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1.
Gut ; 69(1): 7-17, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening Consortium met in 2018 to update its consensus recommendations for the management of individuals with increased risk of pancreatic cancer based on family history or germline mutation status (high-risk individuals). METHODS: A modified Delphi approach was employed to reach consensus among a multidisciplinary group of experts who voted on consensus statements. Consensus was considered reached if ≥75% agreed or disagreed. RESULTS: Consensus was reached on 55 statements. The main goals of surveillance (to identify high-grade dysplastic precursor lesions and T1N0M0 pancreatic cancer) remained unchanged. Experts agreed that for those with familial risk, surveillance should start no earlier than age 50 or 10 years earlier than the youngest relative with pancreatic cancer, but were split on whether to start at age 50 or 55. Germline ATM mutation carriers with one affected first-degree relative are now considered eligible for surveillance. Experts agreed that preferred surveillance tests are endoscopic ultrasound and MRI/magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, but no consensus was reached on how to alternate these modalities. Annual surveillance is recommended in the absence of concerning lesions. Main areas of disagreement included if and how surveillance should be performed for hereditary pancreatitis, and the management of indeterminate lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic surveillance is recommended for selected high-risk individuals to detect early pancreatic cancer and its high-grade precursors, but should be performed in a research setting by multidisciplinary teams in centres with appropriate expertise. Until more evidence supporting these recommendations is available, the benefits, risks and costs of surveillance of pancreatic surveillance need additional evaluation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Carcinoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Vigilância da População/métodos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18279, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860975

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Lynch syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition condition caused by germline heterozygous mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. However, as one of the MMR genes, PMS2 mutation-induced LS-associated endometrial cancer (LSAEC) was rarely reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 26-year-old female patient suffered from prolonged menstrual period and increased menstrual flow for 2 months. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with cervix CIN III, endometrial cancer (EC), anemia, and LS. INTERVENTIONS: Total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingectomy, pelvic lymphadenectomy were performed for treating EC, while ovariectomy was refused by the patient. The patient underwent postoperative chemotherapy with paclitaxel combined with carboplatin for 6 courses of treatment. Laparoscopic partial enterectomy was applied for treating colon cancer 5 years later after the surgery treatment for EC. Besides, Sanger sequencing and high-throughput genome sequencing were employed to detect the genetic status of the family that included two generations with four members. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was used to identify the function of PMS2 mutation. OUTCOMES: The 26-year-old Chinese patient suffered from LSAEC and recovered well after surgery. A PMS2 germline heterozygous mutation (c.1577delA) was confirmed by gene sequencing 5 years later. In addition, PMS2 mutation was verified by IHC. The patient was followed up for 7 years. LESSONS: Carrying PMS2 germline mutation (c.1577delA) confers an extremely high susceptibility of suffering from LS-associated cancers. Thus, close clinical monitoring and prophylactic surgery are highly recommended to reduce the morbidity and mortality of LS-associated cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Adulto , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/etiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos
3.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(10): 1015-1018, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598949

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To carry out genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis for a family affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). METHODS: Multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was used to detect potential deletion and duplication of the Dystrophin gene. Haplotype analysis was performed using five short tandem repeat polymorphism loci (3'-STR, 5'-STR, 45-STR, 49-STR, 50-STR of the DMD gene. RESULTS: A same deletional mutation (exons 51-55) of the DMD gene was detected in two brothers but not in their mother. The patients and fetus have inherited different haplotypes of the Dystrophin gene from their mother, suggesting that the fetus was unaffected. CONCLUSION: The mother was very likely to harbor germline mosaicism for the Dystrophin gene variant. Genetic testing of peripheral blood samples cannot rule out germline mosaicism in the mother. Prenatal diagnosis should be provided for subsequent pregnancies in this family.


Assuntos
Distrofina/genética , Deleção de Genes , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Mosaicismo , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/genética , Éxons , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal
4.
Gynecol Oncol ; 155(2): 262-269, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinical factors associated with prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in relapsing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with BRCA mutations and receiving olaparib as maintenance therapy in daily practice. METHODS: Multicenter (8 hospitals) European retrospective study of relapsing EOC patients having germline or somatic mutations of BRCA1/BRCA2 genes and treated with olaparib as maintenance therapy after platinum-based chemotherapy. RESULTS: One hundred and fifteen patients were included. Median age was 54 years. There were 90 BRCA1 carriers, 24 BRCA2 carriers and one patient had germline mutation of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Six patients had somatic mutations (all BRCA1) and 109 had germline mutations. Ninety percent had serous carcinomas and were platinum-sensitive. Following ultimate platinum-based chemotherapy, 69% of the patients had normalization of CA-125 levels and 87% had RECIST objective responses, either partial (53%) or complete (34%). After a median follow-up of 21 months, median PFS was 12.7 months and median OS was 35.4 months. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with prolonged PFS under olaparib were: platinum-free interval (PFI) ≥ 12 months, RECIST complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) and normalization of CA-125 upon ultimate platinum-based chemotherapy. Factors associated with prolonged OS were PFI ≥ 12 months, CR and normalization of CA-125. CONCLUSIONS: Platinum-free interval ≥ 12 months, complete response and normalized CA-125 levels after ultimate platinum-based chemotherapy are associated with prolonged PFS and OS in relapsing BRCA1/BRCA2 mutated ovarian cancer patients who received olaparib as maintenance therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Antígeno Ca-125/metabolismo , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Genes BRCA1/fisiologia , Genes BRCA2/fisiologia , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17443, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577767

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is considered as one of the deadliest cancers all over the world. Germline and somatic BRCA1/2 mutations have been widely studied in breast and ovarian carcinomas as they have been found to enhance the risk for disease progression. Olaparib, an oral poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose)polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment strategy of ovarian cancer with any BRCA1/2 mutations. There is a lack of studies which focus on the treatment of other cancer with BRCA-Mutation. PATIENT CONCERNS: This report describes a patient whose presenting complaints were "Physical examination showed that the pancreas was occupied for one month." He initially was diagnosed with stage IV PC based on conventional imaging and pathologic assessment. He had a known germline BRCA 2 mutation, which exhibited a good response to PARP inhibitor therapy. DIAGNOSIS: Through the biopsy histopathological examination, imaging examination, and genetic testing, the patient was diagnosed as metastatic PC with BRCA2 mutation. INTERVENTIONS: He received gemcitabine and albumin-bound paclitaxel chemotherapy from March 15, 2017 to June 30, 2017, and Nivolumab immunotherapy as the maintenance therapy. After serum CA-199 level increased, Olaparib was orally administered from August 17, 2017 to March. After tumor relapsed, he received multiple lines of chemotherapy, including Trametinib Oxaliplatin, S-1, bevacizumab, and irinotecan liposome injection till July 17, 2018. OUTCOMES: We observed the patient had a good progression-free survival (7.4 months); the lesion of the pancreas was classified as partial disease through Olaparib treatment, which indicated significant shrinkage. But it is difficult to conclude whether such therapy could help prolong the overall survival for such patients. LESSONS: The targeted therapy Olaparib showed early signs of potential in treating PC in patients with mutations of the BRCA genes. With emerging therapeutic modalities and next-generation sequencing development, it is increasingly relevant to consider mutation screenings of patients with PC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Genes BRCA2 , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Idoso , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética
6.
Exp Suppl ; 111: 171-211, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588533

RESUMO

Pituitary tumours are relatively common in the general population. Most often they occur sporadically, with somatic mutations accounting for a significant minority of somatotroph and corticotroph adenomas. Pituitary tumours can also develop secondary to germline mutations as part of a complex syndrome or as familial isolated pituitary adenomas. Tumours occurring in a familial setting may present at a younger age and can behave more aggressively with resistance to treatment. This chapter will focus on the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of pituitary tumours.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hipofisárias/genética , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Humanos
7.
Exp Suppl ; 111: 213-243, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588534

RESUMO

The overwhelming majority of cases of primary aldosteronism (PA) occur sporadically due to a unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) or bilateral idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia. Familial forms of PA are rare with four subtypes defined to date (familial hyperaldosteronism types I-IV). The molecular basis of familial hyperaldosteronism type I (FH type I or glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism) was established in 1992; two decades later the genetic variant causing FH type III was identified and germline mutations causing FH type IV and FH type II were determined soon after. Effective diagnostic protocols and methods to detect the overactive gland in unilateral PA by adrenal venous sampling followed by laparoscopic adrenalectomy have made available APAs for scientific studies. In rapid succession, following the widespread use of next-generation sequencing, recurrent somatic driver mutations in APAs were identified in genes encoding ion channels and transporters. The development of highly specific monoclonal antibodies against key enzymes in adrenal steroidogenesis has unveiled the heterogeneous features of the diseased adrenal in PA and helped reveal the high proportion of APAs with driver mutations. We discuss what is known about the genetics of PA that has led to a clearer understanding of the disease pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Adenoma Adrenocortical/complicações , Hiperaldosteronismo/genética , Adrenalectomia , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/classificação
8.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 80: 101909, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of PARP inhibitors (PARPis) as maintenance treatment in platinum sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC), stratifying results based on BRCA mutational status into five different categories: whole population, germ-line BRCA mutated patients, somatic BRCA mutated patients, HRD patients and wild type population. METHODS: PubMed, Medline, Scopus, EMBASE and clinicaltrials.gov, as well as meeting proceedings were searched for eligible studies that described RCTs testing the efficacy of PARPis as maintenance treatment in platinum sensitive ROC. Data were extracted independently and analysed using RevMan statistical software version 5.3. Primary end-point was progression free survival (PFS). RESULTS: The analysis confirmed the positive effect of PARPis in patients with platinum sensitive ROC in case of germinal or somatic BRCA mutations. Specifically, HR for PFS was 0.26, 95% CI 0.21-0.31, p < 0.00001 for the mutation of BRCA gene and 0.24, 95%, CI 0.12-0.48, p < 0.0001 for the somatic alteration. In addition, in the HRD population, studies that analysed the efficacy of PARPis  reported a PFS improvement with HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.26-0.43, p < 0.00001. Finally, our analysis confirms the role of these drugs in prolonging PFS in the whole population with HR 0.36, 95% CI 0.32-0.42, p < 0.00001, although to a lesser extent, with a significant improvement even in wild type cancers with HR 0.49, 95%, CI 0.41-0.59, p < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS: PARPis are effective regardless of BRCA mutational status. Future investigations are necessary to explore the use of different PARPis as monotherapy, comparing them among each other in terms of efficacy and toxicity, and exploring their potential re-use.


Assuntos
Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 150, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing is becoming an essential tool for breast cancer (BC) diagnosis and treatment pathway, and particularly important for early detection and cancer prevention. The purpose of this study was to explore the diagnostic yield of targeted sequencing of the high priority BC genes. METHODS: We have utilized a cost-effective targeted sequencing approach of high priority actionable BC genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, ERBB2 and TP53) in a homogeneous patient cohort from Bangladesh (n = 52) by using tumor and blood samples. RESULTS: Blood derived targeted sequencing revealed 25.58% (11/43) clinically relevant mutations (both pathogenic and variants of uncertain significance (VUS)), with 13.95% (6/43) of samples carrying a pathogenic mutations. We have identified and validated five novel pathogenic germline mutations in this cohort, comprising of two frameshift deletions in BRCA2, and missense mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and ERBB2 gene respectively. Furthermore, we have identified three pathogenic mutations and a VUS within three tumor samples, including a sample carrying pathogenic mutations impacting both TP53 (c.322dupG; a novel frameshift insertion) and BRCA1 genes (c.116G > A). 22% of tissue samples had a clinically relevant TP53 mutation. Although the cohort is small, we have found pathogenic mutations to be enriched in BRCA2 (9.30%, 4/43) compare to BRCA1 (4.65%, 2/43). The frequency of germline VUS mutations found to be similar in both BRCA1 (4.65%; 2/43) and BRCA2 (4.65%; 2/43) compared to ERBB2 (2.32%; 1/43). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first genetic study of BC predisposition genes in this population, implies that genetic screening through targeted sequencing can detect clinically significant and actionable BC-relevant mutations.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh/etnologia , Sequência de Bases , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Testes Genéticos , Variação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Gynecol Oncol ; 155(2): 275-279, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Clinical genetic testing to diagnose germline mutations often requires blood sample or saliva smear from a cancer-affected individual. This rules out testing in families when cancer-affected individuals are deceased. We explored the use of a next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform to diagnose germline pathogenic mutations from tumors. METHODS: Archival tumors (ovarian = 26, breast = 25, others = 9) were retrieved from 60 cancer patients who have undergone multi-gene panel blood testing. Genomic DNA was extracted and sequenced for BRCA1/2 using a NGS platform. 41/60 specimens were sequenced for 5 other genes (APC, ATM, PALB2, PTEN, TP53). Tumor testing and results interpretation were performed blinded to the blood test result. RESULTS: All 38 patients with no BRCA1/2 mutations on blood testing were correctly tested negative on tumor. Tumor testing correctly diagnosed BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutations in 15/22 (68%) patients while in 7/22 (32%) patients, the mutation was either detected but incorrectly classified as VUS (n = 3) or not detected at all (n = 4). Overall concordance rate for tumor and blood testing for BRCA1/2 mutations was 88%, with 0% false positive and 32% false negative rate for pathogenic mutations. Tumor testing correctly diagnosed 1/2 pathogenic germline ATM mutation, 1/1 pathogenic germline PALB2 mutation and 2/2 pathogenic germline TP53 mutations. False positive germline mutations were diagnosed in 4 genes at a rate of 2.4%-10.3% (APC = 2.4%, PALB2 = 2.4%, PTEN = 4.9%, TP53 = 10.3%). CONCLUSION: Tumor testing for BRCA1/2 germline mutations using an NGS platform is fairly reliable with no false positive findings, and correctly diagnosed more than two-thirds of pathogenic germline BRCA1/2 mutations. However, it is not reliable to diagnose pathogenic germline mutations in genes frequently mutated in sporadic cancers, such as PTEN and TP53.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1/fisiologia , Genes BRCA2/fisiologia , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
11.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 80: 101895, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide. Recent studies have shown that 4-20% of patients with PDAC have a germline BReast CAncer (gBRCA) genes 1 and 2 mutation (m). Because homologous recombination is impaired in patients with gBRCAm, some reports suggested that these tumors may be more sensitive to platinum compounds. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis focused on benefit of patients with gBRCAm receiving a platinum-based chemotherapy (PtCh) compared with those treated with a non-platinum-based chemotherapy (NPtCh). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The following electronic databases were searched from inception to May 12, 2018: PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Abstracts from conferences were also reviewed for inclusion. Cohort, case-control and randomized studies of patients with PDAC and gBRCAm were eligible for inclusion if they provided data to compare patients receiving PtCh vs NPtCh. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) in the PtCh group vs the NPtCh group in patients with clinical stage III (locally advanced) or IV (metastatic) (CS III-IV) PDAC. RESULTS: Of 112 studies identified, 6 were included (total of 108 patients); of these, 4 provided sufficient data for meta-analysis. Half of the patients were males, with a mean age ranging from 58 to 63 years. The OS in the 85 patients with CS III-IV PDAC was higher in the PtCh group (23.7 vs 12.2 months; mean difference of 10.21 months, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.05-15.37; P < 0.001; very low quality of evidence). PtCh was associated with a lower mortality (62.3 vs 87.5%; relative risk of 0.80, 95%CI 0.66-0.97; P = 0.021; very low quality of evidence). CONCLUSION: Our study confirmed the hypothesis that patients with CS III-IV gBRCAm preferably benefit from a PtCh compared with NPtCh. However the very low quality of evidence should induce to be careful about the risk of potential biases. The generated hypothesis should be prospectively investigated in homogenous clinical settings.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Humanos , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Pol J Pathol ; 70(2): 115-126, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556562

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal among gynecologic malignancies worldwide. Unfortunately, in around 70% of cases cancer is diagnosed in late stages (III-IV) which decreases the 5-year survival rate to 25%. The standard of care in ovarian cancer is debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy regimens based on platinum salts. Since 2014 PARP inhibitors became available for OC patients with germline or/and somatic mutations in BRCA1/2, including maintenance therapy. BRCA1/2 Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) ovarian cancer samples becomes the standard of care. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of mutations in 201 unselected ovarian cancer tissues using the NGS method. In total, pathogenic mutations in both genes were detected in 24% (49/201) of the ovarian cancer cases tested. For 41 patients the results of testing of DNA isolated from blood sample revealed that 17% (35/201) mutations were germline origin, whereas 3% (6/201) mutations were somatic. In 4% (8/201) cases blood sample was inaccessible. The presence of pathogenic mutations was correlated with younger age at diagnosis and serous subtype. Close cooperation between many specialists (gynecologist, pathologist, oncologist, clinical genetics and molecular biologist) is indispensable for efficient and on-time BRCA1/2 ovarian tumor tissue testing.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação
13.
Pol J Pathol ; 70(2): 127-133, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556563

RESUMO

We tested the association between HOXB13 G84E (rs138213197) germline mutation and PC risk in Polish men. DNA from 103 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients hospitalised because of PC and DNA from 103 men: volunteers, healthy at the time of the study. The G84E mutation was genotyped using Sanger sequencing. The HOXB13 G84E germline mutation was detected in 2.9% of PC men (3/103) and not detected in any healthy man. Two mutation carriers originated from two of 25 families fulfilling hereditary prostate cancer criteria (HPC) and one mutation carrier from one family among 78 families without HPC (PC frequency: 8% vs. 1.3%, OR = 6.70, p = 0.13). In two of three mutation carriers, disease was detected above 60 years of age. There was a trend for a lower probability of 5-year survival in patients with G84E than in patients without it (66.7% vs. 94.0%, p = 0.08). The HOXB13 G84E germline mutation is associated with increased prostate cancer risk in Polish men, with hereditary form of the disease, and probably with older age at PC onset (> 60 years of age) and shorter survival. However, it is not associated with PSA level, or PC stage or grade at the time of diagnosis.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Polônia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Fatores de Risco
15.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3368-3374, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432574

RESUMO

BRCA1/2 genes are the most frequently germline mutated DNA-repair genes, and the survival of BRCA1/2 carriers has been extensively explored in breast cancer. However, the prevalence of germline mutations in non-BRCA1/2 DNA-repair genes and the survival of carriers are largely unknown in a large cohort of unselected breast cancer patients. Germline mutations in 16 DNA-repair genes were determined using a multigene panel in 7657 BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer patients who were unselected for family history of cancer or age at diagnosis. Among the 7657 BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer patients, 257 (3.4%) carried at least 1 pathogenic germline mutation in the 16 DNA-repair genes. The prevalence of DNA-repair gene mutations was significantly higher in familial breast cancers (5.2%, P = 0.002) and early-onset breast cancers (diagnosed at and before the age of 40) (4.5%, P = 0.003) than that of sporadic breast cancers (2.9%) (diagnosed above age of 40), respectively. The DNA-repair gene mutation carriers were significantly more likely to have a larger tumor (P = 0.04) and axillary lymph node metastasis (P = 0.03). Moreover, DNA-repair gene mutation was an independent unfavorable factor for recurrence-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.00-1.91, P = 0.05) and disease-specific survival (adjusted HR=1.63, 95% CI: 1.04-2.57, P = 0.03) in this cohort. Overall, 3.4% of BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer patients carried germline mutations in the 16 DNA-repair genes, and the DNA-repair gene mutation carriers exhibited an aggressive phenotype and had poor survival compared with noncarriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Reparo do DNA , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida , Carga Tumoral , Adulto Jovem
16.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(4): 369-375, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365623

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Paraganglioma (PGL) and pheochromocytoma (PCC) are rare neuroendocrine tumors that were considered to be predominantly sporadic. However, with the identification of novel susceptibility genes over the last decade, it is currently estimated that up to 40% of cases can occur in the context of a hereditary syndrome. We aimed to characterize PGL/PCC families to exemplify the different scenarios in which hereditary syndromes can be suspected and to emphasize the importance for patients and their families of making an opportune genetic diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with PGL/PCC. Germline mutations were studied using next-generation sequencing panels including SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. Clinical data were collected from clinical records, and all patients received genetic counseling. RESULTS: We describe 4 families with PGL/PCC and germline mutations in SDH complex genes. 2 families have SDHB mutations and 2 SDHD mutations. The clinical presentation of the patients and their families was heterogeneous, with some being atypical according to the literature. CONCLUSIONS: PGL/PCC are more commonly associated with a germline mutation than any other cancer type, therefore, all individuals with these types of tumors should undergo genetic risk evaluation. NGS multigene panel testing is a cost-effective approach given the overlapping phenotypes. Individuals with germline mutations associated with PGL/PCC should undergo lifelong clinical, biochemical and imaging surveillance and their families should undergo genetic counseling. For all these reasons, it is critical that all medical staff can suspect and diagnose these inherited cancer predisposition syndromes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Paraganglioma/genética , Feocromocitoma/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela
17.
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 40(6): 477-483, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340620

RESUMO

Objective: To clarify the prevalence, clinical features and molecular characteristics of germline GATA2 mutations in pediatric primary myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) . Methods: Next-generation sequencing technology was used to detect mutations in GATA2 and other myeloid malignancy genes in 129 children with primary MDS from Jan. 2007 to Jan. 2018. The relationship between genotypes and phenotypes was analyzed. Results: Germline GATA2 mutations accounted for 8.5% (11/129) of all primary MDS cases, and 14.0% (11/50) of MDS with excess blasts (MDS-EB) and acute myeloid leukaemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC) . Compared with GATA2 wild-type patients, GATA2 mutated patients were older at diagnosis[8 (1-16) years old vs 6 years old (range: 1 month old-18 years old) , P=0.035]and higher risk of monosomy 7 (72.7%vs 5.2%, P<0.001) and classified into MDS-EB and AML-MRC compared with refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC) (63.6%vs 36.4%, P=0.111) . The multivariate analysis showed SETBP1 mutation (P=0.041, OR=9.003, 95%CI 1.098-73.787) and isolated monosomy 7 (P=0.002, OR=24.835, 95%CI 3.305-186.620) were significantly associated with germline mutated GATA2. Overall survival (OS) and outcomes of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) were not influenced by GATA2 mutational status. Conclusions: Our data identify germline GATA2 mutations have a high prevalence in older pediatric patients with monosomy 7, and high risk of progression into advanced MDS subtypes. GATA2 mutation status does not affect OS in pediatric primary MDS.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição GATA2/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Lactente , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética
20.
J Clin Pathol ; 72(11): 748-754, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262952

RESUMO

AIMS: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is a newly recognised entity in the WHO 2016 classification defined as the germline mutation of FH gene. Fumaratehydratase-deficient renal cell carcinoma (FH-deficient RCC) is recommended for tumours with FH deficiency but lacking of genetic evidences of FH germline mutation. In this study, we described the clinicopathological and molecular changes of 13 FH-deficient RCCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Histology features, clinicopathological data, radiology performance and outcomes were collected for each patient. Next-generation sequencing and DNA sequencing of FH gene were performed to examine FH mutations. The patient group included five females and eight males. Different morphological patterns of papillary, nested, adenoid, foam adenoid, cribriform, tubular, tubulocystic, cystic and loose oedema stroma were observed. Except typical big nuclei with or without eosinophilic nucleoli and perinucleolar halos, raisin-like, hobnail-like and even low-grade nuclei were also observed in these tumours. Eleven cases with high-grade nuclei showed disease progression or death, but no disease progression was detected in two cases with low-grade nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm. FH expression was absent in tumour cells except for case 11. Next-generation sequencing and DNA sequencing verified seven FH germline mutations and four somatic mutations out of 13 cases. CONCLUSIONS: FH-deficient RCC is a rare renal tumour and has a wide morphological spectrum. Most of the tumours had high-grade nuclei and were aggressive. However, we observed a morphological subtype of FH-deficient RCC with low-grade nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm, which might mainly occur in young women and show a relatively good prognosis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Fumarato Hidratase/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/deficiência , Biópsia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/enzimologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Núcleo Celular/patologia , Citoplasma/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Fumarato Hidratase/deficiência , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Renais/enzimologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Fenótipo
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