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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 752, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molecular epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are the core of current research to find out the association of the M. tuberculosis genotypes with its outbreak and transmission. The high prevalence of the Beijing genotype strain among multidrug resistance (MDR) TB has already been reported in various studies around India. The overall objective of this study was to detect the prevalence of Beijing genotype strains of MDR M. tuberculosis and their association with the clinical characteristics of TB patients. METHODS: In this study 381 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates were obtained from sputum samples from 2008 to 2014. The multiplex-PCR and Spoligotyping (n = 131) methods were used to investigate the prevalence of the Beijing genotype strain by targeting the Rv2820 gene and their association with drug resistance and clinical characteristics of TB patients. The drug susceptibility testing of first-line anti-TB drugs was performed by using the proportion method and MGIT960. A collection of isolates having Beijing and non-Beijing strains were also characterized to see if Beijing genotype strains had a higher rate of mutations at codons 516, 526 and 531 of the 81-bp region of the rpoB gene, codon 315 of the katG gene, and codon 306 of the embB gene. RESULTS: The sensitivities and specificities of multiplex-PCR assay compared to that of standard Spoligotyping was detected to be 100%. Further, we observe that the multi drug-resistance was significantly associated with Beijing genotype strains (p = 0.03) and a strong correlation between Beijing genotype strains and specific resistance mutations at the katG315, rpoB531, and embB306 codons (p = < 0.0001, < 0.0001 & 0.0014 respectively) was also found. CONCLUSIONS: This rapid, simple, and cost-effective multiplex PCR assay can effectively be used for monitoring the prevalence of Beijing genotype strains in low resource settings. Findings of this study may provide a scientific basis for the development of new diagnostic tools for detection and effective management of DR-TB in countries with a higher incidence rate of Beijing genotype strains.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Catalase/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Pentosiltransferases/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Criança , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Taxa de Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5225, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067434

RESUMO

Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have a lower risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, progression from infection to tuberculosis (TB) disease, TB morality and TB recurrence, when being treated with metformin. However, a detailed mechanistic understanding of these protective effects is lacking. Here, we use mass cytometry to show that metformin treatment expands a population of memory-like antigen-inexperienced CD8+CXCR3+ T cells in naive mice, and in healthy individuals and patients with T2D. Metformin-educated CD8+ T cells have increased (i) mitochondrial mass, oxidative phosphorylation, and fatty acid oxidation; (ii) survival capacity; and (iii) anti-mycobacterial properties. CD8+ T cells from Cxcr3-/- mice do not exhibit this metformin-mediated metabolic programming. In BCG-vaccinated mice and guinea pigs, metformin enhances immunogenicity and protective efficacy against M. tuberculosis challenge. Collectively, these results demonstrate an important function of CD8+ T cells in metformin-derived host metabolic-fitness towards M. tuberculosis infection.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Cobaias , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Tuberculose/etiologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22608, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120748

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics and profile of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) among children with TB in Sichuan province of China.From January 2015 to December 2018, microbiological culture-confirmed child TB cases (aged <15 years old) were enrolled retrospectively. Epidemiological and clinical information from these cases, and the drug susceptibility testing results of the isolates were collected and analyzed.Of 317 culture-confirmed child TB cases, 16.7% (53/317) were aged under 5 years old. 54.9% were Tibetans, and 31.9% had clear history of contact with TB patients. More than half (53.9%) were not vaccinated by Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG). Thirty percent (n = 95) were diagnosed as severe TB, and 92.4% (n = 293) were new cases. The ratio of severe TB in BCG vaccinated group was significant lower than that observed in unvaccinated group (P < .01). Significantly higher proportion of severe TB among Tibetans than Han child TB cases was observed in BCG unvaccinated group (P < .01). The overall rate of DR-TB in this study was 24.3% (77/317) and 17 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases were identified with rate of MDR-TB at 5.4% (17/317). No extensively drug-resistant case was found. Thirteen out of 17 MDR-TB cases (76.4%) were Tibetan children. The ratio of any resistance to 4 first-line drugs identified were: isoniazid (INH), 15.5%; rifampicin (RIF), 9.1%; ethambutol, 0.6% and streptomycin, 6.0%, respectively. More than half of MDR patterns were resistant to INH + RIF (9/17), followed by at least resistance to INH + RIF + streptomycin (n = 7).This was the first investigation on the epidemiological characteristics and profiles of DR-TB among child TB cases in Southwest of China. Our findings indicated a potentially high risk of TB infection to Tibetan children in the concentrated Tibetan communities of Sichuan.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 678, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) control is a primary global health priority but the goal to eliminate TB is being threatened by the increase in incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). With this series of seven MDR-TB cases in migrant patients with identical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains we aim to illustrate the challenges encountered during therapy and follow-up: language barriers, access to care for migrant patients, depression due to isolation, adverse reactions to the treatment, management of pediatric TB, further contact tracing. We also discuss best practices for the management of complex MDR-TB cases in settings with low overall TB incidence focusing on modern diagnostic assays and an individualized and an interdisciplinary therapeutic approach. METHODS: We describe a case series of seven consecutively diagnosed MDR-TB patients, six of them treated at our tertiary care hospital between May 2018 and March 2020. Epidemiologic data was gained by semi-structured patient interviews and reconstruction of the migration route. The origin of the cluster was confirmed by genotyping of the TB-strains. RESULTS: Six related patients were diagnosed with pulmonary MDR-TB between May and August 2018. All had a positive Interferon-Gamma-Release Assay (IGRA), in five patients sputum microscopy was positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The genetic and phenotypical drug susceptibility test did not match with MDR-TB strains from an East-African origin. The index patient was identified through genetical fingerprinting. By changing the therapy to a modern MDR-TB regime and using an interdisciplinary and culture-sensitive approach, all patients improved clinically and radiologically. CONCLUSION: Human migration plays an important role for the global spread of MDR-TB in low incidence countries. Early case detection and adequate treatment are key to prevention of outbreaks. Especially language barriers and complex migration routes make genotyping of TB-strains a crucial tool to identify cases clusters, the potential index patient and transmission dynamics. We are fortunate enough to experience times in which new TB-antibiotics were made available and in which molecular assays revolutionized TB-diagnostics. We need to take advantage of that and develop personalized therapies for patients suffering from drug resistant TB.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Escarro/microbiologia , Sudão , Migrantes , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238007, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870914

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious disease of public health concern, mainly in low- and middle-income countries. Most of these countries have challenges in diagnosis and treatment of TB in people with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPTB), which remains a significant public health challenge because of the global burden of the disease. We evaluated the epidemiology and clinical presentation of SNPTB in a cohort of patients with high HIV burden. The study was a cross-sectional study among patients with SNPTB in four major hospitals that care for TB/HIV patients in north-central Nigeria. All patients 18 years and above who were newly diagnosed as SNPTB, or patients with SNPTB who had not taken TB drugs for up to 2 weeks irrespective of their HIV status were recruited. Demographic data (sex, age), smoking status, and medical history (clinical form of TB, symptoms at admission, diagnostic methods, presence of comorbidities, prior TB treatment) were obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire. Detailed clinical examination was also done on all the study subjects. Baseline results of packed cell volume, HIV test and sputum acid fast bacilli done during TB screening were retrieved from the patients' case notes and recorded. Also, the base line Chest X-ray films taken during TB screening were reviewed and reported by two radiologists blinded to each other's reports. The Xpert MTB/RIF tests and sputum culture (using LJ medium) were done in a TB reference laboratory. A total of 150 patients with SNPTB were studied. Majority of the patients were female 93 (62%). The median age of the patients was 36.5 years with greater percentage of the patients within the ages of 25-44 years 92 (61.3%). Twenty-two (14.7%) of the patients had previous TB treatment. History of cigarette smoking was obtained in only 7(4.7%) of the patients while 82 (64.1%) were HIV positive. All the patients had a history of cough for over a period of at least three weeks, while, 27 (18%) reported having hemoptysis. About 87 (58%) had fever and 110 (73.7%) had anemia, while weight loss and night sweat were reported in 98(65.3%) and 82 (54.7%) of the patients respectively. Chest x rays were reported as typical of TB in only 24 (16%) of the patients. Of the 150 sputa sample analyzed, 21/150 (14.0%) and 22/150 (14.7%) where Gene Xpert and sputum culture positive respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of Gene Xpert assay were 81.8% (18/22; 95% CI 61.5 to 92.7%) and 97.4% (112/115; 95% CI 92.6 to 99.1%), respectively. The study found cough, fever and anemia to be the commonest presentation in patient with SNPTB in a high HIV burden patient's population. There is also relatively high culture positivity among the patients. This underscores the need to expand the facilities for culture and confirmation in TB centers across the country.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Programas de Rastreamento , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/etiologia
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5901-5909, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884258

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) has always been recognized as one of the fatal infectious diseases, which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Isonicotinic acid hydrazide or isoniazid (INH) is one of the most commonly utilized drugs in the treatment of TB. Patients need to take 300 mg daily of INH for 6 months in combination with another anti-TB drug and tolerate several side effects of INH. On the other hand, the emergence of resistant strains of anti-TB antibiotics is one of the major problems in the treatment of this disease. So, antimicrobial drug delivery by nanofluids could improve the efficacy, and reduce the adverse effects of antimicrobial drugs. The purpose of this study was to perform a novel method to synthesize INH-conjugated multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for more effective drug delivery, as well as, TB treatment. Methods: INH-conjugated functionalized MWCNTs were prepared, using a reflux system. The characterization of the obtained nano-drug was performed by the elemental analyses of total nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon and sulfur (CHNS), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. The nanofluid of nano-drug was prepared by the ultrasonic method, and the related antibacterial effect studies were carried out on the two strains of M.tb. Results: The antimicrobial effect of INH-conjugated MWCNTs was found to be much better at low concentrations than the pure drug in all of the strains. Conclusion: Since one of the main antimicrobial mechanisms of MWCNTs is through the destruction of the bacterial cell wall, in addition to its antimicrobial effects, it increased the drug delivery of INH at lower doses compared to drug alone. So, the nanofluid, containing INH-conjugated MWCNTs, had a better lethal effect on a variety of M.tb strains than that of the drug alone.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Isoniazida/administração & dosagem , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanoestruturas/química , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Antituberculosos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Isoniazida/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Análise Espectral Raman , Tuberculose/microbiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236057, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of TB in pediatric population poses several challenges. A novel initiative was implemented in several major cities of India aimed at providing upfront access to free-of-cost Xpert MTB/RIF to presumptive pediatric TB cases. This paper aims to describe the experience of implementing this large initiative and assess feasibility of the intervention in high TB burden settings. METHODS: Data were drawn from the pediatric TB project implemented in 10 major cities of India between April 2014 and March 2018. In each city, providers, both public and private, were engaged and linked with a high throughput Xpert MTB/RIF lab (established in that city) through rapid specimen transportation and electronic reporting system. Rates and proportions were estimated to describe the characteristics of this cohort. RESULTS: Of the total 94,415 presumptive pediatric TB cases tested in the project, 6,270 were diagnosed positive for MTB (6.6%) on Xpert MTB/RIF (vs 2% on smear microscopy). Among MTB positives, 545 cases were rifampicin resistant (8.7%). The median duration between collection of specimens and reporting of results was 0 days (same day) and >89% cases were initiated on treatment. Approximately 50% of the specimens tested were non-sputum. The number of providers/facilities engaged under the project increased >10-fold (from 124 in Q2'14 to 1416 in Q1'18). CONCLUSION: This project, which was one of the largest initiatives globally among pediatric population, demonstrated the feasibility of sustaining rapid and upfront access to free-of-cost Xpert MTB/RIF testing. The project underscores the efficiency of this rapid diagnostic assay in tackling several challenges in pediatric TB diagnosis, identifies opportunities for further interventions as well as brings to light scope for effective engagement with healthcare providers. The findings have facilitated a policy decision by National TB Programme mandating the use of Xpert MTB/RIF as a primary diagnostic tool for TB diagnosis in children, which is being scaled-up.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013359, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Every year, at least one million children become ill with tuberculosis and around 200,000 children die. Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra are World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended rapid molecular tests that simultaneously detect tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults and children with signs and symptoms of tuberculosis, at lower health system levels. To inform updated WHO guidelines on molecular assays, we performed a systematic review on the diagnostic accuracy of these tests in children presumed to have active tuberculosis. OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives • To determine the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra for (a) pulmonary tuberculosis in children presumed to have tuberculosis; (b) tuberculous meningitis in children presumed to have tuberculosis; (c) lymph node tuberculosis in children presumed to have tuberculosis; and (d) rifampicin resistance in children presumed to have tuberculosis - For tuberculosis detection, index tests were used as the initial test, replacing standard practice (i.e. smear microscopy or culture) - For detection of rifampicin resistance, index tests replaced culture-based drug susceptibility testing as the initial test Secondary objectives • To compare the accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra for each of the four target conditions • To investigate potential sources of heterogeneity in accuracy estimates - For tuberculosis detection, we considered age, disease severity, smear-test status, HIV status, clinical setting, specimen type, high tuberculosis burden, and high tuberculosis/HIV burden - For detection of rifampicin resistance, we considered multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis burden • To compare multiple Xpert MTB/RIF or Xpert Ultra results (repeated testing) with the initial Xpert MTB/RIF or Xpert Ultra result SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials Number (ISRCTN) Registry up to 29 April 2019, without language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized trials, cross-sectional trials, and cohort studies evaluating Xpert MTB/RIF or Xpert Ultra in HIV-positive and HIV-negative children younger than 15 years. Reference standards comprised culture or a composite reference standard for tuberculosis and drug susceptibility testing or MTBDRplus (molecular assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance) for rifampicin resistance. We included studies evaluating sputum, gastric aspirate, stool, nasopharyngeal or bronchial lavage specimens (pulmonary tuberculosis), cerebrospinal fluid (tuberculous meningitis), fine needle aspirates, or surgical biopsy tissue (lymph node tuberculosis). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality using the Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy - Revised (QUADAS-2). For each target condition, we used the bivariate model to estimate pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We stratified all analyses by type of reference standard. We assessed certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: For pulmonary tuberculosis, 299 data sets (68,544 participants) were available for analysis; for tuberculous meningitis, 10 data sets (423 participants) were available; for lymph node tuberculosis, 10 data sets (318 participants) were available; and for rifampicin resistance, 14 data sets (326 participants) were available. Thirty-nine studies (80%) took place in countries with high tuberculosis burden. Risk of bias was low except for the reference standard domain, for which risk of bias was unclear because many studies collected only one specimen for culture. Detection of pulmonary tuberculosis For sputum specimens, Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity (95% CI) and specificity (95% CI) verified by culture were 64.6% (55.3% to 72.9%) (23 studies, 493 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and 99.0% (98.1% to 99.5%) (23 studies, 6119 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). For other specimen types (nasopharyngeal aspirate, 4 studies; gastric aspirate, 14 studies; stool, 11 studies), Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity ranged between 45.7% and 73.0%, and pooled specificity ranged between 98.1% and 99.6%. For sputum specimens, Xpert Ultra pooled sensitivity (95% CI) and specificity (95% CI) verified by culture were 72.8% (64.7% to 79.6%) (3 studies, 136 participants; low-certainty evidence) and 97.5% (95.8% to 98.5%) (3 studies, 551 participants; high-certainty evidence). For nasopharyngeal specimens, Xpert Ultra sensitivity (95% CI) and specificity (95% CI) were 45.7% (28.9% to 63.3%) and 97.5% (93.7% to 99.3%) (1 study, 195 participants). For all specimen types, Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra sensitivity were lower against a composite reference standard than against culture. Detection of tuberculous meningitis For cerebrospinal fluid, Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity and specificity, verified by culture, were 54.0% (95% CI 27.8% to 78.2%) (6 studies, 28 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and 93.8% (95% CI 84.5% to 97.6%) (6 studies, 213 participants; low-certainty evidence). Detection of lymph node tuberculosis For lymph node aspirates or biopsies, Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity and specificity, verified by culture, were 90.4% (95% CI 55.7% to 98.6%) (6 studies, 68 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and 89.8% (95% CI 71.5% to 96.8%) (6 studies, 142 participants; low-certainty evidence). Detection of rifampicin resistance Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% (67.6% to 97.5%) (6 studies, 20 participants; low-certainty evidence) and 98.3% (87.7% to 99.8%) (6 studies, 203 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found Xpert MTB/RIF sensitivity to vary by specimen type, with gastric aspirate specimens having the highest sensitivity followed by sputum and stool, and nasopharyngeal specimens the lowest; specificity in all specimens was > 98%. Compared with Xpert MTB/RIF, Xpert Ultra sensitivity in sputum was higher and specificity slightly lower. Xpert MTB/RIF was accurate for detection of rifampicin resistance. Xpert MTB/RIF was sensitive for diagnosing lymph node tuberculosis. For children with presumed tuberculous meningitis, treatment decisions should be based on the entirety of clinical information and treatment should not be withheld based solely on an Xpert MTB/RIF result. The small numbers of studies and participants, particularly for Xpert Ultra, limits our confidence in the precision of these estimates.


Assuntos
Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Meníngea/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Viés , Criança , Fezes/microbiologia , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular/normas , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Meníngea/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Tuberculose Meníngea/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Meníngea/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1007898, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797038

RESUMO

New treatments for diseases caused by antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms can be developed by identifying unexplored therapeutic targets and by designing efficient drug screening protocols. In this study, we have screened a library of compounds to find ligands for the flavin-adenine dinucleotide synthase (FADS) -a potential target for drug design against tuberculosis and pneumonia- by implementing a new and efficient virtual screening protocol. The protocol has been developed for the in silico search of ligands of unexplored therapeutic targets, for which limited information about ligands or ligand-receptor structures is available. It implements an integrative funnel-like strategy with filtering layers that increase in computational accuracy. The protocol starts with a pharmacophore-based virtual screening strategy that uses ligand-free receptor conformations from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Then, it performs a molecular docking stage using several docking programs and an exponential consensus ranking strategy. The last filter, samples the conformations of compounds bound to the target using MD simulations. The MD conformations are scored using several traditional scoring functions in combination with a newly-proposed score that takes into account the fluctuations of the molecule with a Morse-based potential. The protocol was optimized and validated using a compound library with known ligands of the Corynebacterium ammoniagenes FADS. Then, it was used to find new FADS ligands from a compound library of 14,000 molecules. A small set of 17 in silico filtered molecules were tested experimentally. We identified five inhibitors of the activity of the flavin adenylyl transferase module of the FADS, and some of them were able to inhibit growth of three bacterial species: C. ammoniagenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, where the last two are human pathogens. Overall, the results show that the integrative VS protocol is a cost-effective solution for the discovery of ligands of unexplored therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Proteínas de Bactérias , Nucleotidiltransferases , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Corynebacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Corynebacterium/enzimologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligantes , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzimologia , Nucleotidiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Nucleotidiltransferases/química , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 556, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a general dearth of information on extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). Here, we investigated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) drug resistance and transmission patterns in EPTB patients treated in the Tshwane metropolitan area, in South Africa. METHODS: Consecutive Mtb culture-positive non-pulmonary samples from unique EPTB patients underwent mycobacterial genotyping and were assigned to phylogenetic lineages and transmission clusters based on spoligotypes. MTBDRplus assay was used to search mutations for isoniazid and rifampin resistance. Machine learning algorithms were used to identify clinically meaningful patterns in data. We computed odds ratio (OR), attributable risk (AR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Of the 70 isolates examined, the largest cluster comprised 25 (36%) Mtb strains that belonged to the East Asian lineage. East Asian lineage was significantly more likely to occur within chains of transmission when compared to the Euro-American and East-African Indian lineages: OR = 10.11 (95% CI: 1.56-116). Lymphadenitis, meningitis and cutaneous TB, were significantly more likely to be associated with drug resistance: OR = 12.69 (95% CI: 1.82-141.60) and AR = 0.25 (95% CI: 0.06-0.43) when compared with other EPTB sites, which suggests that poor rifampin penetration might be a contributing factor. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of Mtb strains circulating in the Tshwane metropolis belongs to East Asian, Euro-American and East-African Indian lineages. Each of these are likely to be clustered, suggesting on-going EPTB transmission. Since 25% of the drug resistance was attributable to sanctuary EPTB sites notorious for poor rifampin penetration, we hypothesize that poor anti-tuberculosis drug dosing might have a role in the development of resistance.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , África do Sul , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 576, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China ranks second in the world in terms of numbers of tuberculosis (TB) cases and is one of the top three countries with the largest number of multidrug-resistant and rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB). It also has high mortality and low cure rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive TB patients. This study aimed to analyse, under the integrated TB control model, the characteristics of TB patients seeking healthcare in the largest designated TB hospital in Chongqing. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of TB registers in a health facility. Record data of 1827 TB patients who had attended the Chongqing Public Health Medical Center (CPHMC) from 1 January to 31 December 2018 were included. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 18.0; IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) was used to analyse the data. Counting data were compared using the chi-square test or Fisher' s exact test. Among the results of the univariate analysis, the variables with statistical significance were included in the binomial stepwise logistic regression, with odds ratio and 95% confidence interval calculated. A two-tailed probability level of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The majority of registered patients were men (1197), of Han ethnicity (1670), aged 21-60 years (1331), farmer/unemployed (1075), and living in county/district (1207). Approximately 24.9% of patients (455/1827) contracted DR-TB, 6% (110/1827) were co-infected with HIV, and 41.0% (749/1827) had drug-related hepatotoxicity. Among those patients, DR-TB was more likely to develop among farmers who received retreatment and had drug-related hepatotoxicity (P < 0.05). Women who received retreatment and lived in county/district were less likely to be HIV positive (P < 0.05). Compared with farmers, patients who were unemployed were more likely to be HIV positive, and those aged 21-60 years had a higher risk of being tested as HIV positive (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Farmers who received retreatment and had drug-related hepatotoxicity are more susceptible to DR-TB; young unemployed men have a higher risk of contracting HIV-positive TB. The demographic and clinical characteristics of TB patients should be taken into consideration in DR-TB and HIV-positive TB screening in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , HIV , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/virologia , Adulto , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/virologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Desemprego , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236362, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is among the top 10 causes of mortality and the first killer among infectious diseases worldwide. One of the factors fuelling the TB epidemic is the global rise of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and factors associated with MDR-TB in the Tigray Region, Ethiopia. METHOD: This study employed a facility-based cross-sectional study design, which was conducted between July 2018 and August 2019. The inclusion criteria for the study participants were GeneXpert-positive who were not under treatment for TB, PTB patients' ≥15 years of age and who provided written informed consent. A total of 300 participants were enrolled in the study, with a structured questionnaire used to collect data on clinical, sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Sputum samples were collected and processed for acid-fast bacilli staining, culture and drug susceptibility testing. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using a line probe assay. Logistic regression was used to analyze associations between outcome and predictor variables. RESULTS: The overall proportion of MDR-TB was 16.7% (11.6% and 32.7% for new and previously treated patients, respectively). Of the total MDR-TB isolates, 5.3% were pre-XDR-TB. The proportion of MDR-TB/HIV co-infection was 21.1%. A previous history of TB treatment AOR 3.75; 95% CI (0.7-2.24), cigarette smoking AOR 6.09; CI (1.65-2.50) and patients who had an intermittent fever (AOR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.21-5.4) were strongly associated with MDR-TB development. CONCLUSIONS: The magnitude of MDR-TB observed among new and previously treated patients is very alarming, which calls for an urgent need for intervention. The high proportion of MDR-TB among newly diagnosed cases indicates ongoing transmission, which suggests the need for enhanced TB control program performance to interrupt transmission. The increased proportion of MDR-TB among previously treated cases indicates a need for better patient management to prevent the evolution of drug resistance. Assessing the TB control program performance gaps and an optimal implementation of the WHO recommended priority actions for the management of drug-resistant TB, is imperative to help reduce the current high MDR-TB burden in the study region.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Humanos , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Escarro/efeitos dos fármacos , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/patologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(8): 1172-1177, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788498

RESUMO

Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a global health challenge. The emergence of MDR TB has contributed remarkably to the spread of tuberculosis and also poses a threat, which if not effectively addressed may wipe out the achievements of previous efforts in controlling tuberculosis. Objective: This study was aimed at detecting MDR-TB among patients in a setting prevalent with tuberculosis and HIV in Southeast, Nigeria. Method: Sputum specimens collected from 740 suspected tuberculosis (TB) patients were screened for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). All the 111 AFB positive samples were subjected to culture on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium and Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 TB system. The isolates were then confirmed as Mycobacterium tuberculosis using SD Bioline Rapid Diagnostic Tests before being subjected to drug susceptibility testing to first-line anti-TB drugs. MDR-TB was determined by isolates being resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin. HIV testing was performed for participants included in the study using standard rapid diagnostic tests. Result: Out of the 111 AFB-positive sputum samples, 65 (58.6%) were culture-positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. MDR-TB was found in 2 ([3.1%] 95% CI = 0.0-7.3) of the culture-positive samples. The rate of TB and HIV coinfection was 7.7%. Maximum single-drug resistance was seen in ethambutol 12 ([18.5%] 95% CI = 9.0-27.9). Conclusion: The MDR-TB rate of 3.1% found in this study was relatively low and efforts should be intensified to keep it low.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Rifampina/farmacologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18744-18753, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680963

RESUMO

Morphological profiling is a method to classify target pathways of antibacterials based on how bacteria respond to treatment through changes to cellular shape and spatial organization. Here we utilized the cell-to-cell variation in morphological features of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli to develop a rapid profiling platform called Morphological Evaluation and Understanding of Stress (MorphEUS). MorphEUS classified 94% of tested drugs correctly into broad categories according to modes of action previously identified in the literature. In the other 6%, MorphEUS pointed to key off-target activities. We observed cell wall damage induced by bedaquiline and moxifloxacin through secondary effects downstream from their main target pathways. We implemented MorphEUS to correctly classify three compounds in a blinded study and identified an off-target effect for one compound that was not readily apparent in previous studies. We anticipate that the ability of MorphEUS to rapidly identify pathways of drug action and the proximal cause of cellular damage in tubercle bacilli will make it applicable to other pathogens and cell types where morphological responses are subtle and heterogeneous.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Software , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diarilquinolinas , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/citologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(2): 211-222, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723277

RESUMO

Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) are the causative agents of tuberculosis (TB). Rifampin resistance in the clinical isolates of MTBC is an important indicator for multidrug resistant-TB (MDR-TB) cases. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate whether the Sensititre MycoTB plaque method is suitable for the routine use in determining drug susceptibility of rifampin resistant MTBC strains. Xpert MTBC/ RIF positive rifampin resistant 100 MTBC isolates were included in the study. Xpert MTBC/RIF (Cepheid, USA) test were performed after the samples were processed by homogenization and decontamination and acid-fast staining. Rifampin resistant clinical samples were cultured in automated MGIT/BACTEC 960 (Becton Dickinson, USA) system and acid fast bacteria (AFB) were investigated. The anti-TB drug susceptibility tests of all culture positive AFB and cord factor identified as MTBC by using a cart test (MPB64, Capilla TB-Neo, Tauns Laboratories, Inc., Numazu, Japan) were performed with the Löwenstein-Jensen proportion method (LJPM) and Sensititre MycoTB (Trek Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH, USA) methods. For the comparison of the methods used, the tests were performed simultaneously. The standard LJPM was performed according to the previously described procedures by World Health Organization and the Sensititre MycoTB plate method was performed as defined by the manufacturer. The final concentrations of isoniazide, rifampin, rifabutin, ethambutol, ofloxacin, moxifloxacin amikacin, kanamycin, cycloserine, ethionamide and p-aminosalicylic acid in Löwenstein-Jensen media for LJPM were 0.2 µg/ml, 40.0 µg/ml, 20.0 µg/ml, 2.0 µg/ml, 2.0 µg/ml, 1.0 µg/ml, 4.0 µg/ml, 30.0 µg/ml, 30.0 µg/ml, 40.0 µg/ml, 40.0 µg/ml and 1.0 µg/ ml, respectively. The results were obtained in 14 days for all of the drugs in the Sensititre MycoTB plate method and in 28-42 days in the LJPM. In this study, the sensitivity and specificity percentages of the Sensititre MycoTB method and the categorical agreement between the two methods were calculated. The sensitivity and specificity percentages of the Sensititre MycoTB plate method were between 84.4-100% and 95.6- 100%, respectively. The categorical agreements between the two methods were 92-100% for the drugs tested in the study. Ethambutol was found to have the lowest sensitivity (84.4%) and specificity (95.6%). The sensitivities of isoniazide, ofloxacin, streptomycin, kanamycin, ethionamide and p-aminosalicylic acid were 98.8%, 90.0%, 94.3%, 87.5%, 91.7% and 95.6%, respectively, while rifampicin, rifabutin, moxifloxacin, amikacin, cycloserine were calculated as 100%. The specificities of isoniazid, rifampicin, rifabutin, ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, amikacin, kanamycin, and cycloserine were found to be 100%, streptomycin, ethionamide and p-aminosalicylic specificity were 96.9%, 97.4% and 98.9% respectively. The categorical agreement was 96-100% in all tested drugs except ethambutol (92%). As a result, although the cost is high, owing to the short incubation period, easy to perform, the possibility for evaluating both first and second line anti-TB drugs simultaneously, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration values of the drugs, long shelf life, high sensitivity, specificity and the categorical agreement values, the Sensititre MycoTB method was determined as an effective method that can be used especially in laboratories where the workload and the MDR-TB cases are high.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rifampina , Tuberculose , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Etambutol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia
16.
Nat Med ; 26(9): 1435-1443, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601338

RESUMO

A burgeoning epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) threatens to derail global control efforts. Although the mechanisms remain poorly clarified, drug-resistant strains are widely believed to be less infectious than drug-susceptible strains. Consequently, we hypothesized that lower proportions of patients with drug-resistant TB would have culturable Mycobacterium tuberculosis from respirable, cough-generated aerosols compared to patients with drug-susceptible TB, and that multiple factors, including mycobacterial genomic variation, would predict culturable cough aerosol production. We enumerated the colony forming units in aerosols (≤10 µm) from 452 patients with TB (227 with drug resistance), compared clinical characteristics, and performed mycobacterial whole-genome sequencing, dormancy phenotyping and drug-susceptibility analyses on M. tuberculosis from sputum. After considering treatment duration, we found that almost half of the patients with drug-resistant TB were cough aerosol culture-positive. Surprisingly, neither mycobacterial genomic variants, lineage, nor dormancy status predicted cough aerosol culture positivity. However, mycobacterial sputum bacillary load and clinical characteristics, including a lower symptom score and stronger cough, were strongly predictive, thereby supporting targeted transmission-limiting interventions. Effective treatment largely abrogated cough aerosol culture positivity; however, this was not always rapid. These data question current paradigms, inform public health strategies and suggest the need to redirect TB transmission-associated research efforts toward host-pathogen interactions.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tosse/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/transmissão , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose Pulmonar/transmissão
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a common drug that causes serious adverse events (SAEs). The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of and risk factors for SAEs due to PZA during first-line anti-tuberculosis treatment. METHODS: The medical records of patients with tuberculosis (TB) treated with PZA-containing regimens including first-line drugs-ethambutol, rifampicin, and isoniazid-from January 2003 to June 2016 were reviewed. SAEs were defined as side effects that led to drug discontinuation. The causative drug was determined based on the disappearance of the SAEs upon drug withdrawal and/or the recurrence of the same SAEs with re-challenge. RESULTS: Of 2,478 patients with TB, 16.4% experienced SAEs. The incidence of SAEs increased significantly as age increased, except with rifampin. PZA accounted for most SAEs (55.8%). Hepatotoxicity was the most common SAE due to PZA (44.5%), followed by gastrointestinal (GI) intolerance (23.8%). The risk of SAEs due to PZA increased significantly as age increased, when sex and comorbidities were adjusted (odds ratio, 1.013; 95% confidence interval, 1.004-1.023; P = 0.007). In the subgroup analysis, older age was an independent risk factor for GI intolerance but not for hepatotoxicity. CONCLUSION: PZA was the most common drug associated with SAEs among the first-line anti-TB drugs, and old age was an independent factor for SAE occurrence. This study suggests that the early recognition of whether the causative agent is PZA may improve effective treatment compliance, particularly in elderly patients.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazinamida/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose/microbiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236154, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730258

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low and middle-income countries. Substance use negatively affects TB treatment outcomes. Our recent study has found that khat use predicted poorer adherence to anti-TB medications. However, there is scarce longitudinal study on predictors of khat use among outpatients with TB, and this study aimed at addressing this research gap. METHODS: From October 2017 to October 2018, 268 outpatients with tuberculosis on DOTs were enrolled in a longitudinal study from 26 health institutions in Southwest Ethiopia. Structured questionnaires translated into local languages (Afaan Oromoo and Amharic) were used to assess khat use. Patients were followed for six months, and data were collected on three occasions during the follow-up. A generalized linear mixed model was used to identify the relation between khat use and predictors. Model fitness was checked using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI were used to describe the strength of association between the outcome variable and predictors. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of khat use at baseline and first follow up was 39.2% while it was 37.3% at second follow up. Of this, 77.1% and 96.2% of them believed that khat use reduces the side effects of anti-TB medications and symptoms of tuberculosis respectively. In the final model, being male (aOR = 7.0, p-value = 0.001), being government employee (aOR = 0.03, p-value≤0.001) and presence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) (aOR = 2.0, p-value≤0.001) predicted khat use among outpatients with tuberculosis. CONCLUSION: A considerable proportion of patients with TB used khat throughout DOTs and wrongly perceived that it had health benefits. The finding implies that all patients diagnosed with TB should be screened for khat use, and a particular emphasis should be given to males and individuals with a history of alcohol use. Moreover, further studies are needed to assess patients' beliefs regarding the benefits of khat use so that interventions can be developed.


Assuntos
Catha/química , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19528-19537, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723821

RESUMO

Zinc starvation in mycobacteria leads to remodeling of ribosomes, in which multiple ribosomal (r-) proteins containing the zinc-binding CXXC motif are replaced by their motif-free paralogues, collectively called C- r-proteins. We previously reported that the 70S C- ribosome is exclusively targeted for hibernation by mycobacterial-specific protein Y (Mpy), which binds to the decoding center and stabilizes the ribosome in an inactive and drug-resistant state. In this study, we delineate the conditions for ribosome remodeling and hibernation and provide further insight into how zinc depletion induces Mpy recruitment to C- ribosomes. Specifically, we show that ribosome hibernation in a batch culture is induced at an approximately two-fold lower cellular zinc concentration than remodeling. We further identify a growth phase in which the C- ribosome remains active, while its hibernation is inhibited by the caseinolytic protease (Clp) system in a zinc-dependent manner. The Clp protease system destabilizes a zinc-bound form of Mpy recruitment factor (Mrf), which is stabilized upon further depletion of zinc, presumably in a zinc-free form. Stabilized Mrf binds to the 30S subunit and recruits Mpy to the ribosome. Replenishment of zinc to cells harboring hibernating ribosomes restores Mrf instability and dissociates Mpy from the ribosome. Finally, we demonstrate zinc-responsive binding of Mpy to ribosomes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and show Mpy-dependent antibiotic tolerance of Mtb in mouse lungs. Together, we propose that ribosome hibernation is a specific and conserved response to zinc depletion in both environmental and pathogenic mycobacteria.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Zinco/deficiência , Animais , Antibióticos Antituberculose/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Tolerância a Medicamentos/genética , Endopeptidase Clp/genética , Endopeptidase Clp/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Subunidades Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Zinco/análise , Zinco/metabolismo
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520212

RESUMO

Drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is challenging particularly in developing countries. As such, a previous investigation gave the first insight into the mutational status of the Rifampicin Resistance Determining Region (RRDR) of rpoB gene among a restricted number of MTB patients' residents in the Northern Morocco. The purpose of this study was to investigate rpoB mutation types and frequencies associated with resistance to Rifampicin in a larger panel of MTB patients and to evaluate the usefulness of these mutations to improve the diagnosis of resistance to Rifampicin. A panel of 301 consecutive sputum samples belonging to patients suscpected of having TB from Northern Morocco was collected at the Pasteur Institute of Tangier between 2014-2017. Samples were subjected to conventionel microbiological tests. Evaluation of rpoB muational status was assessed by PCR amplification and sequencing of the RRDR of the rpoB gene. DST results showed that 26.4% of strains were MDR. Sequencing results reported single point mutations in 36 of 65 RIFR isolates of which two had two mutations. Aminoacid substitutions in the codon Ser531Leu occurred at the highest frequency (34.46%). Overall, 10 aminoacid substitutions have been registered, and the H526S substitution was reported for the first time. The present study highlighted that resistance to RIF is a reliable marker of MDR-TB, the common mutations successfully detected in the rpoB 531, rpoB526 and rpoB516 codons provide a foundation for the implementation of molecular approaches such as Hain and GeneXpert as a routine tests to detect DR-TB. However, considerable work is still necessary to identify extensive mutations associated with DR-TB.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Mutação/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Rifampina/farmacologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
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