Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.515
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22640, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019488

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Danon disease is a rare X-linked dominant genetic disorder caused by defects in the lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) gene. Unless treated, cardiogenic death is the main cause of mortality. This case report describes a 19-year-old man who was diagnosed with Danon disease and survived for 3 years from symptom onset to death. The mutation in his LAMP2 gene (p.Gly221Ilefs*19) had not been previously reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 19-year-old man patient was hospitalized for intermittent palpitations. He had no family history of cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, or sudden cardiac death, but his sister had died of cirrhosis at age 12 years, but the exact cause of cirrhosis was unknown. DIAGNOSIS: Exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing identified a novel missense mutation (p.Gly221Ilefs*19) in the LAMP2 gene of the proband. This mutation was also detected in his mother, confirming the diagnosis of Danon disease. INTERVENTIONS: The patient experienced various types of arrhythmia throughout the clinical process, including Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, non-sustained atrial tachycardia, atrial flutter, and third-degree atrioventricular block. He was therefore treated with cardiac ablation procedures and cardiac resynchronization therapy. OUTCOMES: The period from the onset of symptoms to the onset of heart failure was 2 years. The patient died of cardiogenic death during the third year, at age 22 years. LESSONS: Danon disease is a rare disease that is difficult to recognize because of its hidden early manifestations. Early identification of its clinical symptoms can lead to early diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo IIb/genética , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo IIb/terapia , Proteína 2 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/genética , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Evolução Fatal , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo IIb/complicações , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo IIb/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White/genética , Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White/terapia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3981, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769997

RESUMO

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is critical for normal development and metabolism. To better understand the genetic contribution to TSH levels, we conduct a GWAS meta-analysis at 22.4 million genetic markers in up to 119,715 individuals and identify 74 genome-wide significant loci for TSH, of which 28 are previously unreported. Functional experiments show that the thyroglobulin protein-altering variants P118L and G67S impact thyroglobulin secretion. Phenome-wide association analysis in the UK Biobank demonstrates the pleiotropic effects of TSH-associated variants and a polygenic score for higher TSH levels is associated with a reduced risk of thyroid cancer in the UK Biobank and three other independent studies. Two-sample Mendelian randomization using TSH index variants as instrumental variables suggests a protective effect of higher TSH levels (indicating lower thyroid function) on risk of thyroid cancer and goiter. Our findings highlight the pleiotropic effects of TSH-associated variants on thyroid function and growth of malignant and benign thyroid tumors.


Assuntos
Pleiotropia Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Tireotropina/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Bócio/genética , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fenótipo , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tireoglobulina/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 564-574, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822602

RESUMO

KAT5 encodes an essential lysine acetyltransferase, previously called TIP60, which is involved in regulating gene expression, DNA repair, chromatin remodeling, apoptosis, and cell proliferation; but it remains unclear whether variants in this gene cause a genetic disease. Here, we study three individuals with heterozygous de novo missense variants in KAT5 that affect normally invariant residues, with one at the chromodomain (p.Arg53His) and two at or near the acetyl-CoA binding site (p.Cys369Ser and p.Ser413Ala). All three individuals have cerebral malformations, seizures, global developmental delay or intellectual disability, and severe sleep disturbance. Progressive cerebellar atrophy was also noted. Histone acetylation assays with purified variant KAT5 demonstrated that the variants decrease or abolish the ability of the resulting NuA4/TIP60 multi-subunit complexes to acetylate the histone H4 tail in chromatin. Transcriptomic analysis in affected individual fibroblasts showed deregulation of multiple genes that control development. Moreover, there was also upregulated expression of PER1 (a key gene involved in circadian control) in agreement with sleep anomalies in all of the individuals. In conclusion, dominant missense KAT5 variants cause histone acetylation deficiency with transcriptional dysregulation of multiples genes, thereby leading to a neurodevelopmental syndrome with sleep disturbance, cerebellar atrophy, and facial dysmorphisms, and suggesting a recognizable syndrome.


Assuntos
Atrofia/genética , Doenças Cerebelares/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Lisina Acetiltransferase 5/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atrofia/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cerebelares/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Cromatina/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética
4.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008941, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760060

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins (B-lps) are essential for the transport of hydrophobic dietary and endogenous lipids through the circulation in vertebrates. Zebrafish embryos produce large numbers of B-lps in the yolk syncytial layer (YSL) to move lipids from yolk to growing tissues. Disruptions in B-lp production perturb yolk morphology, readily allowing for visual identification of mutants with altered B-lp metabolism. Here we report the discovery of a missense mutation in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mtp), a protein that is essential for B-lp production. This mutation of a conserved glycine residue to valine (zebrafish G863V, human G865V) reduces B-lp production and results in yolk opacity due to aberrant accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in the YSL. However, this phenotype is milder than that of the previously reported L475P stalactite (stl) mutation. MTP transfers lipids, including triglycerides and phospholipids, to apolipoprotein B in the ER for B-lp assembly. In vitro lipid transfer assays reveal that while both MTP mutations eliminate triglyceride transfer activity, the G863V mutant protein unexpectedly retains ~80% of phospholipid transfer activity. This residual phospholipid transfer activity of the G863V mttp mutant protein is sufficient to support the secretion of small B-lps, which prevents intestinal fat malabsorption and growth defects observed in the mttpstl/stl mutant zebrafish. Modeling based on the recent crystal structure of the heterodimeric human MTP complex suggests the G865V mutation may block triglyceride entry into the lipid-binding cavity. Together, these data argue that selective inhibition of MTP triglyceride transfer activity may be a feasible therapeutic approach to treat dyslipidemia and provide structural insight for drug design. These data also highlight the power of yolk transport studies to identify proteins critical for B-lp biology.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Lipoproteínas/genética , Triglicerídeos/genética , Animais , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Mutação Puntual/genética , Transporte Proteico/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética
5.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 278, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variants in the SLC25A1 gene are associated with a severe neurometabolic disease, D-2- and L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D/L-2-HGA). A report in 2014 presented the first account of congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) with mild intellectual disability (ID) caused by SLC25A1. To date, only two missense variants in SLC25A1 have been linked to CMS. CASE PRESENTATIONS: A Chinese boy presented fatigable muscular weakness, myasthenic crisis, epilepsy and developmental delay along with mild elevation of urinary 2-ketoglutarate (2-KG) and lactic acid levels. He showed a partial response to pyridostigmine. Genetic analysis using trio whole-exome sequencing (WES), Sanger sequencing, and cosegregation analyses revealed two novel pathogenic variants of SLC25A1 (c.628C > T, p.R210X; c.145G > A, p.V49M). CONCLUSIONS: We report a boy who carries novel compound heterozygous variants of SLC25A1 and presents a phenotype intermediate between CMS and D/L-2-HGA. This case expands the range of known phenotypes and genotypes associated with SLC25A1.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias Metabólicas Congênitas , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Síndromes Miastênicas Congênitas , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Encefalopatias Metabólicas Congênitas/genética , Encefalopatias Metabólicas Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Síndromes Miastênicas Congênitas/genética , Síndromes Miastênicas Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo
6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 499-513, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721402

RESUMO

Signal transduction through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, the first described mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, mediates multiple cellular processes and participates in early and late developmental programs. Aberrant signaling through this cascade contributes to oncogenesis and underlies the RASopathies, a family of cancer-prone disorders. Here, we report that de novo missense variants in MAPK1, encoding the mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (i.e., extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2, ERK2), cause a neurodevelopmental disease within the RASopathy phenotypic spectrum, reminiscent of Noonan syndrome in some subjects. Pathogenic variants promote increased phosphorylation of the kinase, which enhances translocation to the nucleus and boosts MAPK signaling in vitro and in vivo. Two variant classes are identified, one of which directly disrupts binding to MKP3, a dual-specificity protein phosphatase negatively regulating ERK function. Importantly, signal dysregulation driven by pathogenic MAPK1 variants is stimulus reliant and retains dependence on MEK activity. Our data support a model in which the identified pathogenic variants operate with counteracting effects on MAPK1 function by differentially impacting the ability of the kinase to interact with regulators and substrates, which likely explains the minor role of these variants as driver events contributing to oncogenesis. After nearly 20 years from the discovery of the first gene implicated in Noonan syndrome, PTPN11, the last tier of the MAPK cascade joins the group of genes mutated in RASopathies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Síndrome de Noonan/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Proteínas ras/genética
7.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008922, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667917

RESUMO

A challenge in medical genomics is to identify variants and genes associated with severe genetic disorders. Based on the premise that severe, early-onset disorders often result in a reduction of evolutionary fitness, several statistical methods have been developed to predict pathogenic variants or constrained genes based on the signatures of negative selection in human populations. However, we currently lack a statistical framework to jointly predict deleterious variants and constrained genes from both variant-level features and gene-level selective constraints. Here we present such a unified approach, UNEECON, based on deep learning and population genetics. UNEECON treats the contributions of variant-level features and gene-level constraints as a variant-level fixed effect and a gene-level random effect, respectively. The sum of the fixed and random effects is then combined with an evolutionary model to infer the strength of negative selection at both variant and gene levels. Compared with previously published methods, UNEECON shows improved performance in predicting missense variants and protein-coding genes associated with autosomal dominant disorders, and feature importance analysis suggests that both gene-level selective constraints and variant-level predictors are important for accurate variant prioritization. Furthermore, based on UNEECON, we observe a low correlation between gene-level intolerance to missense mutations and that to loss-of-function mutations, which can be partially explained by the prevalence of disordered protein regions that are highly tolerant to missense mutations. Finally, we show that genes intolerant to both missense and loss-of-function mutations play key roles in the central nervous system and the autism spectrum disorders. Overall, UNEECON is a promising framework for both variant and gene prioritization.


Assuntos
Aptidão Genética/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Seleção Genética , Aprendizado Profundo , Feminino , Aptidão Genética/fisiologia , Genética Populacional , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Masculino
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3698, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703943

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) is a heterogeneous clinical entity and includes an excess of males who harbor variants on the X-chromosome (XLID). We report rare FAM50A missense variants in the original Armfield XLID syndrome family localized in Xq28 and four additional unrelated males with overlapping features. Our fam50a knockout (KO) zebrafish model exhibits abnormal neurogenesis and craniofacial patterning, and in vivo complementation assays indicate that the patient-derived variants are hypomorphic. RNA sequencing analysis from fam50a KO zebrafish show dysregulation of the transcriptome, with augmented spliceosome mRNAs and depletion of transcripts involved in neurodevelopment. Zebrafish RNA-seq datasets show a preponderance of 3' alternative splicing events in fam50a KO, suggesting a role in the spliceosome C complex. These data are supported with transcriptomic signatures from cell lines derived from affected individuals and FAM50A protein-protein interaction data. In sum, Armfield XLID syndrome is a spliceosomopathy associated with aberrant mRNA processing during development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Spliceossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Adulto , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Células NIH 3T3 , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Transporte Proteico , Processamento de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/genética , Síndrome , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
9.
Hum Genet ; 139(11): 1443-1454, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514796

RESUMO

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) belongs to the most frequent forms of cardiomyopathy mainly characterized by cardiac dilatation and reduced systolic function. Although most cases of DCM are classified as sporadic, 20-30% of cases show a heritable pattern. Familial forms of DCM are genetically heterogeneous, and mutations in several genes have been identified that most commonly play a role in cytoskeleton and sarcomere-associated processes. Still, a large number of familial cases remain unsolved. Here, we report five individuals from three independent families who presented with severe dilated cardiomyopathy during the neonatal period. Using whole-exome sequencing (WES), we identified causative, compound heterozygous missense variants in RPL3L (ribosomal protein L3-like) in all the affected individuals. The identified variants co-segregated with the disease in each of the three families and were absent or very rare in the human population, in line with an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. They are located within the conserved RPL3 domain of the protein and were classified as deleterious by several in silico prediction software applications. RPL3L is one of the four non-canonical riboprotein genes and it encodes the 60S ribosomal protein L3-like protein that is highly expressed only in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Three-dimensional homology modeling and in silico analysis of the affected residues in RPL3L indicate that the identified changes specifically alter the interaction of RPL3L with the RNA components of the 60S ribosomal subunit and thus destabilize its binding to the 60S subunit. In conclusion, we report that bi-allelic pathogenic variants in RPL3L are causative of an early-onset, severe neonatal form of dilated cardiomyopathy, and we show for the first time that cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins are involved in the pathogenesis of non-syndromic cardiomyopathies.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Alelos , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , RNA/genética
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(1): 158-163, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516568

RESUMO

The discovery of genetic causes of inherited skin disorders has been pivotal to the understanding of epidermal differentiation, function, and renewal. Here we show via exome sequencing that mutations in ASPRV1 (aspartic peptidase retroviral-like 1) cause a dominant Mendelian disorder featuring palmoplantar keratoderma and lamellar ichthyosis, a phenotype that has otherwise been exclusively recessive. ASPRV1 encodes a mammalian-specific and stratified epithelia-specific protease important in processing of filaggrin, a critical component of the uppermost epidermal layer. Three different heterozygous ASPRV1 missense mutations in four unrelated ichthyosis kindreds segregate with disease and disrupt protein residues within close proximity to each other and autocatalytic cleavage sites. Expression of mutant ASPRV1 proteins demonstrates that all three mutations alter ASPRV1 auto-cleavage and filaggrin processing, a function vital to epidermal barrier integrity.


Assuntos
Hereditariedade/genética , Ictiose Lamelar/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Dermatopatias/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Proteínas de Filamentos Intermediários/genética , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20413, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is an autosomal recessive hepatorenal fibrocystic syndrome. The majority of ARPKD patients progress to end-stage renal disease. Precise molecular diagnosis of ARPKD has proven valuable for understanding its mechanism and selecting optimal therapy. METHODS: A Chinese family with ARPKD was recruited in current study. The clinical characteristics of ARPKD patient were collected from medical records and the potential responsible genes were studied by the whole exome sequencing (WES). Candidate pathogenic variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Both renal manifestation and hepatobiliary phenotype were observed. WES revealed compound heterozygous mutations of polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 genes, NM_138694: c.751G>T, (p.Asp251Tyr) and c.3998_4004delACCTGAA (p.Asn1333Thr fs × 13), which were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Moreover, the mutations in the proband and its affected sib were co-segregated with the phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: The novel mutation in polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 gene identified by WES might be molecular pathogenic basis of this disorder.


Assuntos
Rim Policístico Autossômico Recessivo/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adulto , Criança , China , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
12.
Gene ; 753: 144815, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479982

RESUMO

Lymphedema are characterized by interstitial edema leading to swelling of extremities. They can be divided into primary and secondary lymphedema. Developmental abnormalities of the lymphatic system are responsible for the primary form of lymphedema. The secondary form of lymphedema is caused by damage of the lymphatic system due to external factors. Lymphedema can rarely be observed in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), which is a neurocutaneous syndrome caused by pathogenic variants in the genes TSC1 or TSC2. Patients with TSC usually present with neurological manifestations and the development of multiple benign tumors of ectodermal origin. Typical onset for several symptoms is during the first year of life and in some cases lesions can be detected prenatally. Epilepsy is one of the most common manifestations, affecting up to 90% of TSC patients, and is associated with developmental delay. Early pharmacotherapy improves long term patient outcome. Trio exome sequencing was performed in a 3 weeks old girl with congenital lymphedema of the right lower extremity. Using a filter for de novo variants, the heterozygous missense variant c.2524C>T, p.(Gln842Ter) in TSC1 (NM_000368.4) could be identified. After the first onset of infantile spams at age 7 months treatment with vigabatrin was started immediately. We propose to include TSC1 and TSC2 analysis in the diagnostic work-up of patients with (isolated) congenital lymphedema as early diagnosis facilitates consequent treatment strategies potentially improving the prognosis of TSC patients.


Assuntos
Linfedema/genética , Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Esclerose Tuberosa/patologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/complicações , Epilepsia/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Linfedema/complicações , Linfedema/patologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Prognóstico , Esclerose Tuberosa/complicações , Proteína 1 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
13.
Genet Sel Evol ; 52(1): 27, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distinct domestication events, adaptation to different climatic zones, and divergent selection in productive traits have shaped the genomic differences between taurine and indicine cattle. In this study, we assessed the impact of artificial selection and environmental adaptation by comparing whole-genome sequences from European taurine and Asian indicine breeds and from African cattle. Next, we studied the impact of divergent selection by exploiting predicted and experimental functional annotation of the bovine genome. RESULTS: We identified selective sweeps in beef cattle taurine and indicine populations, including a 430-kb selective sweep on indicine cattle chromosome 5 that is located between 47,670,001 and 48,100,000 bp and spans five genes, i.e. HELB, IRAK3, ENSBTAG00000026993, GRIP1 and part of HMGA2. Regions under selection in indicine cattle display significant enrichment for promoters and coding genes. At the nucleotide level, sites that show a strong divergence in allele frequency between European taurine and Asian indicine are enriched for the same functional categories. We identified nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in coding regions that are fixed for different alleles between subspecies, eight of which were located within the DNA helicase B (HELB) gene. By mining information from the 1000 Bull Genomes Project, we found that HELB carries mutations that are specific to indicine cattle but also found in taurine cattle, which are known to have been subject to indicine introgression from breeds, such as N'Dama, Anatolian Red, Marchigiana, Chianina, and Piedmontese. Based on in-house genome sequences, we proved that mutations in HELB segregate independently of the copy number variation HMGA2-CNV, which is located in the same region. CONCLUSIONS: Major genomic sequence differences between Bos taurus and Bos indicus are enriched for promoter and coding regions. We identified a 430-kb selective sweep in Asian indicine cattle located on chromosome 5, which carries SNPs that are fixed in indicine populations and located in the coding sequences of the HELB gene. HELB is involved in the response to DNA damage including exposure to ultra-violet light and is associated with reproductive traits and yearling weight in tropical cattle. Thus, HELB likely contributed to the adaptation of tropical cattle to their harsh environment.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Alelos , Animais , Sequência de Bases/genética , Cruzamento , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Dano ao DNA/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Domesticação , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genótipo , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(1): 15-23, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473092

RESUMO

Normal oocyte meiosis is a prerequisite for successful human reproduction, and abnormalities in the process will result in infertility. In 2016, we identified mutations in TUBB8 as responsible for human oocyte meiotic arrest. However, the underlying genetic factors for most affected individuals remain unknown. TRIP13, encoding an AAA-ATPase, is a key component of the spindle assembly checkpoint, and recurrent homozygous nonsense variants and a splicing variant in TRIP13 are reported to cause Wilms tumors in children. In this study, we identified homozygous and compound heterozygous missense pathogenic variants in TRIP13 responsible for female infertility mainly characterized by oocyte meiotic arrest in five individuals from four independent families. Individuals from three families suffered from oocyte maturation arrest, whereas the individual from the fourth family had abnormal zygote cleavage. All displayed only the infertility phenotype without Wilms tumors or any other abnormalities. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that the identified variants reduced the protein abundance of TRIP13 and caused its downstream molecule, HORMAD2, to accumulate in HeLa cells and in proband-derived lymphoblastoid cells. The chromosome mis-segregation assay showed that variants did not have any effects on mitosis. Injecting TRIP13 cRNA into oocytes from one affected individual was able to rescue the phenotype, which has implications for future therapeutic treatments. This study reports pathogenic variants in TRIP13 responsible for oocyte meiotic arrest, and it highlights the pivotal but different roles of TRIP13 in meiosis and mitosis. These findings also indicate that different dosage effects of mutant TRIP13 might result in two distinct human diseases.


Assuntos
ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Infertilidade Feminina/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Oócitos/patologia , Adulto , Alelos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Células HeLa , Homozigoto , Humanos , Meiose/genética , Fenótipo , Zigoto/patologia
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2441, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415109

RESUMO

KIF21B is a kinesin protein that promotes intracellular transport and controls microtubule dynamics. We report three missense variants and one duplication in KIF21B in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with brain malformations, including corpus callosum agenesis (ACC) and microcephaly. We demonstrate, in vivo, that the expression of KIF21B missense variants specifically recapitulates patients' neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including microcephaly and reduced intra- and inter-hemispheric connectivity. We establish that missense KIF21B variants impede neuronal migration through attenuation of kinesin autoinhibition leading to aberrant KIF21B motility activity. We also show that the ACC-related KIF21B variant independently perturbs axonal growth and ipsilateral axon branching through two distinct mechanisms, both leading to deregulation of canonical kinesin motor activity. The duplication introduces a premature termination codon leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Although we demonstrate that Kif21b haploinsufficiency leads to an impaired neuronal positioning, the duplication variant might not be pathogenic. Altogether, our data indicate that impaired KIF21B autoregulation and function play a critical role in the pathogenicity of human neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Cinesina/genética , Atividade Motora , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Córtex Cerebral/embriologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Organogênese/genética , Linhagem , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/anatomia & histologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2073, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350270

RESUMO

Functional variomics provides the foundation for personalized medicine by linking genetic variation to disease expression, outcome and treatment, yet its utility is dependent on appropriate assays to evaluate mutation impact on protein function. To fully assess the effects of 106 missense and nonsense variants of PTEN associated with autism spectrum disorder, somatic cancer and PTEN hamartoma syndrome (PHTS), we take a deep phenotypic profiling approach using 18 assays in 5 model systems spanning diverse cellular environments ranging from molecular function to neuronal morphogenesis and behavior. Variants inducing instability occur across the protein, resulting in partial-to-complete loss-of-function (LoF), which is well correlated across models. However, assays are selectively sensitive to variants located in substrate binding and catalytic domains, which exhibit complete LoF or dominant negativity independent of effects on stability. Our results indicate that full characterization of variant impact requires assays sensitive to instability and a range of protein functions.


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Dendritos/fisiologia , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Sistema Nervoso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fosforilação , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
17.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(5): e1007775, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413045

RESUMO

The human genome harbors a variety of genetic variations. Single-nucleotide changes that alter amino acids in protein-coding regions are one of the major causes of human phenotypic variation and diseases. These single-amino acid variations (SAVs) are routinely found in whole genome and exome sequencing. Evaluating the functional impact of such genomic alterations is crucial for diagnosis of genetic disorders. We developed DeepSAV, a deep-learning convolutional neural network to differentiate disease-causing and benign SAVs based on a variety of protein sequence, structural and functional properties. Our method outperforms most stand-alone programs, and the version incorporating population and gene-level information (DeepSAV+PG) has similar predictive power as some of the best available. We transformed DeepSAV scores of rare SAVs in the human population into a quantity termed "mutation severity measure" for each human protein-coding gene. It reflects a gene's tolerance to deleterious missense mutations and serves as a useful tool to study gene-disease associations. Genes implicated in cancer, autism, and viral interaction are found by this measure as intolerant to mutations, while genes associated with a number of other diseases are scored as tolerant. Among known disease-associated genes, those that are mutation-intolerant are likely to function in development and signal transduction pathways, while those that are mutation-tolerant tend to encode metabolic and mitochondrial proteins.


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Previsões/métodos , Genoma Humano/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Aprendizado Profundo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Rede Nervosa , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Análise de Sequência/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
18.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 95, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conotruncal heart defects (CTDs) are a group of congenital heart malformations that cause anomalies of cardiac outflow tracts. In the past few decades, many genes related to CTDs have been reported. Serum response factor (SRF) is a ubiquitous nuclear protein that acts as transcription factor, and SRF was found to be a critical factor in heart development and to be strongly expressed in the myocardium of the developing mouse and chicken hearts. The targeted inactivation of SRF during heart development leads to embryonic lethality and myocardial defects in mice. METHODS: To illustrate the relationship between SRF and human heart defects, we screened SRF mutations in 527 CTD patients, a cross sectional study. DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocyte cells for target sequencing. The mutations of SRF were detected and validated by Sanger sequencing. The affection of the mutations on wild-type protein was analyzed by in silico softwares. Western blot and real time PCR were used to analyze the changes of the expression of the mutant mRNA and protein. In addition, we carried out dual luciferase reporter assay to explore the transcriptional activity of the mutant SRF. RESULTS: Among the target sequencing results of 527 patients, two novel mutations (Mut1: c.821A > G p.G274D, the adenine(A) was mutated to guanine(G) at position 821 of the SRF gene coding sequences (CDS), lead to the Glycine(G) mutated to Asparticacid(D) at position 274 of the SRF protein amino acid sequences; Mut2: c.880G > T p.G294C, the guanine(G) was mutated to thymine (T) at position 880 of the SRF CDS, lead to the Glycine(G) mutated to Cysteine (C) at position 294 of the SRF protein amino acid sequences.) of SRF (NM_003131.4) were identified. Western blotting and real-time PCR showed that there were no obvious differences between the protein expression and mRNA transcription of mutants and wild-type SRF. A dual luciferase reporter assay showed that both SRF mutants (G274D and G294C) impaired SRF transcriptional activity at the SRF promoter and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) promoter (p < 0.05), additionally, the mutants displayed reduced synergism with GATA4. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SRF-p.G274D and SRF-p.G294C may have potential pathogenic effects.


Assuntos
Fator Natriurético Atrial/genética , Fator de Transcrição GATA4/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Fator de Resposta Sérica/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Cardiopatias Congênitas/patologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(21): 11597-11607, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385156

RESUMO

The distribution of fitness effects of mutation plays a central role in constraining protein evolution. The underlying mechanisms by which mutations lead to fitness effects are typically attributed to changes in protein specific activity or abundance. Here, we reveal the importance of a mutation's collateral fitness effects, which we define as effects that do not derive from changes in the protein's ability to perform its physiological function. We comprehensively measured the collateral fitness effects of missense mutations in the Escherichia coli TEM-1 ß-lactamase antibiotic resistance gene using growth competition experiments in the absence of antibiotic. At least 42% of missense mutations in TEM-1 were deleterious, indicating that for some proteins collateral fitness effects occur as frequently as effects on protein activity and abundance. Deleterious mutations caused improper posttranslational processing, incorrect disulfide-bond formation, protein aggregation, changes in gene expression, and pleiotropic effects on cell phenotype. Deleterious collateral fitness effects occurred more frequently in TEM-1 than deleterious effects on antibiotic resistance in environments with low concentrations of the antibiotic. The surprising prevalence of deleterious collateral fitness effects suggests they may play a role in constraining protein evolution, particularly for highly expressed proteins, for proteins under intermittent selection for their physiological function, and for proteins whose contribution to fitness is buffered against deleterious effects on protein activity and protein abundance.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Aptidão Genética/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/fisiologia , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , beta-Lactamases/química , beta-Lactamases/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
20.
J Clin Neurosci ; 75: 223-225, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223976

RESUMO

About 10% of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) cases are familial (FALS), mainly related to mutations in C9ORF72, SOD1, TARDBP, and FUS genes. Recent data revealed the presence of multiple variants in ALS-associated genes in FALS in excess of what is to be expected by chance. FALS patients not carrying a pathogenic genetic mutation detected in their kindred have been reported. We report a FALS case, who did not carry the p.Ala5Val heterozygous SOD1 mutation that had been detected in other affected subjects of his kindred. He underwent Next-Generation Sequencing, revealing a novel p.Glu46Asp heterozygous OPTN variant of uncertain significance (VUS). Discordant genetic test results in FALS cases within the same family and the detection of variants of uncertain significance increase the complexities of genetic counselling.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Alanina/genética , Ácido Aspártico/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Glutamina/genética , Heterozigoto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Valina/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA