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2.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 396-399, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559792

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB, bovine TB) is caused by mycobacteria which are grouped within the MTBC. TB in animals is a highly infectious and progressive disease which can be transmitted to humans. Since 2009, Poland has gained official bTB-free status. Despite the official fact of bTB-free status, a dozen bTB outbreaks are still noted each year. Since 2000 in Poland, every year 1/5 of the national herd is subject to intradermal skin TB testing to control the bTB outbreaks in the cattle population. Application, with 5-year intervals between each government-funded skin test, undoubtedly resulted in financial savings. However it also seems to have caused several adverse and worrying events, e.g. an increase in the number of reactors detected and removed from a single tested herd. The objective of this study was the examination of 898 cattle imputed with bTB infection in Poland between 2008-2012. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study concerned a potential epidemic outbreak with suspected bTB transmission. 20 cows came from 3 herds in the same county located in the same province in southern Poland. RESULTS: 134 MTBC strains were identified. In MIRU-VNTR, all isolates showed the same genetic pattern 322532243421232. Based on molecular investigation, the characteristics of M. bovis strains isolated from cattle from 3 different herds confirmed the common source of this zoonotic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Although not bacteriologically proven, everything points to the fact that humans were the vector of bovine tuberculosis transmission between herds. This finding confirms transmission between 3 cattle herds in the Malopolskie Province in southern Poland (Podhale). The outbreak of tuberculosis in animals finally compromised public health.


Assuntos
Vetores de Doenças , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Mycobacterium bovis/classificação , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Polônia , Tuberculose/transmissão , Tuberculose Bovina/transmissão , Zoonoses/microbiologia
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007707, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532767

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Tunisia, almost 77% of clinically and bacteriologically diagnosed cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) are zoonotic TB, caused by M. bovis. Although several studies have analyzed bovine TB in cattle in Tunisia, no study has evaluated the risk of transmission to humans in such an endemic country. We aimed to study the genetic diversity of M. bovis human isolates, to ascertain the causes of human EPTB infection by M. bovis and to investigate the distribution and population structure of this species in Tunisia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 110 M. bovis isolates taken from patients with confirmed EPTB were characterized by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing methods. RESULTS: Among the 15 spoligotypes detected in our study, 6 (SB0120, SB0121, SB2025, SB1200, SB1003 and SB0134) were the most prevalent (83.5%) of which SB0120, SB0121 and SB2025 were the most prevailing. MIRU-VNTR typing method showed a high genotypic and genetic diversity. The genetic differentiation based on MIRU-VNTR was significant between populations from South East (Tataouine, Medenine) and Central West (Gafsa, Sidi Bouzid, Kasserine) regions. Of note, 13/15 (86.7%) spoligotypes detected in our study were previously identified in cattle in Tunisia with different frequencies suggesting a peculiar ability of some genotypes to infect humans. Using combined spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR method, a high clustering rate of 43.9% was obtained. Our results underlined that human EPTB due to M. bovis was more commonly found in female gender and in young patients. Most of our patients, 66.4% (73/110) were raw milk or derivatives consumers, whereas 30.9% (34/110) patients would have contracted EPTB through contact with livestock. The findings suggest that the transmission of Zoonotic TB caused by M. bovis to humans mainly occurred by oral route through raw milk or derivatives. CONCLUSION: Our study showed the urgent need of a better veterinary control with the implementation of effective and comprehensive strategies in order to reach a good protection of animals as well as human health.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Lactente , Líbia/etnologia , Gado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Prospectivos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 87: 32-38, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium bovis BCG is a live, attenuated tuberculosis vaccine. While the vaccine protects infants from tuberculosis, complications including disseminated infections have been reported following vaccination. Genetically diverse BCG sub-strains now exist following continuous passaging of the original Pasteur strain for vaccine manufacture. This genetic diversity reportedly influences the severity of disseminated BCG infections and the efficacy of BCG immunization. METHODS: M. bovis BCG was isolated from infants suspected of being infected with tuberculosis. The whole genome of the clinical isolates and BCG Moscow were sequenced using Illumina Miseq and the sequences were analysed using CLC Genomics Workbench 7.0, PhyResSE v1.0, and Parsnp. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variations between the clinical strains and the reference BCG Copenhagen were identified. The clinical strains shared only one mutation in a secretion protein. Mutations were identified in various antibiotic resistance genes in the BCG isolates, which suggests their potential as multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the two isolates were distantly related, and the M1_S48 clinical isolate was closely related to M. bovis BCG Moscow. The phylogenomics results imply that two different BCG strains may be circulating in South Africa. However, it is difficult to associate the BCG vaccine strain administered and the BCG strain supplied with specific adverse events, as BCGiosis is under-reported. This study presents background genomic information for future surveillance and tracking of the distribution of BCGiosis-associated mycobacteria. It is also the first to report on the genomes of clinical BCG strains in Africa.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/efeitos adversos , Mycobacterium bovis/classificação , Filogenia , Tuberculose/virologia , Vacina BCG/genética , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Sequência de Bases , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/etiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
6.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104700, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311648

RESUMO

The QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT) stimulation platform for cytokine release is a novel approach for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species. Plasma interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is routinely measured to detect immune sensitization to Mycobacterium bovis. However, the cytokine interferon gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) has been proposed as an alternative, more sensitive, diagnostic biomarker. In this study, we investigated the use of the QFT system with measurement of IFN-γ and IP-10 in parallel to identify M. bovis-infected African buffaloes. The test results of either biomarker in a cohort of M. bovis-unexposed buffaloes (n = 70) led to calculation of 100% test specificity. Furthermore, in cohorts of M. bovis culture-positive (n = 51) and M. bovis-suspect (n = 22) buffaloes, the IP-10 test results were positive in a greater number of animals than the number based on the IFN-γ test results. Most notably, when the biomarkers were measured in parallel, the tests identified all M. bovis culture-positive buffaloes, a result neither the single comparative intradermal tuberculin test (SCITT) nor Bovigam® IFN-γ release assay (IGRA) achieved, individually or in parallel. These findings demonstrate the diagnostic potential of this blood-based assay to identify M. bovis-infected African buffaloes and a strategy to maximise the detection of infected animals while maintaining diagnostic specificity and simplifying test procedures.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Búfalos/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/isolamento & purificação , Interferon gama/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Antígenos de Bactérias/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , África do Sul , Tuberculose/sangue , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007546, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306431

RESUMO

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is an important re-emerging disease affecting livestock, wildlife and humans. Epidemiological studies are crucial to identifying the source of bTB infection, and its transmission dynamics and host preference, and thus to the implementation of effective strategies to contain it. In this study, we typed M. bovis isolates from livestock, and investigated their genetic diversity and distribution. A total of 204 M. bovis isolates were collected from cattle (n = 164) and Sicilian black pigs (n = 40) reared in a limited area of the province of Messina, northeastern Sicily, an area that had previously been identified as having the highest incidence of bTB in livestock on the island. All M. bovis isolates were typed by both spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU-VNTR analysis. Results from both methods were then combined in order to improve the discriminatory power of M. bovis typing. We identified 73 combined genetic profiles. Thirty-five point six percent of the profiles were common to at least two animals, whereas 64.4% of profiles occurred in only one animal. A number of genetic profiles were predominant in either cattle or black pigs. We identified common genetic patterns in M. bovis isolates originating not only from neighboring districts, but also from non-neighboring districts. Our findings suggest that bTB is widespread in our setting, and is caused by a large number of genetically diverse M. bovis strains. The ecology and farming practices characteristic of the area may explain the substantial M. bovis heterogeneity observed, and could represent obstacles to bTB eradication.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Gado/microbiologia , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Bovinos , Perfil Genético , Variação Genética , Sicília/epidemiologia , Suínos , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia
8.
Microb Pathog ; 134: 103574, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170450

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to assess the prevalence and efficiency of techniques for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Gamma interferon assay (IFN-γ) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in comparison to skin tuberculin test and culture technique. A total of 2600 cross-breed dairy cattle in Menoufia and Daqahlia governorates were tested by the single intradermal tuberculin test where the disease prevalence was 1.8%. Serum and whole blood samples were collected from positive tuberculin reactors for ELISA and IFN-γ assay, respectively. After slaughtering of positive tuberculin reactors, the post-mortem examination was carried out and tissue samples were collected for the bacteriological examination and PCR. The percentage of visible lesions of tuberculin reactors was 78.7%, while non-visible lesions were 21.27%. Culture technique revealed that the percentage of bTB was 63.8%. The ELISA and IFN-γ assay using short-term culture filtrate (ST-CF) prepared antigen revealed higher sensitivity (72.3% and 82.9%) than the bovine purified protein derivative (PPD-B) antigen. Although prepared ST-CF antigen has great efficiency and eligibility for the diagnosis of bTB, PCR appeared to have a higher sensitivity (85.1%) than other diagnostic methods when dealing with post-mortem samples. Gamma interferon assay using ST-CF antigen is recommended for antemortem diagnosis of bTB in cattle.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Interferon gama/sangue , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Animais , Bovinos , Técnicas de Cultura/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculina , Teste Tuberculínico/métodos , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/imunologia , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia
9.
Res Vet Sci ; 125: 14-23, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108426

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the performance of real-time PCR (qPCR), ELISA IDEXX™, and bacterial isolation as post-mortem diagnostic tests in animals with lesions compatible with bovine tuberculosis detected by Brazilian Federal Inspection Service as part of the bovine tuberculosis active surveillance. Bayesian latent class models were used to estimate diagnostic tests' sensitivity, specificity, correlations, predictive values and frequency of infected animals. Samples of tuberculosis-suggestive lesions collected by FIS sanitary inspection routine in slaughterhouses from 11 Brazilian states were analyzed. Isolation was the most sensitive technique, 94.54% (95% Credible Interval (CrI) 90.09%-97.65%), qPCR was 64.69% (95% CrI 54.41%-74.15%) sensitive and ELISA IDEXX™ 26.74% (95% CrI 22.82%-30.97%). Tests' specificities were 98.19% (95% CrI 95.75%-99.45%), 93.49% (95% CrI 79.28%-99.66%), 95.53% (95% CrI 91.71%-98.02%) respectively. Despite its low sensitivity, ELISA IDEXX™ was able to identify positive samples that were not detected by the other techniques. These samples had high probability to be true positives given ELISA's positive predictive value. The correlations between qPCR and isolation were neither biologically nor statistically significant. The low sensitivity of the qPCR is a limiting factor to its use as a post-mortem diagnosis in bovine tuberculosis suggestive lesions. Its use could be recommended in situations of high prevalence, or in parallel association with other tests, such as ELISA IDEXX™. ELISA IDDEX™ should not be used as a unique test, or in substitution of the other tests, for the post-mortem diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis due to its sensitivity.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Matadouros , Animais , Autopsia , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Análise de Classes Latentes , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Arch Microbiol ; 201(8): 1047-1051, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111186

RESUMO

Bovine tuberculosis is a disease that is widely distributed around the world. Its causative agent, Mycobacterium bovis, has characteristics of a microorganism with clonal multiplication in populations with no evidence of genetic exchange between strains, and, consequently, a group of strains can be identified as descending from a common ancestor. The aim of this study was to investigate the clonal complexes of M. bovis isolated from samples of lesions suggestive of bovine tuberculosis collected from slaughterhouses in various states of Brazil between 2006 and 2012. Ninety samples were analyzed, and it was found that 14.4% belonged to the clonal complex European1 and 81.1% to the clonal complex European2, while 4.65% were not identified as any of the four known complexes.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium bovis/classificação , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Evolução Clonal/genética , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 152, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium bovis is known to have a wide host range and has been isolated from numerous free-ranging wildlife species, carnivores included. In bears, M. bovis has been previously reported only from a culture of pooled lymph nodes of a black bear (Ursus americanus) in the absence of lesions. The aims of this study were to describe gross and microscopic pathological findings of M. bovis tuberculosis in a deceased Marsican brown bear (Ursus arctos marsicanus). CASE PRESENTATION: In March 2014, an adult female Marsican brown bear was found in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park (Italy) showing severe non-specific clinical signs. The animal died soon after its discovery and the carcass was submitted to post-mortem examination to identify the cause of death. The bear was diagnosed with a severe Mycobacterium bovis infection, with both pathological and microbiological aspects suggesting ongoing generalization. A presumptive diagnosis of mycobacterial infection was initially made based on gross findings. Histopathology showed the presence of acid-fast bacilli in all sampled tissues along with poorly organized granulomatous lesions. Slow-growing Mycobacterium sp. was isolated from multiple organs (intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, lung and kidneys). The PCR and sequencing algorithm identified the Mycobacterium sp. isolate as M. bovis. Spoligotyping demonstrated that the M. bovis isolate belonged to spoligotype SB0120. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of lethal M. bovis tuberculosis infection in a free-ranging brown bear. This pathogen could have serious adverse effects in an endangered relic population such as the Marsican brown bear. Stricter application of health regulations in force, surveillance of M. bovis infections in wild ungulates and carnivore scavengers, along with dismissal of supplementary feeding points intended for cattle or wildlife, are warranted to control the presence of bovine tuberculosis in wild and domestic animals in protected areas.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/veterinária , Ursidae/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/veterinária , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Itália , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/patologia
12.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(1): 7-15, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120657

RESUMO

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis infection, causes morbidity and mortality in free-ranging lions in bTB-endemic areas of South Africa. However, the only currently used diagnostic test is the tuberculin skin test (TST). This test is logistically challenging to perform because it requires immobilization of lions twice in a 72-hr period. Blood-based diagnostic tests, such as serological assays, have been previously reported for M. bovis detection in lion populations, and have the advantage of only requiring a single immobilization. In addition, serological assays can be used for retrospective testing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test free-ranging lions with the STAT-PAKt (Chembio Diagnostics Systems, Medford, NY 11763, USA) and DPPt VetTB (Chembio Diagnostics Systems) serological assays and compare those results with the tuberculin skin test. The serological assays were also used to determine prevalence in bTB-endemic and uninfected lion populations. The results showed that the serological assays could distinguish between M. bovis culture-positive and -negative lions. In addition, antigen-specific humoral responses were present in lions that had clinical signs of bTB disease or were shedding M. bovis antemortem. Although the seroprevalence of M. bovis infection in Kruger National Park lions was similar to that obtained from antemortem mycobacterial culture (4.8 and 3.3%, respectively), it was less than that estimated by the TST (72%). These findings support the hypothesis that assays based on cell-mediated immune responses are more sensitive than serology is in detecting M. bovis infection in lions. However, serological assays can have a role in bTB disease detection in lions and are especially useful for retrospective studies.


Assuntos
Leões , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/veterinária , Animais , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Teste Tuberculínico/veterinária , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
13.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(5): 2175-2179, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144447

RESUMO

The native Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of animal tuberculosis (TB), a chronic disease in livestock, companion animals and wild mammals. Cases of M. bovis infection in wild boar or feral pig have been reported worldwide, making early detection a priority in the eradication of the disease. Point-of-care diagnostic tests, such as low cost lateral flow assays, provide high specificity and sensitivity and can be performed on site, an essential requirement for a rapid screening of wildlife. A lateral flow assay, LFA, (INgezim TB CROM Ab) for the detection of M. bovis-specific antibodies in wild boar serum and blood has been developed based on MPB83, one of the major immunogenic antigens of the bacterium. A total of 140 samples of wild boar serum, well-characterized by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex culture and TB compatible post-mortem lesions, have been analysed with LFA, and results were compared with one in-house and two commercial Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), INgezim TB Porcine and INgezim Tuberculosis DR. In experimental samples, the achieved values of sensitivity of the different techniques ranged from 84.3% to 92.1% and the specificity was 100% in all of them. In field animals, specificity ranged from 96% to 100%, whereas sensitivity ranged from 48% to 64% in juvenile wild boar, increasing to 93.3%-100% in adult wild boar. In particular, the total sensitivity and specificity values obtained with the new LFA were 83% and 97%, respectively, indicating that INgezim TB CROM Ab could be used as a first approach for the surveillance of TB in wild boar, with a special applicability for animal-side testing.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/veterinária , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Espanha , Suínos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
14.
Prev Vet Med ; 166: 93-109, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935511

RESUMO

In most officially bovine tuberculosis (bTB)-free countries, bTB has not been fully eradicated. Costly and time-consuming surveillance and control measures are therefore still in place to control this infection. An officially bTB-free status, both at the national and at the herd level, influences whether and when animals can be sold. Thus, this infection is still an economic issue, justifying measures towards its eradication. An evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of such measures would be highly useful, especially to optimise the costs of control measures and their adaptation to a local epidemiological context. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of three mandatory surveillance protocols currently used in France by herd type (type of production, size, and turnover of the herd) under French field conditions. The first protocol ("strict") implies the direct slaughter and post-mortem analyses of any intradermal cervical tuberculin test (ICT) reactor, and negative results to a second intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin test (ICCT) to regain bTB-free status of the herd. In the second protocol ("compliant quick-path") bTB-free status can be regain if post-mortem analyses of reactors to the first ICT are negative. In the third protocol ("compliant slow-path"), ICCT-reactive animals are tested using the interferon gamma assay; the results of this test influence the path of further investigation. We built scenario trees for each of these protocols at the animal level. They allowed us to estimate herd sensitivity and the total cost of each protocol by herd type. The protocols could be ordered by decreasing herd sensitivity and cost, regardless of the herd type, as follows: strict protocol, compliant quick-path protocol, and compliant slow-path protocol. We calculated a cost-effectiveness index to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of each protocol. The strict protocol was never the most cost-effective, regardless of herd type, due to higher costs relative to the other protocols, despite better herd sensitivity. We found the compliant quick-path to be the most cost-effective protocol for big beef, big dairy, and mixed herds. The compliant slow-path was the most cost-effective for small-scale beef and dairy herds. All differences were significant. This comparison of the cost-effectiveness of the protocols by herd type could help authorities to choose the most suitable protocol in the investigation of suspected cases, depending on the herd type, but could be improved by accounting for important sociological data, such as the acceptability of the protocols.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária , Teste Tuberculínico/economia , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , França/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Teste Tuberculínico/métodos , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215647, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002716

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculous lymphadenitis is the most frequent form of extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) and accounts for a considerable proportion of all EPTB cases. We conducted a systematic review of articles that described the epidemiological features of TBLN in Africa. METHODS: Any article that characterized TBLN cases with respect to demographic, exposure and clinical features were included. Article search was restricted to African countries and those published in English language irrespective of publication year. The articles were retrieved from the electronic database of PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane library and Lens.org. Random effect pooled prevalence with 95% CI was computed based on Dersimonian and Laird method. To stabilize the variance, Freeman-Tukey double arcsine root transformation was done. The data were analyzed using Stata 14. RESULTS: Of the total 833 articles retrieved, twenty-eight articles from 12 African countries fulfilled the eligibility criteria. A total of 6746 TBLN cases were identified. The majority of the cases, 4762 (70.6%) were from Ethiopia. Over 77% and 88% of identified TBLN were cervical in type and naïve to TB drugs. Among the total number of TBLN cases, 53% were female, 68% were in the age range of 15-44 years, 52% had a history of livestock exposure, 46% had a history of consuming raw milk/meat and 24% had history of BCG vaccination. The proportion of TBLN/HIV co-infection was much lower in Ethiopia (21%) than in other African countries (73%) and the overall African estimate (52%). Fever was recorded in 45%, night sweating in 55%, weight loss in 62% and cough for longer than two weeks in 32% of the TBLN cases. CONCLUSIONS: TBLN was more common in females than in males. The high prevalence of TBLN in Ethiopia did not show directional correlation with HIV. Population based prospective studies are warranted to better define the risk factors of TBLN in Africa.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/patologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Masculino , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium bovis/fisiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0209395, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a re-emerging problem in both livestock and humans. The association of some M. bovis strains with hyper-virulence, MDR-TB and disseminated disease makes it imperative to understand the biology of the pathogen. METHODS: Mycobacterium bovis (15) among 1755 M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolated between 2012 and 2014 were characterized and analyzed for associated patient demography and other risk factors. Five of the M. bovis isolates were whole-genome sequenced and comparatively analyzed against a global collection of published M. bovis genomes. RESULTS: Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from 3/560(0.5%) females and 12/1195(1.0%) males with pulmonary TB. The average age of M. bovis infected cases was 46.8 years (7-72years). TB patients from the Northern region of Ghana (1.9%;4/212) had a higher rate of infection with M. bovis (OR = 2.7,p = 0.0968) compared to those from the Greater Accra region (0.7%;11/1543). Among TB patients with available HIV status, the odds of isolating M. bovis from HIV patients (2/119) was 3.3 higher relative to non-HIV patients (4/774). Direct contact with livestock or their unpasteurized products was significantly associated with bTB (p<0.0001, OR = 124.4,95% CI = 30.1-508.3). Two (13.3%) of the M. bovis isolates were INH resistant due to the S315T mutation in katG whereas one (6.7%) was RIF resistant with Q432P and I1491S mutations in rpoB. M. bovis from Ghana resolved as mono-phyletic branch among mostly M. bovis from Africa irrespective of the host and were closest to the root of the global M. bovis phylogeny. M. bovis-specific amino acid mutations were detected among MTBC core genes such as mce1A, mmpL1, pks6, phoT, pstB, glgP and Rv2955c. Additional mutations P6T in chaA, G187E in mgtC, T35A in Rv1979c, S387A in narK1, L400F in fas and A563T in eccA1 were restricted to the 5 clinical M. bovis from Ghana. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate potential zoonotic transmission of bTB in Ghana and hence calls for intensified public education on bTB, especially among risk groups.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Comorbidade , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Mutação , Mycobacterium bovis/classificação , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
17.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(1): 29-32, 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922025

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium caprae. Before widespread action conducted in Poland between 1959-1975 to combat bovine tuberculosis (BTB), about 40% of all tuberculosis cases in pigs was caused by the bovine bacillus. At the present time, correctly carried out, long-term control of cattle has resulted in cases of bovine tuberculosis in pigs and humans being extremely rare and sporadic. In pigs, tuberculosis is most often caught in a slaughterhouse during slaughter. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples came from pigs kept on the farm. Traditional bacteriological methods on solid media (Stonebrink, LJ with pyruvate) supported by the semi-automatic, liquid indicative culture method (MGIT) and PCR test were applied in targeted studies. The GenoType Mycobacterium MTBC and CM tests (Hain Lifescience, Germany) were used to additionally confirm that isolated strains classification was used. RESULTS: Strains of mycobacteria were isolated from all examined pigs. Mycobacterium bovis was determined by real time PCR and Hain Genotype methods. CONCLUSIONS: In order to effectively fight against BTB, all animals on farms should be tested, regardless of species, while the milk of suspected cows should be utilized without being used for feed. It is important to adapt the current legal regulations to the current epidemiological situation.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Tuberculose/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Bovina
18.
Mymensingh Med J ; 28(1): 259-266, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755580

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is a progressive granulomatous infectious disease caused by the gram positive, acid fast bacilli classified under the genus Mycobacterium. Tuberculosis in human is mostly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and primarily affects lungs causing pulmonary tuberculosis. It can also affect intestine, meninges, bones, joints, lymph nodes, skin and other tissues of the body causing extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Human TB is transmitted mainly through droplet infection and droplet nuclei. Infection of human with M. avium and M. africanum is very rare. M. microti is not known to cause TB in human, while M. bovis has a wider host range. Human may be infected by M. bovis through milk and milk products or meat of an infected animal. It is estimated that in some developing countries up to 10% of human tuberculosis is due to bovine TB. Tuberculosis causes more than 2 million deaths annually and the death toll is worsened by the emergence of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The South East Asia Region accounts for 39% of global burden of TB in terms of incidence. It is estimated that about 3.4 million new cases of TB continue to occur each year in this region, most of them in India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Tuberculosis is a social disease with medical aspects. It has also been described as a barometer of social welfare. The social factors include poor quality of life, poor housing, overcrowding, population explosion, under-nutrition, smoking, alcohol abuse, lack of education, large families, early marriages, lack of awareness regarding cause and transmission of TB. These factors are interrelated and contribute to the occurrence and transmission of tuberculosis. It is estimated that approximately 10% of total TB is occurred in children. Childhood deaths from TB are usually caused by tuberculous meningitis or disseminated disease. The number of individuals infected with both HIV and TB is increasing worldwide. The HIV affects the body's immune system and enhances the speed at which TB progresses from a innocuous infection to life threatening condition. TB is a major cause of death of HIV positive individuals. Diabetes has been shown to be an independent risk factor for tuberculosis in community based studies from south India and multiple studies globally. It is suggested that diabetes accounts for 14.8% of all tuberculosis and 20.8% of smear positive TB. Understanding of epidemiology of tuberculosis is essential for its effective control. This review tried to summarize the epidemiological aspects of tuberculosis in global, regional and Bangladesh perspectives. For this review article, data available in books and at the official websites of WHO, MBDC, NTP, DGHS, The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of Bangladesh were consulted through PubMed central and Google scholar search engines. This paper has been written with an aim to offer general education to health professionals, policy makers, patients and the public.


Assuntos
Leite/microbiologia , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Criança , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Bovina/transmissão , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(1): e13871, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608406

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Osteitis corresponds to a rare but potentially serious complication reported in pediatric population after the application of the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine. In the present study, 3 clinical cases associated with this entity are reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: The 1st case corresponds to a 1-year-old female patient who presented an increase in the volume of the right pelvic limb after BCG application. The second case is a 2-year-old male who began with an increase in volume, overactive gait and pain at the level of the left knee on walking that began after a trauma in the left low limb. The 3rd case corresponds to a 3-year-old patient who started with intense pain and limitation for ambulation. DIAGNOSIS: Both the radiographical and histological studies presented data suggestive of infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, corroborated through biopsy and genotyping analysis with the isolation of Mycobacterium bovis as the causal agent. INTERVENTIONS: The basic treatment scheme was based on Ethambutol, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide, and Isoniazid. When M. bovis was typified, clarithromycin was added in the treatment. OUTCOMES: Osteitis secondary to BCG vaccine usually has a favorable evolution, especially in immunocompetent patients. LESSONS: It was possible to confirm the association of BCG vaccine with the clinical picture of the patients who presented improvement after the start of antimicrobial management. Osteitis secondary to BCG vaccine usually presents a favorable evolution, especially in immunocompetent patients; however, the involvement of joint, growth discs and vertebrae increases the risk of presenting long-term sequels.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/efeitos adversos , Doenças Ósseas Infecciosas/etiologia , Doenças Ósseas Infecciosas/microbiologia , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Ósseas Infecciosas/tratamento farmacológico , Pré-Escolar , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
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