, MAP2K4, FETUB, and TGFBR2 as additional genes significantly mutated in CRC. We find that among hypermutated tumors, an increased mutation burden is associated with improved CRC-specific survival (HR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21-0.82). Mutations in TP53 are associated with poorer CRC-specific survival, which is most pronounced in cases carrying TP53 mutations with predicted 0% transcriptional activity (HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.21-1.94). Furthermore, we observe differences in mutational frequency of several genes and pathways by tumor location, stage, and sex. Overall, this large study provides deep insights into somatic mutations in CRC, and their potential relationships with survival and tumor features.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Mutação , Prognóstico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
18.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669404

RESUMO

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) can be clinically diagnosed, but children often lack characteristic features. We report a family with homozygous growth differentiation factor 2 (GDF2)-related HHT diagnosed by genetic testing. A boy aged 5 years and 2 months presented with isolated hypoxemia. He was the product of a consanguineous marriage; his parents were second cousins. Physical examination revealed cyanosis of nail beds and clubbed fingers. Pulse oxygen saturation was 84% to 89%. Lung function, contrast-enhanced lung computed tomography, and noncontrast echocardiography were normal. A pulmonary perfusion scan revealed radioactivity in the brain and bilateral kidney, suggesting the existence of a intrapulmonary shunt. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a homozygous variant [c.1060_1062delinsAG (p.Tyr354ArgfsTer15)] in GDF2, which was found to be inherited from his heterozygous parents. At the age of 8 years, he developed epistaxis, and an angiogram revealed diffuse pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. At the age of 9 years, he was treated with sirolimus, and his condition improved significantly. However, his now 7-year-old sister with the same homozygous variant currently has no symptoms. Physical examinations revealed 1 pinpoint-sized telangiectasia on the chest of his mother and a vascular lesion on the forehead of his sister. Additionally, the patient's father and great-uncle had a history of mild to moderate epistaxis. Mutation in GDF2 is a rare cause of HHT. Ours is the first report of homozygous GDF2-related HHT; in addition, this variant has not been reported previously. In our report, we also confirm variable expressivity, even with the same pathogenic variant in GDF2-related HHT.


Assuntos
Fator 2 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Hipóxia/etiologia , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Endoglina/metabolismo , Epistaxe/etiologia , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Linhagem , Transdução de Sinais , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/sangue , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/complicações , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/diagnóstico por imagem , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18489-18496, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675237

RESUMO

Synthetic DNA is rapidly emerging as a durable, high-density information storage platform. A major challenge for DNA-based information encoding strategies is the high rate of errors that arise during DNA synthesis and sequencing. Here, we describe the HEDGES (Hash Encoded, Decoded by Greedy Exhaustive Search) error-correcting code that repairs all three basic types of DNA errors: insertions, deletions, and substitutions. HEDGES also converts unresolved or compound errors into substitutions, restoring synchronization for correction via a standard Reed-Solomon outer code that is interleaved across strands. Moreover, HEDGES can incorporate a broad class of user-defined sequence constraints, such as avoiding excess repeats, or too high or too low windowed guanine-cytosine (GC) content. We test our code both via in silico simulations and with synthesized DNA. From its measured performance, we develop a statistical model applicable to much larger datasets. Predicted performance indicates the possibility of error-free recovery of petabyte- and exabyte-scale data from DNA degraded with as much as 10% errors. As the cost of DNA synthesis and sequencing continues to drop, we anticipate that HEDGES will find applications in large-scale error-free information encoding.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Mutação INDEL , Replicação do DNA , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Modelos Estatísticos
20.
Tumour Biol ; 42(6): 1010428320925237, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484056

RESUMO

The KCNB1 gene variants were differentially associated with cancers. However, their association with colorectal cancer has not yet been explored. We investigated the contribution of the KCNB1 gene variants rs3331, rs1051295, and indel (insertion/deletion) rs11468831 Polymorphism as predictors of the treatment response in colorectal cancer patients. A retrospective study, which involved 291 Tunisian colorectal cancer patients (aged 60.0 ± 13.1 years), who were stratified into responder and non-responder groups, according to TNM stages and their responsiveness to chemotherapy based on fluorouracil. KCNB1 genotyping was performed with amplification-refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction, and was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Sex-specific response was found and colorectal cancer females are less likely to achieve a positive response during the chemotherapy strategy, compared to males. Weight and body mass index, tumor size, and tumor localization are considered as predictive factors to treatment responsiveness. Carriage of rs11468831 Ins allele was significantly associated with successful therapy achievement (p adjusted < 0.001). Stratification of colorectal cancer patients' response according to tumor localization and TNM stages reveals negative association of rs3331 Major allele to treatment response among the patients with advanced cancer stages (subgroup G2). The presence of rs3331 (homozygous minor) C/C genotype was positively associated with decline in carcino-embryonic antigen (p = 0.043) and CA19-9 (p = 0.014) serum levels. On the other hand, the presence of rs1051295 (homozygous minor) A/A genotype was correlated with marked decline in CA19-9 serum levels. KCNB1 haplotype did not reveal any association between haplotypes and treatment response. The results obtained suggest that gender-specific strategies for screening treatment and prevention protocols as well as KCNB1 variants may constitute an effective model for ongoing personalization medicine.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Associação Genética , Canais de Potássio Shab/genética , Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/sangue , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação INDEL/genética , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Organoplatínicos/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Medicina de Precisão , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Caracteres Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
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