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2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 750, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Mapping the genetic diversity of MTBC in high TB burden country like Ethiopia is important to understand principles of the disease transmission and to strengthen the regional TB control program. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates circulating in the South Omo, southern Ethiopia. METHODS: MTBC isolates (N = 156) were genetically analyzed using spacer oligotyping (spoligotyping) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Major lineages and lineages were identified using MTBC databases. Logistic regression was used to correlate patient characteristics with strain clustering. RESULTS: The study identified Euro-American (EA), East-African-Indian (EAI), Indo-Oceanic (IO), Lineage_7/Aethiops vertus, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium africanum major lineages in proportions of 67.3% (105/156), 22.4% (35/156), 6.4% (10/156), 1.9% (3/156), 1.3% (2/156) and 0.6% (1/156), respectively. Lineages identified were Delhi/CAS 23.9% (37/155), Ethiopia_2 20.6% (32/155), Haarlem 14.2% (22/155), URAL 14.2%(22/155), Ethiopia_3 8.4% (13/155), TUR 6.5% (10/155), Lineage_7/Aethiops vertus 1.9% (3/155), Bovis 1.3% (2/155), LAM 1.3% (2/155), EAI 0.6% (1/155), X 0.6% (1/155) and Ethiopia H37Rv-like strain 0.6% (1/155). Of the genotyped isolates 5.8% (9/155) remained unassigned. The recent transmission index (RTI) was 3.9%. Orphan strains compared to shared types (AOR: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.04-0.25) were associated with reduced odds of clustering. The dominant TB lineage in pastoral areas was EAI and in non-pastoral areas was EA. CONCLUSION: The epidemiological data, highly diverse MTBC strains and a low RTI in South Omo, provide information contributing to the TB Control Program of the country.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Repetições Minissatélites/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Appl Microbiol ; 129(5): 1207-1219, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500542

RESUMO

AIMS: We employed a combination of diagnostic tests including single cervical tuberculin test (SCT), rapid lateral-flow test (RT), TB-Feron, conventional PCR and culture to investigate the prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis infections in dairy cattle under the intensive dairy production system in Egypt. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 2710 dairy cows from 11 herds in six Governorates were tested by SCT and 444 (16·4%) were TB reactors. Only 65 cows responded to M. bovis antigen by RT and TB-Feron. A postmortem examination showed that 49 (75·4%) of slaughtered cows have visible lesions. Testing of 215 out 444 SCT reactor cows by culture and PCR using blood and milk samples revealed that M. bovis were more frequently identified in the blood (6·1-20·5%) than milk (2·3-5·6%) samples. Additionally, in this study, we investigated the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with M. bovis infection in dairy farm workers. Overall, 100 dairy farm workers were tested using QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and 35 (35%) were positive. In all, 23 (23%) of MTC positive were M. bovis positive using PCR. Mycobacterium bovis positive cases were associated with workers who had respiratory signs and did not wash or disinfect their hands after handling cows. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of M. bovis in dairy cows and dairy farm workers under the intensive dairy production system in Egypt is high. It is therefore essential to disseminate effective prevention and control measures to prevent the spread of M. bovis between dairy cows and dairy workers. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study revealed that the use of RT or TB-Feron as an ancillary test of SCT reactor cows resulted in a significant reduction in the SCT false-positive slaughtered cows. A high prevalence of M. bovis infection among farm workers provides evidence of occupational risk in the intensive dairy production system in Egypt.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/diagnóstico , Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Egito/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/transmissão
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1072-1075, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539913

RESUMO

MPT64 is a 24-kDa immunogenic protein that is widely used as a diagnostic marker for the differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM). Unlike Mycobacterium bovis, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine strains with RD2 deletion do not secrete MPT64. Culture isolates from infections due to these strains may be falsely identified as nontuberculous Mycobacterium in the absence of clinical correlation. Here, we present one case each of BCG adenitis and osteitis, both of which were considered as MPT64 card-negative Mycobacterium spp. (i.e., NTM) and were later identified as M. bovis BCG Danish 1331 strain. The first case was a 4-month-old female infant admitted with swollen lymph nodes in the left supraclavicular and the left axillary region of 1 month duration. The second case was of a 1-year-and-5-month-old male child who presented with a limp on the left leg and soft tissue swelling of 1 month duration on the anterolateral aspect of the left knee joint. In both cases, BCG vaccine was administered at birth on the left deltoid region and had healed without any complication. Clinical samples in both cases were positive by Xpert tuberculosis/RIF for MTBC, and cultures grew acid-fast bacilli which were negative by MPT64 assay. The clinical implication of infections due to M. bovis BCG is immense as they are inherently resistant to pyrazinamide, and the presence of disseminated BCG infection in young children is a hallmark of serious immune deficiency which needs to be ruled out.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/imunologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Tuberculose/microbiologia
5.
Food Chem ; 327: 126945, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447131

RESUMO

This paper described a high-performance molecular test for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) based on digital loop-mediated isothermal amplification (dLAMP). M. bovis is a persistent pathogen that causes zoonotic tuberculosis and can infect both animals and human beings. The detection of M. bovis in milk samples is critical for effective control and prevention of zoonotic diseases but there lacks effective and sensitive methods. Here, we developed a convenient and low-cost system for M. bovis detection in milk, which incorporated automated DNA extraction and dLAMP by interfacial emulsification technique. Versus real-time PCR, dLAMP provides higher accuracy and sensitivity for direct M. bovis detection in milk, offering a limit of detection of 14 CFU/mL within 2 h. The dLAMP system can become a powerful platform for the detection of pathogens in complex samples and provide more reliable guidance for food safety testing, epidemiological research and clinical diagnosis.


Assuntos
Leite/microbiologia , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
6.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 170-178, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197169

RESUMO

European badgers (Meles meles) are accepted as a wildlife reservoir host for Mycobacterium bovis, which causes bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in the British Isles. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of Dual Path Platform (DPP) VetTB test (Chembio Diagnostic Systems Inc., Medford, NY, USA) within a Test and Vaccinate or Remove (TVR) wildlife research intervention project. Blood samples were collected from 456 individual badgers, trapped in 2015 and 2016, and tested in the field with DPP VetTB test using whole blood. Additionally, whole blood and serum samples were taken to the laboratory for further DPP VetTB testing and for gamma interferon (IFN-γ) testing. Swabs were taken from the oropharynx and trachea and submitted for bacteriological culture as were swabs from wounds, if present. Field DPP VetTB test positive badgers were euthanised and underwent post-mortem examination and bTB confirmatory testing. The results demonstrated that the test performed as well in the field using whole blood as DPP Vet TB tests in the laboratory using sera or whole blood, and as well as other established tests for M. bovis. Visual assessment of the DPP VetTB test using serum under laboratory conditions showed a high degree of consistency between raters. Using a relative gold standard (parallel interpretation of IFN-γ assay and oropharyngeal/tracheal sample/culture), sensitivity estimates for the DPP VetTB test using sera and whole blood were 0.5 (95%CI 0.34-0.66) and 0.42 (95%CI 0.24-0.66), respectively. Specificity estimates were 0.95 (95%CI 0.93-0.97) for sera and 0.89 (95%CI 0.86-0.92) for whole blood. Parallel interpretation of Band 1 (MPB83) and Band 2 (CFP-10/ESAT-6) of the DPP VetTB test was not superior to interpretation of Band 1 only. The results give confidence in the reliability and reproducibility of the DPP VetTB test for badgers under field conditions and therefore it is considered appropriate for use in a badger bTB control campaign.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/veterinária , Mustelidae , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Bovinos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/instrumentação , Feminino , Masculino , Irlanda do Norte , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008081, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119671

RESUMO

Mycobacterium bovis is the pathogenic agent responsible for bovine tuberculosis (bTB), a zoonotic disease affecting mostly cattle, but also transmittable to humans and wildlife. Genetic studies on M. bovis allow to detect possible routes of bTB transmission and the identification of genetic reservoirs that may provide an essential framework for public health action. We used a database with 1235 M. bovis genotypes collected from different regions in Africa with 45 new Mozambican samples. Our analyses, based on phylogeographic and population genetics' approaches, allowed to identify two clear trends. First, the genetic diversity of M. bovis is geographically clustered across the continent, with the only incidences of long-distance sharing of genotypes, between South Africa and Algeria, likely due to recent European introductions. Second, there is a broad gradient of diversity from Northern to Southern Africa with a diversity focus on the proximity to the Near East, where M. bovis likely emerged with animal domestication in the last 10,000 years. Diversity indices are higher in Eastern Africa, followed successively by Northern, Central, Southern and Western Africa, roughly correlating with the regional archaeological records of introduction of animal domesticates. Given this scenario M. bovis in Africa was probably established millennia ago following a concomitant spread with cattle, sheep and goat. Such scenario could translate into long-term locally adapted lineages across Africa. This work describes a novel scenario for the spread of M. bovis in Africa using the available genetic data, opening the field to further studies using higher resolution genomic data.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genótipo , Mycobacterium bovis/classificação , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/veterinária , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Análise por Conglomerados , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Cabras , Humanos , Gado , Epidemiologia Molecular , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Filogenia , Ovinos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
9.
J Trop Pediatr ; 66(1): 103-105, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180499

RESUMO

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) osteomyelitis in immunocompetent children is a rare complication of BCG immunization which presents with nonspecific findings and often leads to delayed diagnosis. We report a 1-year and 10-month-old male infant with complaining of knee pain and limping for 5 months. He received surgical debridement due to suspicion of malignancy but BCG osteomyelitis of the distal femur was diagnosed with the culture of the specimens which revealed to have Mycobacterium bovis-BCG strain. He was successfully treated with antituberculous therapy lasting for 1 year.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/efeitos adversos , Fêmur/microbiologia , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Osteomielite/etiologia , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mycobacterium bovis/patogenicidade , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 445, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis Bacille of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) has provided protection against M. bovis to badgers both experimentally and in the field. There is also evidence suggesting that the persistence of live BCG within the host is important for maintaining protection against TB. Here we investigated the capacity of badger inductive mucosal sites to absorb and maintain live BCG. The targeted mucosae were the oropharyngeal cavity (tonsils and sublingual area) and the small intestine (ileum). RESULTS: We showed that significant quantities of live BCG persisted within badger in tissues of vaccinated badgers for at least 8 weeks following oral vaccination with only very mild pathological features and induced the circulation of IFNγ-producing mononuclear cells. The uptake of live BCG by tonsils and drainage to retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes was repeatable in the animal group vaccinated by oropharyngeal instillation whereas those vaccinated directly in the ileum displayed a lower frequency of BCG detection in the enteric wall or draining mesenteric lymph nodes. No faecal excretion of live BCG was observed, including when BCG was delivered directly in the ileum. CONCLUSIONS: The apparent local loss of BCG viability suggests an unfavorable gastro-enteric environment for BCG in badgers, which should be taken in consideration when developing an oral vaccine for use in this species.


Assuntos
Administração Oral , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Mustelidae/microbiologia , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Íleo/microbiologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/veterinária , Vacinação/veterinária
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(12)2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857290

RESUMO

A 91-year-old man with a history of intravesicular BCG therapy for recurrent bladder cancer and bilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) presented with left hip pain. He was noted to have a fluid collection over the left lateral hip and hip X-ray showed loosening of the prosthetic hip stem indicative of a prosthetic joint infection (PJI). He subsequently underwent removal of the THA and insertion of an antibiotic spacer. He was discharged on intravenous ceftriaxone for presumed culture negative PJI. Intraoperative acid fast bacillus culture later grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, which was then differentiated to M. bovis The M. bovis infection was thought to be a complication of the patient's prior BCG therapy. He was initially started on isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol pending cultures and sensitivities; pyrazinamide was discontinued after M. bovis was isolated on culture and susceptibility data confirmed the expected inherent resistance of M. bovis to pyrazinamide. The patient underwent successful THA revision and remains symptom-free at 1 year.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Vacina BCG/efeitos adversos , Prótese de Quadril , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravesical , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Bovinos , Terapia Combinada , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Pirazinamida/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose Bovina/terapia
12.
Gac Med Mex ; 155(6): 608-612, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787773

RESUMO

Introduction: In Mexico, there is an alarming increase in the number of cases of Mycobacterium bovis infection on pulmonary and extrapulmonary presentations. The lack of timely identification triggers complications and increases mortality. Objective: To know the frequency of M. bovis infections in clinical samples of patients with tuberculosis in the mycobacteria laboratory of a reference hospital in Mexico City. Method: Prospective, descriptive study. Strains isolated from biological material were studied in Löwestein-Jensen and MGITI960 cultures. M. bovis was identified by amplifying the RD9 fragment with end-point polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Eight-hundred and fifty tuberculosis-diagnosed patients were included; in 441 cases, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed by positive culture (250 pulmonary, 65 ganglionic, 39 renal, 34 meningeal, 25 miliary, 14 pleural, 8 peritoneal, 4 bone and 2 pericardial cases). Forty-eight strains (10.8%) were typified as M. bovis by amplification of the RD9 fragment with end-point PCR. Conclusions: M. bovis is not currently thought of a causative agent of tuberculosis, which could be the cause of pharmacological treatment failure. In this study, the main extrapulmonary form was observed to be cervical lymphadenopathy.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18012, 2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784649

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) disease still kills 1-person every 21-seconds. Few TB diagnostic tests are considered truly appropriate for point of care settings. The WHO-endorsed immunodiagnostic Alere Determine Lipoarabinomannan Ag-test (LAM-test) detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex LAM in urine, and its use is recommended for TB diagnosis among HIV co-infected individuals with low CD4 T-cell counts. Here we found that a simple 15-minute enzymatic treatment at room temperature of LAM-spiked urine with α-mannosidase (for human TB), and LAM-spiked milk with combined lactase and caseinase (for bovine TB), enhanced 10-fold the detection levels of the LAM-test and thus, improved the detection of LAM by the LAM-test in urine and milk that otherwise could be missed in the field. Future separate clinical research studies specifically designed to address the potential of these findings are required.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Testes Imunológicos/métodos , Lipopolissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Leite/microbiologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/urina , Tuberculose Bovina/imunologia , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia , Urina/microbiologia
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1896-1900, Nov.-Dec. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055150

RESUMO

Este artigo tem como objetivo relatar um caso de infecção por Mycobacterium bovis em um gato doméstico, com seis meses de idade, enfatizando seus aspectos clínicos e terapêuticos. O felino apresentava como histórico a ingestão de leite de vaca não fervido e posteriormente desenvolveu sinais de anorexia, tosse não produtiva e linfadenomegalia. Para elucidação do diagnóstico, foram realizados exames complementares de imagem, hematológicos, citológicos e reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Diante da confirmação de infecção por Mycobacterium, o tratamento foi instituído por meio da associação de três antimicrobianos (enrofloxacino 5mg/kg, claritromicina 10mg/kg e rifampicina 15mg/kg), por via oral, a cada 12 horas, aos quais o animal respondeu positivamente, apresentando significativa diminuição dos sinais clínicos; entretanto, após 60 dias de tratamento, foi a óbito devido a um atropelamento. Conclui-se que a realização do tratamento em gatos com tuberculose pode ocasionar melhora dos sinais clínicos e que, embora de ocorrência rara no Brasil, essa enfermidade deve ser incluída como diagnóstico diferencial das enfermidades infecciosas nessa espécie.(AU)


This article aims to report a case of Mycobacterium bovis infection in a six-month-old domestic cat, emphasizing its clinical and therapeutic aspects. The feline presented as history the intake of unboiled cow's milk and later developed signs of anorexia, non-productive cough and lymphadenomegaly. Additional imaging, hematological, cytological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were performed to elucidate the diagnosis. In the presence of Mycobacterium infection, treatment was instituted by the combination of three antimicrobials (Enrofloxacin 5mg/kg, Clarithromycin 10mg/kg, and Rifampicin 15mg/kg) orally every 12 hours, to which the animal responded positively, presenting significant decrease of the clinical signs, however after 60 days of treatment the cat died accidentally, hit by a car on the street. It is concluded that the treatment in cats affected by tuberculosis can cause improvement of clinical signs and that although rare in Brazil, this disease should be included as a differential diagnosis of infectious diseases in this species.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Gatos , Tuberculose/veterinária , Anti-Infecciosos , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
15.
J Comp Pathol ; 172: 1-4, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690406

RESUMO

Mycobacterium bovis is the main agent of bovine tuberculosis, but has also zoonotic potential. An 8-month-old female domestic shorthaired cat imported from Ukraine developed wound complications after abdominal surgery. A second surgery performed in Germany showed a focal, partly cystic mass within the mesentery. Despite antimicrobial treatment, the cat did not recover and was humanely destroyed. Grossly, several abdominal lymph nodes were enlarged. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate, multifocal, granulomatous to pyogranulomatous, partially necrotizing inflammation, most prominent in the abdominal cavity. Within the lesions there were acid-fast bacilli within the cytoplasm of macrophages demonstrated by Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Further investigations revealed M. bovis SB0950 in the affected tissues.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia , Animais , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Bovinos , Feminino , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Ferida Cirúrgica/complicações , Zoonoses/microbiologia
16.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 23(11): 1162-1170, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718752

RESUMO

Zoonotic transmission of mycobacteria between humans and other animal species is an important aspect of the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in regions of the world where the burden of the disease in humans and other animals is high. This is particularly important in areas in which sociocultural factors increase the possibility for interspecies transmission of different mycobacteria. Carrying out a review of the published literature involving laboratory-confirmed TB cases (by culture) and/or biochemical and molecular identification, we described the presence of Mycobacterium bovis and M. tuberculosis infections in humans and animals from 1975 to 2014. Overall, 1693 isolates of M. tuberculosis complex and other mycobacteria were identified and reported, of which 1131 represented M. tuberculosis, 286 represented M. bovis, 71 represented M. africanum, and 205 represented other mycobacteria. Importantly, 1.3% (15/1131) of the M. tuberculosis isolates reported were identified in cattle, while 8.0% (23/286) of the M. bovis isolates reported were isolated from humans. We suggest that representative sampling of TB cases in both hosts, studied by molecular identification tools, will help significantly in deciphering ongoing transmission between animals and humans in both directions and will enhance TB control in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos/microbiologia , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
17.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 86(1): e1-e3, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714142

RESUMO

Mycobacterium bovis is the main cause of tuberculosis in wildlife. In South Africa, African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are a wildlife maintenance host while a number of other species are considered spillover hosts. Nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), a large antelope species from Southern Africa, is frequently traded and can be infected with M. bovis. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays that detect cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to M. bovis infection have shown promise in elephants, rhinoceroses and buffaloes. The BOVIGAM® assay is a commercial IFN-γ release assay designed to detect tuberculosis in cattle and has been validated in buffaloes. We tested the suitability of the BOVIGAM® assay to detect native IFN-γ release in nyala. Blood samples collected from 17 nyalas were stimulated with different mitogens and IFN-γ release measured. We found that incubating whole blood with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore (PMA/CaI) resulted in the highest levels of IFN-y release. Samples stimulated with tuberculin purified protein derivatives of M. bovis (PPDb) and M. avium (PPDa) did not show significant IFN-γ production. An intradermal tuberculin test (IDT) and culture of tissues from 15 of the 17 culled nyala were also performed, which supported the findings of the BOVIGAM® assay, suggesting the potential value of this assay for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in nyala.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/veterinária , Interferon gama/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/veterinária , Animais , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , África do Sul , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
18.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 69(10): 417-422, 16 nov., 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187107

RESUMO

Introducción: Mycobacterium bovis es una causa infrecuente de tuberculosis del sistema nervioso central en España, del cual existen pocos casos descritos en la bibliografía. Desde la pasteurización obligatoria de la leche y la implementación de programas de erradicación del ganado infectado, la enfermedad esporádica humana con este organismo ha disminuido drásticamente en los países desarrollados. Caso clínico: Varón inmunoafectado de 71 años, que presentaba una lesión lítica esporádica en la calota. Se realizó una craneotomía de la lesión y los resultados de microbiología fueron positivos para M. bovis, por lo que se inició tratamiento con terapia antituberculosa. A pesar del tratamiento correcto, el paciente desarrolló un absceso tuberculoso, que requirió un tratamiento quirúrgico agresivo, seguido de una complicación con una fístula supurativa. Sobre la base del tratamiento descrito para la linfadenitis tuberculosa, se decidió realizar un tratamiento conservador de la fístula supurativa, sin realizar nuevas limpiezas del lecho quirúrgico, y mantener de manera prolongada la terapia antituberculosa (isoniacida + rifampicina + etambutol + moxifloxacino + esteroides durante 12 meses), con lo que presentó una buena evolución clínica. Conclusiones: Hasta la fecha, éste es el primer caso descrito de una fístula supurativa después de la resección de un absceso cerebral causado por M. bovis, por lo que no existe en la bibliografía artículo alguno que describa el tratamiento adecuado de esta complicación


Introduction: Mycobacterium bovis is an infrequent cause of central nervous system tuberculosis in Spain, with few cases described in the literature. Since compulsory pasteurization of milk and implementation of eradication programs on infected cattle, human sporadic illness with this organism has dramatically declined in developed countries. Case Report: A 71-year-old immunocompromised male, who presented a calvarial lytic lesion. A craniotomy for the total resection of the lesion was performed and the microbiology results were positive for M. bovis, therefore antituberculous therapy was initiated. Despite of the correct treatment, the patient developed a tuberculous abscess that required an aggressive surgical management followed by a suppurative fistula. Based on the treatment of tuberculous lymphadenitis, we decided to perform a conservative management with antituberculous therapy (isoniazid + rifampicin + ethambutol + moxifloxacin + steroids during 12 months) and avoided new surgical cleanings of the surgical bed obtaining a good response and a good clinical evolution. Conclusions: As far as we know, this is the first case reported of a suppurative fistula after the resection of a cerebral abscess caused by M. bovis, therefore, there is no report in the literature about the treatment of this complication


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Abscesso Encefálico/etiologia , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Fístula/complicações , Tuberculoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso Encefálico/microbiologia , Fístula/cirurgia , Craniotomia , Crânio/lesões , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
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