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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 33-40, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534139

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Characteristics of the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) caused by distinct subspecies remain uncertain. METHODS: This study was conducted from 2013-2015 in three hospitals in Taiwan. RESULTS: Among the 144 patients with MAC-PD, 57 (39.6%), 37 (25.7%), 37 (25.7%), and 13 (9.0%) were infected with Mycobacterium intracellulare subspecies intracellulare (MIsI), Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis (MAsH), Mycobacterium intracellulare subspecies chimaera (MIsC), and others, respectively. Patients with MAsH-PD were younger (p = 0.010) with higher human immunodeficiency virus infection rates (27.0%, 0.0%, 0.0%, and 7.7% for MAsH-PD, MIsC-PD, MIsI-PD, and others, respectively; p < 0.001). Twenty-two (15.3%) patients reported spontaneous culture-negative conversion, but 15 (10.4%) and 33 (22.9%) patients developed radiographic progression and unfavorable outcomes, especially MAsH-PD. The susceptibility rates to clarithromycin and inhaled amikacin were both 98.6%. MAsH demonstrated the lowest rate of resistance to moxifloxacin (66.7%, 97.3%, 89.1%, and 92.3% for MAsH-PD, MIsC-PD, MIsI-PD, and others, respectively; p = 0.001) and MIsI isolates had the highest rate of resistance to intravenous amikacin (25%, 13.5%, 38.2%, and 15.4% for MAsH-PD, MIsC-PD, MIsI-PD, and others, respectively; p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary disease caused by distinct MAC subspecies had different outcomes and drug susceptibility. The local prevalence of species needs to be monitored.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/microbiologia , Mycobacterium avium/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amicacina/farmacologia , Claritromicina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moxifloxacina/farmacologia , Mycobacterium avium/genética , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/imunologia , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
2.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(4): 248-259, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438962

RESUMO

Objective: Our objective was to investigate the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens and characterize the bacterial community structures in the water system of a pulmonary hospital. Methods: The water samples were collected from automatic and manual faucets in the consulting room, treatment room, dressing room, respiratory ward, and other non-medical rooms in three buildings of the hospital. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the load of several waterborne opportunistic pathogens and related microorganisms, including Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., and M. avium. Illumina sequencing targeting 16S rRNA genes was performed to profile bacterial communities. Results: The occurrence rates of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., and M. avium were 100%, 100%, and 76%, respectively in all samples. Higher occurrence rates of M. avium were observed in the outpatient service building (building 1, 91.7%) and respiration department and wards (building 2, 80%) than in the office building (building 3), where no M. avium was found. M. avium were more abundant in automatic faucets (average 2.21 × 10 4 gene copies/L) than in manual faucets (average 1.03 × 10 4 gene copies/mL) ( P < 0.01). Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, and Acidobacteria were the dominant bacterial phyla. Disinfectant residuals, nitrate, and temperature were found to be the key environmental factors driving microbial community structure shifts in water systems. Conclusion: This study revealed a high level of colonization of water faucets by opportunistic pathogens and provided insight into the characteristics of microbial communities in a hospital water system and approaches to reduce risks of microbial contamination.


Assuntos
Água Potável/microbiologia , Legionella/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Qualidade da Água , China , Genes Bacterianos , Hospitais , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Abastecimento de Água
3.
J Bras Pneumol ; 46(2): e20190184, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a heterogeneous group of bacteria that are widely distributed in nature and associated with opportunistic infections in humans. The aims of this study were to identify NTM in patients with suspected tuberculosis who presented positive cultures and to evaluate the genetic diversity of strains identified as Mycobacterium avium. METHODS: We studied pulmonary and extrapulmonary samples obtained from 1,248 patients. The samples that tested positive on culture and negative for the M. tuberculosis complex by molecular identification techniques were evaluated by detection of the hsp65 and rpoB genes and sequencing of conserved fragments of these genes. All strains identified as M. avium were genotyped using the eight-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem-repeat method. RESULTS: We found that NTM accounted for 25 (7.5%) of the 332 mycobacteria isolated. Of those 25, 18 (72%) were M. avium, 5 (20%) were M. abscessus, 1 (4%) was M. gastri, and 1 (4%) was M. kansasii. The 18 M. avium strains showed high diversity, only two strains being genetically related. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the need to consider the investigation of NTM in patients with suspected active tuberculosis who present with positive cultures, as well as to evaluate the genetic diversity of M. avium strains.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium avium/genética , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Brasil , Chaperonina 60/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação
4.
Avian Pathol ; 49(3): 296-304, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148082

RESUMO

Avian mycobacteriosis (AM) is a chronic and contagious disease of pet birds, captive exotic, wild and domestic fowl, and mammals. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium is the most common cause of AM in poultry. For the first time, we report a chronic outbreak of AM in an Iranian breeder flock of 250 45-week-old turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) with a morbidity and mortality rate of 91.6% and 80%, respectively. A well-defined clinical feature of the outbreak included a progressive weight loss, decreased egg production, listlessness, and lameness. Tuberculous nodules were seen on liver, spleen, ovary, and ribs. Granulomatous inflammation and acid-fast bacilli were confirmed by using Ziehl-Neelsen method on hepatic lesions. M. avium subsp. avium was identified by polymerase chain reaction techniques based on the presence of 16S ribosomal RNA gene and insertion elements IS1245 and IS901. In this report, we not only describe the epidemiological, pathological, and molecular characteristics of the outbreak in detail, but we also discuss multiple factors influencing the introduction and development of AM critically. In this case, wild feral pigeons might have been the source of infection, but further molecular-epidemiology studies are needed to understand the role of wild birds in the persistence and transmission of Mycobacterium.RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS First report of avian mycobacteriosis in an Iranian commercial turkey flock is described in detail.Risk factors intrinsic to the bird and mycobacteria, as well as extrinsic factors influencing the introduction and development of avian mycobacteriosis in birds, are critically discussed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Perus , Animais , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/patologia , Mycobacterium avium/genética , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(5): 827-829, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037200

RESUMO

Rapid tests to diagnose tuberculosis relies on molecular detection of the M. tuberculosis. GeneXpert MTB/RIF test identifies M. tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. We present a case of simultaneous coinfection with M. tuberculosis and M. avium. M. tuberculosis was detected in the sputum by PCR GeneXpert method. Unrecognized coexistence of M. tuberculosis and M. avium modified the results of drug susceptibility tests making the primary identification of M. tuberculosis as multi-drug resistant strain. We performed in vitro experiments to investigate the effect of the coexistence of M. avium with M. tuberculosis on the results of GeneXpert method, and drug susceptibility test.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Antibióticos Antituberculose/farmacologia , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico
7.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(2): 279-281, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543435

RESUMO

We report an AIDS patient with a high HIV RNA copy number in the plasma who was successfully treated for prolonged Mycobacterium avium bacteremia and other complications. An HIV-infected patient with high fever, anemia, high alkaline phosphatase, cystic lung lesions, hepatitis B virus infection and Kaposi's sarcoma was referred to our hospital. PCR of the blood revealed Mycobacterium avium bacteremia and the time to blood culture positivity was 8 days. The HIV-1 RNA copy number in the plasma was more than ten million copies/ml and the CD4-positive T cell count was 21 cells/µL. Although the high fever resolved five days after therapy for Mycobacterium avium was started, the fever recurred just before starting anti-retroviral therapy (ART) including dolutegravir. The patient experienced repeated but self-limiting bouts of severe inflammation. Mycobacteremia was intermittently detected up to 79 days, suggesting that the recurrent episodes of inflammation were due to the intermittent dissemination of mycobacteria, and that persistent treatment is needed. Five months after the beginning of ART, the HIV-1 RNA copy number in the plasma was still 28,000 copies/ml. An HIV drug-resistance test revealed sensitivity to all anti-retroviral drugs. Eleven months after the initiation of ART, the HIV RNA copy number in the plasma decreased to 45 copies/mL and the CD4-positive T cell count recovered to 205 cells/µL. Our case also suggests that dolutegravir can be effective in cases with prolonged high levels of HIV RNA. Our findings emphasize that prompt diagnosis and persistent therapy for mycobacterial infection are important for successful treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Viral/sangue , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/imunologia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Bacteriemia/complicações , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Retinite por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Retinite por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Masculino , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/complicações , Oxazinas , Piperazinas , Piridonas , Sarcoma de Kaposi/complicações , Sarcoma de Kaposi/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(12): 1842-1849, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666444

RESUMO

A cat was referred because of diffuse parenchymal lung disease. Close examinations revealed a swollen abdominal lymph node and multiple nodules of the liver. Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis infection was confirmed by culture and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of samples recovered from the liver and bronchoalveolar lavage. After administration of combination antibiotics for 6 months, culture results were negative. Though atonic seizures were observed during the treatment, it disappeared after isoniazid discontinuation and pyridoxal phosphate administration. On day 771 of illness, no clinical signs, lung diseases, or obvious swelling of lymph nodes was observed. This is the first report to confirm Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis infection in cats through gene analysis and to completely cure it with combination antibiotics.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gatos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Isoniazida/efeitos adversos , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Fígado/microbiologia , Pneumopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Masculino , Mycobacterium avium/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fosfato de Piridoxal/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/veterinária , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/microbiologia
10.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(3): 155-160, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216592

RESUMO

Mycobacterium avium causes atypical mycobacterial infection in humans and animals worldwide. M. avium comprises the subspecies avium (MAA), hominissuis (MAH), silvaticum (MAS) and paratuberculosis (MAP). The M. avium complex (MAC), comprising M. avium and M. intracellulare, causes opportunistic infections of humans. M. avium subsp. avium (MAA) mainly causes avian tuberculosis while subsp. hominissuis (MAH) mainly infects pig. Distinguishing between these two subspecies is essential to the effective control of these atypical mycobacterial infections and minimization of the resulting economic loss. For this purpose, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that rapidly and sensitively detects and differentiates MAA and MAH. This MAA-LAMP assay targeting IS901 correctly detected four MAA isolates but did not detect 27 MAH and 19 non-MAA/non-MAH mycobacterial isolates. The MAAH-LAMP assay targeting IS1245 detected four MAA and 27 MAH isolates but not the other 19 mycobacterial isolates. We believe that implementation of this LAMP assay will significantly improve public health and safety. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Mycobacterium avium, which is pathogenic for humans and animals, represents a continuing threat to public health and safety and to food production. Therefore, improved methods are urgently required to readily and efficiently identify M. avium subspecies. Compared with conventional PCR methods, the LAMP assay herein developed more rapidly detects and better distinguishes between two major M. avium subspecies that cause disease of pig. Importantly, this highly accurate and sensitive LAMP assay detects mycobacterial DNAs using real-time fluorescence or the unaided eye with a colour-change dye, making it ideal for translation to the clinic and slaughterhouse.


Assuntos
Complexo Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Animais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Mycobacterium avium/classificação , Mycobacterium avium/genética , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/classificação , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/genética , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
11.
Vet Rec ; 184(26): 800, 2019 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164481

RESUMO

This short communication describes the clinical and morphological findings, diagnosis and treatment of a case of Mycobacterium avium infection in a golden retriever that presented with a progressive nasal swelling and lymphadenopathy. Although well documented in cats, where cutaneous lesions are frequently recognised, canine M avium infection is less commonly reported, and cutaneous lesions are rare. To the authors' knowledge this is the first documented case of canine M avium infection that presented with a cutaneous lesion but no systemic clinical signs. It occurred in a dog with no previously reported breed predisposition and highlights that in cases of cutaneous histiocytic infiltrate in dogs mycobacterial infection should remain a differential diagnosis, even in the absence of suggestive organisms on histopathological examination.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/veterinária , Animais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Cães , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
12.
Infect Genet Evol ; 74: 103923, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207401

RESUMO

Japan reportedly has high incidence rate of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (14.7 cases per 100,000 person in 2014). In Japan, the most common etiology is Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH). MAH is a typical inhabitant of the environment, especially bathrooms, which are considered as a potential source of infection. To corroborate this hypothesis, we determined the detection rate of MAH in bathrooms of healthy volunteers by an ordinary culture method and we analyzed the genetic relatedness of these isolates with those from patients and other sources. We collected swabs of bathtub inlets, showerheads, bathroom drains, and shower water from 180 residences throughout Japan. The overall MAH detection rate was 16.1%, but the rate varied among regions: it was high in Kanto (9/34, 26.5%) and Kinki (9/33, 27.3%), but low in Kyushu (0/11, 0%), Tohoku (1/23, 4.3%), and Hokkaido (2/23, 8.7%). MAH was detected primarily in bathtub inlet samples (25 out of 170 residences). Variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis was used to examine the genetic relatedness of 57 MAH isolates from bathrooms of the healthy volunteers with human clinical isolates. A minimum spanning tree generated on the basis of the VNTR data indicated that isolates from the bathrooms of the healthy volunteers had a high degree of genetic relatedness with those from Japanese patients, bathrooms of patients, and river water, but not with those from Russian patients and Japanese pigs. These results showed that bathtub inlets in Japan provide an environmental niche for MAH and suggest that bathrooms are one of the important infection sources of MAH in Japan. Understanding country-specific lifestyle habits, such as bathing in Japan, as well as the genetic diversity of MAH, will help in elucidating the sources of this pathogen.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Repetições Minissatélites , Mycobacterium avium/classificação , Rios/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Japão , Mycobacterium avium/genética , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Filogeografia , Federação Russa , Microbiologia do Solo , Toaletes , Microbiologia da Água
13.
J Infect Chemother ; 25(12): 995-1000, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although fluoroquinolones are considered as alternative therapies of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, the association between fluoroquinolone resistance and MAC genotypes in clinical isolates from individuals not previously treated for MAC infection is not fully clear. METHODS: Totals of 154 M. avium isolates and 35 Mycobacterium intracellulare isolates were obtained from treatment-naïve patients with pulmonary MAC disease at the diagnosis of MAC infection at 8 hospitals in Japan. Their susceptibilities of moxifloxacin were determined by broth microdilution methods. Moxifloxacin-resistant isolates were examined for mutations of gyrA and gyrB. Variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) assay was performed using 15 M. avium VNTR loci and 16 M. intracellulare VNTR loci. RESULTS: Moxifloxacin susceptibility was categorized as resistant and intermediate for 6.5% and 16.9%, respectively, of M. avium isolates and 8.6% and 17.1% of M. intracellulare isolates. Although the isolates of both species had amino acid substitutions of Thr 96 and Thr 522 at the sites corresponding to Ser 95 in the M. tuberculosis GyrA and Gly 520 in the M. tuberculosis GyrB, respectively, these substitutions were observed irrespective of susceptibility and did not confer resistance. The VNTR assays showed revealed three clusters among M. avium isolates and two clusters among M. intracellulare isolates. No significant differences in moxifloxacin resistance were observed among these clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Although resistance or intermediate resistance to moxifloxacin was observed in approximately one-fourth of M. avium and M. intracellulare isolates, this resistance was not associated with mutations in gyrA and gyrB or with VNTR genotypes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Moxifloxacina/farmacologia , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/tratamento farmacológico , Mycobacterium avium/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , DNA Girase/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Repetições Minissatélites/genética , Moxifloxacina/uso terapêutico , Mutação , Mycobacterium avium/genética , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/genética , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/microbiologia
14.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(8): 1074-1079, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155550

RESUMO

The incidence of diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is increasing annually worldwide, including Japan. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hoiminissuis (MAH) is one of the most common NTM species responsible for chronic lung diseases in animals and humans. In the current study, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing was employed to characterize the genetic diversity of swine MAH isolates from Kyushu, Japan. In total, 309 isolates were obtained from the lymph nodes of 107 pigs not displaying any clinical signs of disease, of which 307 were identified as MAH, comprising 173 strains. Based on eight established MIRU-VNTR loci, the MAH strains represented 50 genotypes constituting three lineages, and 29 had not been described in the Mac French National Institute for Agricultural Research Nouzilly MIRU-VNTR (Mac-INMV) database. MAH was the dominant M. avium complex (MAC) in pigs from Kyushu, and there was high genetic diversity among genotype profiles of MAH from Kyushu. We identified three predominant genotype profiles in the tested area sharing high relatedness with genotype profiles of strains isolated in European countries. MAH was the most common NTM in pigs from Kyushu and exhibited high diversity, with new strain-derived genotypes.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/veterinária , Infecções por Mycobacterium/veterinária , Mycobacterium avium/classificação , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Japão , Pneumopatias/virologia , Linfonodos/virologia , Repetições Minissatélites , Tipagem Molecular , Infecções por Mycobacterium/virologia , Mycobacterium avium/genética , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Suínos
15.
J Appl Microbiol ; 126(5): 1568-1579, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891905

RESUMO

AIM: Premise plumbing may disseminate the bacteria Legionella pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium, the causative agents for legionellosis and pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterium disease respectively. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using quantitative PCR, the occurrence and persistence of L. pneumophila, L. pneumophila serogroup (Sg)1 and M. avium were evaluated in drinking water samples from 108 cold water taps (residences: n = 43) and (office buildings: n = 65). Mycobacterium avium, L. pneumophila and L. pneumophila Sg1 were detected 45, 41 and 25% of all structures respectively. Two occurrence patterns were evaluated: sporadic (a single detection from the three samplings) and persistent (detections in two or more of the three samples). CONCLUSIONS: The micro-organism's occurrence was largely sporadic. Office buildings were prone to microbial persistence independent of building age and square footage. Microbial persistence at residences was observed in those older than 40 years for L. pneumophila and was rarely observed for M. avium. The microbial occurrence was evenly distributed between structure types but there were differences in density and persistence. SIGNIFICANCE OF AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The study is important because residences are often suspected to be the source when a case of disease is reported. These data demonstrate that this may not be the case for a sporadic incidence.


Assuntos
Água Potável/microbiologia , Legionella pneumophila , Mycobacterium avium , Legionella pneumophila/genética , Legionella pneumophila/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium avium/genética , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos , Microbiologia da Água
16.
Can Vet J ; 60(2): 179-182, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705454

RESUMO

Disseminated mycobacteriosis in a 3-year-old domestic medium-haired cat was diagnosed on lymph node cytology. Slide scrape lysates from the cytology submission were used to confirm Mycobacterium avium by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing and proved a simple technique that could be a valuable tool in veterinary diagnostics and research.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/genética , Gatos , Linfonodos/patologia , Mycobacterium avium/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/genética
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(3): 473-481, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789130

RESUMO

Attention to environmental sources of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is a vital component of disease prevention and control. We investigated MAC colonization of household plumbing in suburban Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. We used variable-number tandem-repeat genotyping and whole-genome sequencing with core genome single-nucleotide variant analysis to compare M. avium from household plumbing biofilms with M. avium isolates from patient respiratory specimens. M. avium was recovered from 30 (81.1%) of 37 households, including 19 (90.5%) of 21 M. avium patient households. For 11 (52.4%) of 21 patients with M. avium disease, isolates recovered from their respiratory and household samples were of the same genotype. Within the same community, 18 (85.7%) of 21 M. avium respiratory isolates genotypically matched household plumbing isolates. Six predominant genotypes were recovered across multiple households and respiratory specimens. M. avium colonizing municipal water and household plumbing may be a substantial source of MAC pulmonary infection.


Assuntos
Microbiologia Ambiental , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/epidemiologia , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/microbiologia , Mycobacterium avium/classificação , Microbiologia da Água , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Genótipo , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Repetições Minissatélites , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Mycobacterium avium/genética , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/classificação , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/genética , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/história , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
Aust Vet J ; 97(3): 81-86, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773616

RESUMO

CASE SERIES: Avian mycobacteriosis is a significant disease of a wide range of bird species worldwide. The most common causative agent, Mycobacterium avium, is reported to also infect a range of mammals, including humans. Of 11 brolgas (Antigone rubicunda) submitted to the University of Melbourne for postmortem examination over a 10-year period, 7 were diagnosed with mycobacteriosis. All were from a wildlife park and kept in permanent enclosures as part of a breeding program. Most of the brolgas with mycobacteriosis were in poor body condition and had widely disseminated granulomas throughout the body, especially within the liver, spleen and gastrointestinal tract. Respiratory tract involvement was common, with all disseminated cases having pulmonary or air sac granulomas. Rare to moderate numbers of acid-fast organisms were detected in granulomas by histological examination. Where examined by appropriate bacteriological examinations, M. avium complex was isolated from affected tissues. CONCLUSION: This case series is the first known report of mycobacteriosis in brolgas and highlights the pathological changes seen. The complications in maintaining an avian mycobacteriosis-free breeding program and in eradication of the disease from an enclosed wildlife environment are discussed.


Assuntos
Granuloma do Sistema Respiratório/veterinária , Tuberculose Aviária/fisiopatologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Animais de Zoológico , Autopsia/veterinária , Aves , Granuloma/patologia , Granuloma/veterinária , Granuloma do Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Baço/patologia , Tuberculose Aviária/epidemiologia , Vitória/epidemiologia
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 81: 46-51, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to conduct a multicentre evaluation of the performance of the biochip assay in the rapid identification of mycobacteria in smear-positive sputum specimens. METHODS: A total of 1751 sputum specimens were obtained from 7 cities in Zhejiang, China. All of the specimens were used for the discrimination of Mycobacterium species using the biochip assay, and the results were compared to the golden standard method of culture, hsp65, 16S rRNA and rpoB sequence analysis. RESULTS: In the 1751 sputum specimens, 1685 samples were cultured successfully; among these samples, 1361 were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 323 were NTM and 1 was Nocadia farcinica. Of the 323 NTM, most of them were Mycobacterium intracellulare(52.5%) followed by Mycobacterium abscessus (20.7%), Mycobacterium avium (11.7%), Mycobacterium kansasii (9.6%) and Mycobacterium fortuitum (1.9%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the biochip assay to differentiate TB and NTM from AFB positive specimens were 99.8%, 99.7%, 99.9%, 99.1%, 98.8%, 1, 1, and 99.7%, respectively. The concordance between the biochip assay and mycobacterial culture for the identification of NTM species was 95.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The biochip assay is a reliable tool for the rapid identification of most mycobacteria in clinical sputum specimens. This assay can be helpful for physicians in the early diagnosis and treatment of mycobacterium infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Escarro/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium kansasii/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 80: 134-136, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639623

RESUMO

Ruxolitinib is a JAK-1/JAK-2 inhibitor indicated for the treatment of polycythemia vera and primary or secondary myelofibrosis. Only one patient (0.2%) was diagnosed with tuberculosis among the 485 patients receiving ruxolitinib in the four pivotal trials. Fourteen cases of tuberculosis have since been reported. We observed two (3%) mycobacterial infections (one due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and one due to Mycobacterium avium complex) in our cohort of 65 patients receiving ruxolitinib. This observation suggests that the rate of mycobacterial infection might be higher than that observed in the pivotal trials and that atypical mycobacterial infections can also occur.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/tratamento farmacológico , Mielofibrose Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mycobacterium avium/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Policitemia Vera/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
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