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1.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(8): 1029-1037, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497189

RESUMO

The development of gene analysis in cancer is remarkable, and understanding of molecular pathology has been elucidated. Somatic mutations, that is, genetic analysis in cancer cells, have contributed to the accurate diagnosis of tumors, prognostic prediction, and detection of therapeutic targets. In contrast, germline mutations have been identified as the cause of hereditary diseases. In the past, symptom diagnosis was the main focus for hereditary diseases. However, genetic information has greatly contributed to its definitive diagnosis. For hematopoietic malignancies, the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification newly proposed a section on myeloid neoplasms with germline predisposition. Genetic predispositions characterized by the development of lymphoid neoplasms and solid tumors have also been reported. Since 2016, new findings such as SAMD9/9L mutation have been discovered. This chapter outlines the typical genetic predisposition to myelodysplastic syndrome/leukemia.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360727

RESUMO

Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HL (RCC)) entails cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis with aggressive type 2 papillary RCC-like histology. HLRCC is caused by pathogenic variants in the FH gene, which encodes fumarate hydratase (FH). Here, we describe an episode of young-onset RCC caused by a genomic FH deletion that was diagnosed via clinical sequencing. A 35-year-old woman was diagnosed with RCC and multiple metastases: histopathological analyses supported a diagnosis of FH-deficient RCC. Although the patient had neither skin tumors nor a family history of HLRCC, an aggressive clinical course at her age and pathological diagnosis of FH-deficient RCC suggested a germline FH variant. After counseling, the patient provided written informed consent for germline genetic testing. She was simultaneously subjected to paired tumor profiling tests targeting the exome to identify a therapeutic target. Although conventional germline sequencing did not detect FH variants, exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous germline FH deletion. As such, paired tumor profiling, not conventional sequencing, was required to identify this genetic deletion. RCC caused by a germline FH deletion has hitherto not been described in Japan, and the FH deletion detected in this patient was presumed to be of maternal European origin. Although the genotype-phenotype correlation in HLRCC-related tumors is unclear, the patient's family was advised to undergo genetic counseling to consider additional RCC screening.


Assuntos
Fumarato Hidratase/deficiência , Deleção de Genes , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Leiomiomatose/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Transtornos Psicomotores/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Fumarato Hidratase/genética , Testes Genéticos , Humanos
3.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 43(8): 843-849, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407589

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the value of next generation sequencing (NGS) in the genetic testing of Lynch syndrome. Methods: Immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expressions of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, including MutL homolog 1 (MLH1), PMS1 homolog 2 (PMS2), MutS homolog 2 (MSH2) and MutS homolog 6 (MSH6) in colorectal cancer, gastric cancer and endometrial cancer tissues collected from Shandong Provincial Hospital between 2016 and 2018. The genomic DNA of 45 patients who were suspected with Lynch syndrome was extracted from non-cancerous tissue paraffin samples, which were postoperatively confirmed by microscope. The mutations of 12 genes including MLH1 and MSH2 were detected using NGS. The germline mutant sites and significance were analyzed by bioinformatics technology and further confirmed by using Sanger sequencing. Results: The immunohistochemical results showed that the 45 cases of suspected Lynch syndrome included 22 cases of MLH1 and PMS2 deficient expression, 16 cases of MLH2 and MSH6 deficient expression, and 7 cases of MMR proteins normal expression. The NGS result showed that 28 cases of adjacent sample from colon cancer patients included 4 cases of MLH1 pathogenic mutation, 1 case of suspected MLH1 mutation, 2 cases of MLH2 pathogenic mutation, 2 cases of suspected MLH2 mutation. No MMR gene mutation was found in adjacent samples of 6 cases of rectal cancer, 6 cases of gastric cancer and 7 cases of colorectal cancer with MMR normal expression. One case of MLH1 or MHL2 pathogenic mutation and one case of MLH1 suspected mutation was detected in adjacent samples of 5 cases of endometrial cancer. Moreover, NGS also detected many other genes mutations and unreported gene mutation sites. Pathogenic and suspected MLH1 and MSH2 mutations were verified by Sanger sequencing. Conclusions: High-throughput NGS is a quick, accurate and reliable technique to identify gene variants in suspected Lynch syndrome patients. It has a wide application prospect for gene testing of tumors associated with Lynch syndrome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5073, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417467

RESUMO

The contents of numerous membrane lipids change upon ageing. However, it is unknown whether and how any of these changes are causally linked to lifespan regulation. Acyl chains contribute to the functional specificity of membrane lipids. In this study, working with C. elegans, we identified an acyl chain-specific sphingolipid, C22 glucosylceramide, as a longevity metabolite. Germline deficiency, a conserved lifespan-extending paradigm, induces somatic expression of the fatty acid elongase ELO-3, and behenic acid (22:0) generated by ELO-3 is incorporated into glucosylceramide for lifespan regulation. Mechanistically, C22 glucosylceramide is required for the membrane localization of clathrin, a protein that regulates membrane budding. The reduction in C22 glucosylceramide impairs the clathrin-dependent autophagic lysosome reformation, which subsequently leads to TOR activation and longevity suppression. These findings reveal a mechanistic link between membrane lipids and ageing and suggest a model of lifespan regulation by fatty acid-mediated membrane configuration.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Glicoesfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Homeostase , Longevidade/fisiologia , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Clatrina/metabolismo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Interferência de RNA , Estresse Fisiológico
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361096

RESUMO

Adenosine Deaminase 2 Deficiency (DADA2) syndrome is a rare monogenic disorder prevalently linked to recessive inherited loss of function mutations in the ADA2/CECR1 gene. It consists of an immune systemic disease including autoinflammatory vasculopathies, with a frequent onset at infancy/early childhood age. DADA2 syndrome encompasses pleiotropic manifestations such as stroke, systemic vasculitis, hematologic alterations, and immunodeficiency. Although skeletal abnormalities have been reported in patients with this disease, clear information about skeletal health, with appropriate biochemical-clinical characterization/management, its evolution over time and any appropriate clinical management is still insufficient. In this paper, after a general introduction shortly reviewing the pathophysiology of Ada2 enzymatic protein, its potential role in bone health, we describe a case study of two 27 year-old DADA2 monozygotic female twins exhibiting bone mineral density and bone turnover rate abnormalities over the years of their clinical follow-up.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Homozigoto , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Fenótipo , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia , Adulto , Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética
6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 189(2): 533-539, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196900

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mutations in hereditary breast cancer genes play an important role in the risk for cancer. METHODS: Cancer susceptibility genes were sequenced in 664 unselected breast cancer cases from Guatemala. Variants were annotated with ClinVar and VarSome. RESULTS: A total of 73 out of 664 subjects (11%) had a pathogenic variant in a high or moderate penetrance gene. The most frequently mutated genes were BRCA1 (37/664, 5.6%) followed by BRCA2 (15/664, 2.3%), PALB2 (5/664, 0.8%), and TP53 (5/664, 0.8%). Pathogenic variants were also detected in the moderate penetrance genes ATM, BARD1, CHEK2, and MSH6. The high ratio of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations is due to two potential founder mutations: BRCA1 c.212 + 1G > A splice mutation (15 cases) and BRCA1 c.799delT (9 cases). Cases with pathogenic mutations had a significantly earlier age at diagnosis (45 vs 51 years, P < 0.001), are more likely to have had diagnosis before menopause, and a higher percentage had a relative with any cancer (51% vs 37%, P = 0.038) or breast cancer (33% vs 15%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Hereditary breast cancer mutations were observed among Guatemalan women, and these women are more likely to have early age at diagnosis and family history of cancer. These data suggest the use of genetic testing in breast cancer patients and those at high risk as part of a strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality in Guatemala.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Genes BRCA2 , Células Germinativas , Guatemala , Humanos
7.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 147(10): 2935-2944, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254208

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRCA1/2 screening for all triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients younger than 60 years may still be an economic burden in China. Further evidences that include incidence and outcome of BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants (PV) screened based on younger age or family history (FH) are worth discussing for improving the cost-effectiveness of BRCA1/2 testing in Chinese TNBC. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of germline and tumor BRCA1/2 PV based on age screening in Chinese TNBC patients. METHODS: Paired blood and tumor DNA from 124 unselected Chinese TNBC patients with less than or equal to 55 years were collected and analyzed for BRCA1/2 PV. Clinicopathological characteristics including age at diagnosis, FH and follow-up data were collected for further analysis. RESULTS: The entire frequency of germline and tumor BRCA1/2 PV was 21.0 and 25%, respectively. Among them, 20 (16.1%) germline and 5 (4.0%) somatic BRCA1/2 single-nucleotide variant/insertion/deletions were found by NGS testing, 6 (4.8%) BRCA1 large genomic rearrangements were detected in blood DNA by MPLA. There was significant correlation between FH of HBOC and germline BRCA1/2 PVs among these patients. Patients with tumor BRCA1/2 PVs had significant improvements than non-carriers in PFS (p = 0.047). No significant impacts were found between various mutation status in OS outcomes. No significant differences were found between BRCA1 or BRCA2 and non-carriers in PFS or OS. CONCLUSION: There is a high incidence of germline and tumor BRCA1/2 PVs in Chinese TNBC patients with less than or equal to 55 years old. Tumor BRCA1/2 PV carriers showed an improved survival outcome. Our results suggest that BRCA1/2 PVs testing addressed within each specific clinical scenario could be more cost-effective for patients.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Adulto Jovem
8.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(4): 485-496, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313605

RESUMO

Objective: Pituitary adenomas (PA) are rare in young patients, and additional studies are needed to fully understand their pathogenesis in this population. We describe the clinical and genetic characteristics of apparently sporadic PA in a cohort of young patients. Design: Clinical and molecular analysis of 235 patients (age ≤ 30 years) with PA. Clinicians from several Spanish and Chilean hospitals provided data. Methods: Genetic screening was performed via next-generation sequencing and comparative genomic hybridization array. Clinical variables were compared among paediatric, adolescent (<19 years) and young adults' (≥19-30 years) cohorts and types of adenomas. Phenotype-genotype associations were examined. Results: Among the total cohort, mean age was 17.3 years. Local mass effect symptoms were present in 22.0%, and prolactinomas were the most frequent (44.7%). Disease-causing germline variants were identified in 22 individuals (9.3%), more exactly in 13.1 and 4.7% of the populations aged between 0-19 and 19-30 years, respectively; genetically positive patients were younger at diagnosis and had larger tumour size. Healthy family carriers were also identified. Conclusions: Variants in genes associated with syndromic forms of PAs were detected in a large cohort of apparently sporadic pituitary tumours. We have identified novel variants in well-known genes and set the possibility of incomplete disease penetrance in carriers of MEN1 alterations or a limited clinical expression of the syndrome. Despite the low penetrance observed, screening of AIP and MEN1 variants in young patients and relatives is of clinical value.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Masculino , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/genética , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(3): 283-296, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210485

RESUMO

The identification and characterization of alterations in prostate cancer (PCa)-predisposing genes can help to inform screening strategies in undiagnosed men and treatment options in men in both the clinically localized and in the metastatic setting. This review provides an overview of the genetic basis underlying hereditary predisposition to PCa, the current role of genetics and PCa risk assessment, and how genetic risk factors affect aggressiveness and lethality of PCa.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Progressão da Doença , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(3): 297-309, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210486

RESUMO

Germline genetic testing for prostate cancer (PC) is increasingly important as the clinical utility of germline variants in this patient population is understood better. To better characterize the clinical landscape of germline testing in PC, published clinical cohorts of PC who underwent clinical germline genetic analysis at point of care are reviewed. Limitations and heterogeneity of these cohorts are highlighted and pathogenic results with established or potential clinical utility in PC noted. The need for additional germline genetic studies is underscored, because the number of PC patients studied lags greatly behind the high prevalence of the disease.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Progressão da Doença , Aconselhamento Genético , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia
12.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(3): 311-322, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210487

RESUMO

Germline testing for prostate cancer (PCA) is revolutionizing PCA care. Two PARP inhibitors are FDA approved for men with metastatic, castration-resistant disease after progression on first-line therapies. In the screening setting, genetic test results may inform initiation and screening strategies. For men with early-stage disease, literature is emerging on the possible role of germline testing in active surveillance discussions. As such, urologists and oncologists must gain working knowledge of the principles and practice of germline testing and hereditary cancer implications for responsible implementation. Here the authors outline key learning areas and practice strategies for responsible dissemination of PCA germline testing.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Aconselhamento Genético , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Masculino , Medicina de Precisão
13.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(3): 339-347, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210489

RESUMO

Androgen receptor function, tumor cell plasticity, loss of tumor suppressors, and defects in DNA repair genes affect aggressive features of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer development, progression, and aggressive behavior are often attributable to function of the androgen receptor. Tumor cell plasticity, neuroendocrine features, and loss of tumor suppressors lend aggressive behavior to prostate cancer cells. DNA repair defects have ramifications for prostate cancer cell behavior.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Plasticidade Celular , Reparo do DNA , Progressão da Doença , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina de Precisão , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia
14.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(3): 349-363, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210490

RESUMO

Recent studies show that the prevalence of germline pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants (also known as mutations) in DNA repair genes in metastatic prostate cancer is higher than previously recognized and higher than in unaffected men. Specific gene dysfunction is important in prostate cancer initiation and/or evolution to metastases. This article reviews key literature on individual genes, recognizing BRCA2 as the gene most commonly altered in the metastatic setting. This article discusses the importance of representative and diverse inclusion, and efforts to advance management for at-risk carrier populations to maximize clinical benefit.


Assuntos
Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Dano ao DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(3): 365-371, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210491

RESUMO

Germline testing should be performed to support treatment selection for patients with metastatic prostate cancer, and should be identified in patients with high-risk localized disease. Patients with germline BRCA1/2 mutations should be educated regarding additional personal cancer risk, and risk for family members. Guidelines recommend that all men with metastatic prostate cancer should also undergo somatic tissue and germline testing for priority genes BRCA1/2, PALB2, ATM, and MSH2/6. The advent of high throughput sequencing enables patients to be tested for a more comprehensive panel of germline and somatic mutations.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(3): 373-386, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210492

RESUMO

Prostate cancer represents a significant health care burden in the United States due to its incidence, treatment-related morbidity, and cancer-specific mortality. The burden begins with prostate-specific antigen screening, which has been subject to controversy due to concerns of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Advancements in molecular oncology have provided evidence for the inherited predisposition to prostate cancer, which could improve individualized, risk-adapted approaches to screening and mitigate the harms of routine screening. This review presents the current evidence for the genetic basis of prostate cancer and novel genetically informed, risk-adapted screening strategies for prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue
17.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(3): 401-409, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210494

RESUMO

Available evidence supports routine implementation of germline genetic testing for many aspects of prostate cancer (PCa) decision making. The purpose of obtaining genetic testing for newly diagnosed men would be focused on identifying mutations that predispose to aggressive PCa. Based on an evidence-based review, the authors review germline rare pathogenic mutations in several genes that are significantly associated with aggressiveness, metastases, and mortality. Then recent studies of these germline mutations in predicting tumor grade reclassification among patients undergoing active surveillance are discussed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms-based polygenic risk scores in differentiating PCa aggressiveness and prognosis are reviewed.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Medição de Risco , Conduta Expectante
18.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(3): 411-423, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210495

RESUMO

There remains a paucity of data related to germline genetic alterations predisposing patients to prostate cancer. Recent data suggest that African American, Hispanic, and Asian and Pacific Islander men exhibit genetic alterations in both highly penetrant germline genes, including BRCA1/2, ATM, and CHEK2, and the mismatch repair genes associated with Lynch syndrome, as well as low-penetrant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. However, cohort sizes remain small in many studies limiting the ability to determine clinical significance, appropriate risk stratification, and treatment implications in these diverse populations.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia , Proteína BRCA1 , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2 , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201893

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome is a hereditary cancer-predisposing syndrome caused by germline defects in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes such as MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. Carriers of pathogenic mutations in these genes have an increased lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) and other malignancies. Despite intensive surveillance, Lynch patients typically develop CRC after 10 years of follow-up, regardless of the screening interval. Recently, three different molecular models of colorectal carcinogenesis were identified in Lynch patients based on when MMR deficiency is acquired. In the first pathway, adenoma formation occurs in an MMR-proficient background, and carcinogenesis is characterized by APC and/or KRAS mutation and IGF2, NEUROG1, CDK2A, and/or CRABP1 hypermethylation. In the second pathway, deficiency in the MMR pathway is an early event arising in macroscopically normal gut surface before adenoma formation. In the third pathway, which is associated with mutations in CTNNB1 and/or TP53, the adenoma step is skipped, with fast and invasive tumor growth occurring in an MMR-deficient context. Here, we describe the association between molecular and histological features in these three routes of colorectal carcinogenesis in Lynch patients. The findings summarized in this review may guide the use of individualized surveillance guidelines based on a patient's carcinogenesis subtype.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(7): 811-816, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the genetic causes of colorectal cancers (CRCs); and to determine the genotype-phenotype correlation. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Medical Genetics, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research, Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between January 2018 and January 2020. METHODOLOGY: 59 cancer susceptibility genes of 41 patients, included in the study and diagnosed with CRC, were examined using next generation sequencing (NGS) technique. Statistical analysis of the possible relationships among the mutation carrier status of the patients and the parameters of gender, age at diagnosis, and family cancer history, were performed. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis of all CRC patients was 48.7 years (range 28-74). Mutations in MLH1, MSH6, CHEK2, PMS2 and MUTYH genes were detected in 10 patients (24.4%). The mean age at diagnosis of CRC was 46.2 years in those who carried the mutation, while it was 49.5 years in those without. Carriers and non-mutation carriers, when compared in terms of age at diagnosis, gender, family cancer history, no significant difference was observed. CONCLUSION: Genes that may cause susceptibility to cancer may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of the CRC. NGS-based multigene panels allow these genes to be detected in the patient and to identify an inherited cancer syndrome. Key Words: Colorectal cancer, Lynch syndrome, Hereditary cancer, Gene, Next generation sequencing.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Turquia
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