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1.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(9): 789-796, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882763

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) and the status of M. bovis BCG vaccination may affect host immune responses to M. tb antigens. Understanding of the predominant local M. tb strain and immune signatures induced by its strain-specific antigens may contribute to an improved diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to determine immune responses to M. tb antigen which was identified from the hyper-virulent Beijing/K strain in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pulmonary TB patients (n=52) and healthy subjects (n=92) including individuals with latent TB infection (n=31) were recruited, and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube tests were performed. The Beijing/K-antigen specific immune signatures were examined by diluted whole blood assays and multiplex bead arrays in a setting where nationwide BCG vaccination is employed. RESULTS: Statistical analyses demonstrated that three [C-X-C motif chemokine (CXCL10), interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-α] of 17 cytokines/chemokines distinguished active cases from healthy controls following stimulation with the Beijing/K-specific antigen. IFN-α also differentiated between active diseases and latent TB infection (p<0.01), and the detection rate of TB was dramatically increased in combination with IL-6 and CXCL10 at the highest levels of specificity (95-100%). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that immune signatures to the M. tb Beijing/K-specific antigen can provide useful information for improved TB diagnostics. The antigen may be developed as a diagnostic marker or a vaccine candidate, particularly in regions where the M. tb Beijing/K strain is endemic.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos de Bactérias/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Antígenos de Superfície/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias , Pequim , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , República da Coreia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
2.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 429, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central and peripheral nervous system symptoms and complications are being increasingly recognized among individuals with pandemic SARS-CoV-2 infections, but actual detection of the virus or its RNA in the central nervous system has rarely been sought or demonstrated. Severe or fatal illnesses are attributed to SARS-CoV-2, generally without attempting to evaluate for alternative causes or co-pathogens. CASE PRESENTATION: A five-year-old girl with fever and headache was diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2-associated meningoencephalitis based on the detection of its RNA on a nasopharyngeal swab, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Serial serologic tests for SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA showed seroconversion, consistent with an acute infection. Mental status and brain imaging findings gradually worsened despite antiviral therapy and intravenous dexamethasone. Decompressive suboccipital craniectomy for brain herniation with cerebellar biopsy on day 30 of illness, shortly before death, revealed SARS-CoV-2 RNA in cerebellar tissue using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2019-nCoV Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-PCR Diagnostic Panel. On histopathology, necrotizing granulomas with numerous acid-fast bacilli were visualized, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA was detected by PCR. Ventricular cerebrospinal fluid that day was negative for mycobacterial DNA. Tracheal aspirate samples for mycobacterial DNA and culture from days 22 and 27 of illness were negative by PCR but grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis after 8 weeks, long after the child's passing. She had no known exposures to tuberculosis and no chest radiographic findings to suggest it. All 6 family members had normal chest radiographs and negative interferon-γ release assay results. The source of her tuberculous infection was not identified, and further investigations by the local health department were not possible because of the State of Michigan-mandated lockdown for control of SARS-CoV-2 spread. CONCLUSION: The detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in cerebellar tissue and the demonstration of seroconversion in IgG and IgA assays was consistent with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection of the central nervous infection. However, the cause of death was brain herniation from her rapidly progressive central nervous system tuberculosis. SARS-CoV-2 may mask or worsen occult tuberculous infection with severe or fatal consequences.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Tuberculose do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Tuberculose do Sistema Nervoso Central/microbiologia
3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200051, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997049

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Laboratory and clinical features of childhood tuberculosis (TB) are non-specific and establishing an accurate diagnosis remains a challenge. This study evaluated a Single tube nested-PCR (STNPCR) to detect genomic DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in blood and urine. METHODS: Biological samples were obtained from children (<15 years old) with clinical suspicion of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB at public hospitals in Recife-Pernambuco, Brazil. Cultures yielded negative results in a majority of childhood TB cases, which are generally paucibacillary. A set of clinical, epidemiological, radiological, and laboratory criteria with evident clinical improvement after anti-TB treatment were frequently used to define childhood TB cases. RESULTS: Ninety children with clinical suspicion were enrolled in this study (44 with TB and 46 without TB). The pulmonary TB group had 20 confirmed cases and 46 negative controls, while the extrapulmonary TB group had 24 confirmed cases. The STNPCR showed sensitivities to pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB of 47.4% and 52.2% (blood) and 38.8% and 20% (urine), respectively. Considering the low performance of STNPCR on separate samples, we decided to perform a combined analysis (parallel sensitivity analysis) of the results from blood and urine samples. The parallel sensitivity increased to 65% in blood and 62.5% in urine. The specificity in both samples ranged from 93.5-97.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Although STNPCR showed moderate sensitivity, the specificity is high; therefore, the test can be used as an auxiliary tool to diagnose TB in children. It is a rapid test that demonstrated better performance than other diagnostic tests in paucibacillary samples as it does in childhood tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/urina
4.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200205, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997050

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in children is lower than in adults. In Brazil, the diagnosis of PTB is based on a diagnostic score system (DSS). This study aims to study the role of Xpert in children and adolescents with PTB symptoms. METHODS: cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 referral centers to TB. Children and adolescents (0-19 years old) whose respiratory samples were submitted to Xpert were included. Statistical analysis (bivariate and logistic regression) to assess the simultaneous influence of TB-related variables on the occurrence of Xpert detectable in TB cases was done. To evaluate the agreement or disagreement between Xpert results with acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and cultures, κ method was used (significancy level of 5%). RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients were included in the study and PTB occurred in 43 patients (49%) and Xpert was detectable in 21 patients (24%). Adolescents and positive culture results were independent predictive variables of Xpert positivity. DSS sensitivity compared with the final diagnosis of TB was 100% (95% CI, 88.1-100%), specificity was 97.2% (95% CI, 85.5-99.9%). The accuracy of the method was 98.5% (95% CI, 91.7-99.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Xpert contributed to diagnosis in 9% of patients with AFB and in culture negative cases. DSS indicated relevance for this diagnostic approach of intrathoracic TB (ITB) in reference centers for presenting data both with high sensitivity and specificity.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 678, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) control is a primary global health priority but the goal to eliminate TB is being threatened by the increase in incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). With this series of seven MDR-TB cases in migrant patients with identical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains we aim to illustrate the challenges encountered during therapy and follow-up: language barriers, access to care for migrant patients, depression due to isolation, adverse reactions to the treatment, management of pediatric TB, further contact tracing. We also discuss best practices for the management of complex MDR-TB cases in settings with low overall TB incidence focusing on modern diagnostic assays and an individualized and an interdisciplinary therapeutic approach. METHODS: We describe a case series of seven consecutively diagnosed MDR-TB patients, six of them treated at our tertiary care hospital between May 2018 and March 2020. Epidemiologic data was gained by semi-structured patient interviews and reconstruction of the migration route. The origin of the cluster was confirmed by genotyping of the TB-strains. RESULTS: Six related patients were diagnosed with pulmonary MDR-TB between May and August 2018. All had a positive Interferon-Gamma-Release Assay (IGRA), in five patients sputum microscopy was positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The genetic and phenotypical drug susceptibility test did not match with MDR-TB strains from an East-African origin. The index patient was identified through genetical fingerprinting. By changing the therapy to a modern MDR-TB regime and using an interdisciplinary and culture-sensitive approach, all patients improved clinically and radiologically. CONCLUSION: Human migration plays an important role for the global spread of MDR-TB in low incidence countries. Early case detection and adequate treatment are key to prevention of outbreaks. Especially language barriers and complex migration routes make genotyping of TB-strains a crucial tool to identify cases clusters, the potential index patient and transmission dynamics. We are fortunate enough to experience times in which new TB-antibiotics were made available and in which molecular assays revolutionized TB-diagnostics. We need to take advantage of that and develop personalized therapies for patients suffering from drug resistant TB.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Escarro/microbiologia , Sudão , Migrantes , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22015, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899054

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is a global infectious disease. In low-incidence countries, paediatric TB affects mostly immigrant children and children of immigrants. We hypothesize that these children are at risk of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis when they travel to the country of origin of their parents to visit friends and relatives (VFR). In this study, we aim to estimate the incidence rate and risk factors associated to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and TB in VFR children. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A prospective study will be carried out in collaboration with 21 primary health care centres (PCC) and 5 hospitals in Catalonia, Spain. The study participants are children under 15 years of age, either immigrant themselves or born to immigrant parents, who travel to countries with high incidence of TB (≥ 40 cases/100,000 inhabitants). A sample size of 492 children was calculated. Participants will be recruited before traveling, either during a visit to a travel clinic or to their PCC, where a questionnaire including sociodemographic, epidemiological and clinical data will be completed, and a tuberculin skin test (TST) will be performed and read after 48 to 72 hours; patients with a positive TST at baseline will be excluded. A visit will be scheduled eight to twelve-weeks after their return to perform a TST and a QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus test. The incidence rate of LTBI will be estimated per individual/month and person/year per country visited, and also by age-group. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital Universitari Mútua Terrassa (code 02/16) and the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Fundació Institut Universitari per a la Recerca a l'Atenció Primària de Salut Jordi Gol i Gurina (code P16/094). Articles will be published in indexed scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical-Trials.gov: NCT04236765.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Latente/transmissão , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Criança , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Família , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Incidência , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/métodos , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Viagem/tendências , Teste Tuberculínico/métodos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236054, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750053

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multi-drug resistance is a major challenge in the control of tuberculosis. Despite newer modalities for diagnosis and treatment, people are still suffering from this disease. Understanding the common gene mutations conferring rifampicin and isoniazid resistance is crucial for the implementation of effective molecular tools at local and national levels. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the molecular detection of rifampicin and isoniazid-resistant gene mutations in M.tuberculosis isolates in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHOD: Health Center-based cross-sectional study was conducted between January and September 2017 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The collected sputum samples were processed for mycobacterial isolation and Region of difference 9 based polymerase chain reaction for species identification. To characterize the rifampicin and isoniazid-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates, a molecular genetic assay (GenoType MTBDRplus) was used; the assay is based on DNA-STRIP technology. RESULT: Culture positivity was confirmed in 82.6% (190/230) of smear-positive newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis cases enrolled in the study. From 190 isolates 93.2% were sensitive for both rifampicin and isoniazid, and 6.8% of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the tested anti-TB drugs. Gene mutations were observed in all studied multidrug resistance-associated gene loci (rpoB, katG, and inhA). Two isolates exhibited heteroresistance, a mutated, as well as wild type sequences, were detected in the respective strains. MDR-TB case was observed in 1.1% (2/190) of the cases. All the MDR-TB cases were positive for HIV and found to have a history of prior hospital admission. CONCLUSION: In our finding a relatively high prevalence of any drug resistance was observed and the overall prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was 1.1%.The majority of drug-resistant isolates demonstrated common mutations. Heteroresistant strains were detected, signaling the existence of an M.tuberculosis population with variable responses to anti-tuberculosis drugs or of mixed infections.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Etiópia , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Humanos , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 587, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is transmitted in bioaerosols containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Despite being central to ongoing TB transmission, no routine diagnostic assay exists to measure Mtb in bioaerosols. Furthermore, published studies of Mtb in bioaerosol samples have been limited to individuals with sputum-positive pulmonary TB. Notably, TB diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and sputum laboratory findings. This is despite the fact that approximately half of all patients commencing TB treatment are sputum-negative, resulting in a high proportion of presumptive treatments. Here, we propose to use a sensitive air sampling protocol to investigate the prevalence of Mtb-containing bioaerosols in both sputum-positive and sputum-negative TB suspects, at the same time evaluating the potential to identify unrecognized transmitters of TB. METHODS: Our parallel-group design will identify viable Mtb in bioaerosols produced by individuals attending a TB clinic in South Africa. Sampling will be performed on eligible individuals presenting with symptoms indicative of TB and repeated at 14 days if initially positive. Participants will be prospectively classified into three distinct groups based on National TB Control Program (NTBCP) criteria: Group A, TB notification with sputum-based laboratory confirmation; Group B, TB notification with empiric diagnosis; and Group C, individuals not notified. Group C individuals with detectable Mtb bioaerosol will be monitored until resolution of clinical and laboratory status. Collection of bioaerosol specimens will be via two consecutive sampling modalities: (1) direct sampling following a specific respiratory manoeuvre; and (2) indirect sampling during passive respiratory activity. Bioaerosol specimens will be analyzed for viable Mtb using DMN-trehalose staining and live-cell fluorescence microscopy. Mtb genomes and mycobacterial and host lipids will be detected using droplet digital PCR and mass spectrometry analyses, respectively. The primary objective is to determine the prevalence of Mtb bioaerosols in all TB clinic attendees and in each of the groups. Secondary objectives are to investigate differences in prevalence of Mtb bioaerosol by HIV status and current isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) use; we will also determine the impact of anti-TB chemotherapy on Mtb-containing bioaerosol production. DISCUSSION: Respiratory bioaerosol has a potential role in non-invasive TB diagnosis, infectivity measurement and treatment monitoring. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04241809 . Date of Registration: 27/1/2020.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , África do Sul , Escarro/microbiologia
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 570, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), most prisons are overcrowded with poor ventilation and put prisoners disproportionally at risk of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) and developing TB infection but are mostly missed due to poor access to healthcare. Active case-finding (ACF) of TB in prisons facilitates early diagnosis and treatment of inmates and prevent the spread. We explored literature and described evidence on TB ACF interventions and approaches for prisoners in SSA prisons. METHODS: Guided by the Arksey and O'Malley framework, we searched PubMed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS, Academic search complete, CINAHL and MEDLINE with full text via EBSCOhost for articles on prisoners and ACF from 2000 to May 2019 with no language restriction. Two investigators independently screened the articles at the abstract and full-text stages in parallel guided by the eligibility criteria as well as performed the methodological quality appraisal of the included studies using the latest mixed-method appraisal tool. We extracted all relevant data, organized them into themes and sub-themes, and presented a narrative summary of the results. RESULTS: Of the 391 eligible articles found, 31 met the inclusion criteria. All 31 articles were published between 2006 and 2019 with the highest six (19.4%) in 2015. We found evidence in 11 countries. That is, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Coˆte d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia with most 41.9% (13/31) recorded in Ethiopia. These intervention studies were conducted in 134 prisons between 2001 and 2018 using either a single or combination of mass, facility-led, entry, peer educators for routine screening, and exit ACF approaches. The majority (74%) of the studies utilized only a mass screening approach. The most (68%) reported study outcome was smear-positive TB cases only (68%). We found no evidence in 16 SSA countries although they are classified among the three high-burden country lists for TB TB/HIV and Multidrug resistant-TB group. CONCLUSION: Our review highlights a dearth of evidence on TB ACF interventions in most SSA countries prisons. Hence, there is the need to scaling-up ACF interventions in SSA prisons, particularly countries included in the three high-burden country lists for TB, TB/HIV, and MDR-TB.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Prisioneiros , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Prevalência , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Escarro/microbiologia , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 593, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a serious health risk, for people living with human immune deficiency virus worldwide, and the burden of TB/HIV infection is still high in Ethiopia in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the predictors of tuberculosis infection among adults visiting anti-retroviral treatment center in East and West Gojjam, northwest, Ethiopia. METHODS: Institution based unmatched case-control study was employed to determine the predictors of tuberculosis infection among adults visiting anti-retroviral treatment center in east and west Gojjam, Northwest, Ethiopia from March 7-April 15, 2017. Just about 552 participants were participated in the study (139 Cases and 413 controls). Cases were confirmed with active TB and infected with HIV, and controls were HIV positive adults with non-TB. All cases in each health facility who confirmed by acid-fast bacilli, culture and gene expert were considered as TB positive. However, controls were selected by using simple random sampling technique through the above diagnostic criteria and the data were collected with Face to face interview as well as patient medical record were utilized, and the quality of the data were assured, checked, coded, cleaned and entered in EPI-Data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for the analysis. RESULT: Of the total sample (556), just about 552(99.2%) were participated in the study. 47.5% were females and 58.9% were rural dweller. Behavioral and modifiable biological risk factors: alcohol users (AOR = 2.33; 95%CI:1.34,4.07), BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 (AOR = 3.03;95%CI:1.79,5.14), CD4 count ≤200 cells/µl (AOR = 2.34;95%CI:1.89,2.79) and between 201 and 499 cells/µl (AOR = 2.63; 95%CI: 1.01,6.84), bedridden and ambulatory (AOR = 3.3;95%CI:1.70,6.29 and AOR = 8.2;95%CI:4.34,15.64), respectively. TB history in the family (AOR = 3.00; 95%CI: 1.57, 5.74) were predictors for TB infection. Taking CPT (AOR = 0.36; 95%CI: 0.21, 0.62) and having early WHO clinical stage I or II (AOR = 0.34; 95%CI: 0.20, 0.56) had protective effect against TB infection. CONCLUSION: From this study, it has been concluded that alcohol users, BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, CD4 count < 499 cells/µl, bedridden and ambulatory and TB history were predictors for TB-HIV co-infected adults. Strengthen screening more frequently, CPT Prophlaxysis and treated promptly important to reduce TB co-morbidity.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , HIV , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Prognóstico , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 594, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementation of an effective Tuberculosis Routine Surveillance System in low-income countries like Tanzania is problematic, despite being an essential tool for the detection and effective monitoring of drug resistant tuberculosis. Long delays in specimen transportation from the facilities to reference laboratory and results dissemination back to the health facilities, result in poor patient management, particularly where multidrug-resistant tuberculosis disease is present. METHODS: Following a detailed qualitative study, a pilot intervention of a revised Tuberculosis Routine Surveillance System was implemented in Mwanza region, Tanzania. This included the use of rapid molecular methods for the detection of both tuberculosis and drug resistance using Xpert MTB/RIF in some Mwanza sites, the use of Xpert MTB/RIF and Line Probe Assay at the Central Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, a revised communication strategy and interventions to address the issue of poor form completion. A before and after comparison of the intervention on the number of drug resistant tuberculosis cases identified and the time taken for results feedback to the requesting site was reported. RESULTS: The revised system for previously treated cases tested at the Central Reference Laboratory was able to obtain the following findings; the number of cases tested increased from 75 in 2016 to 185 in 2017. The times for specimen transportation from health facilities to the reference laboratory were reduced by 22% (from 9 to 7 days). The median time for the district to receive results was reduced by 36% (from 11 to 7 days). Overall the number of drug resistant tuberculosis cases starting treatment increased by 67% (from 12 to 20). CONCLUSION: Detection of drug resistance could significantly be enhanced, and delays reduced by introduction of new technologies and improved routine surveillance system, including better communication using mobile applications such as 'WhatsApp' and close follow-ups. A larger scale study is now merited to ascertain if these benefits are robust across different contexts.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio/prevenção & controle , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Comunicação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Laboratórios , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236057, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of TB in pediatric population poses several challenges. A novel initiative was implemented in several major cities of India aimed at providing upfront access to free-of-cost Xpert MTB/RIF to presumptive pediatric TB cases. This paper aims to describe the experience of implementing this large initiative and assess feasibility of the intervention in high TB burden settings. METHODS: Data were drawn from the pediatric TB project implemented in 10 major cities of India between April 2014 and March 2018. In each city, providers, both public and private, were engaged and linked with a high throughput Xpert MTB/RIF lab (established in that city) through rapid specimen transportation and electronic reporting system. Rates and proportions were estimated to describe the characteristics of this cohort. RESULTS: Of the total 94,415 presumptive pediatric TB cases tested in the project, 6,270 were diagnosed positive for MTB (6.6%) on Xpert MTB/RIF (vs 2% on smear microscopy). Among MTB positives, 545 cases were rifampicin resistant (8.7%). The median duration between collection of specimens and reporting of results was 0 days (same day) and >89% cases were initiated on treatment. Approximately 50% of the specimens tested were non-sputum. The number of providers/facilities engaged under the project increased >10-fold (from 124 in Q2'14 to 1416 in Q1'18). CONCLUSION: This project, which was one of the largest initiatives globally among pediatric population, demonstrated the feasibility of sustaining rapid and upfront access to free-of-cost Xpert MTB/RIF testing. The project underscores the efficiency of this rapid diagnostic assay in tackling several challenges in pediatric TB diagnosis, identifies opportunities for further interventions as well as brings to light scope for effective engagement with healthcare providers. The findings have facilitated a policy decision by National TB Programme mandating the use of Xpert MTB/RIF as a primary diagnostic tool for TB diagnosis in children, which is being scaled-up.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236700, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750088

RESUMO

Mycobacterial culture remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. However, an appropriate digestion and decontamination method (DDM) is essential for the effective recovery of tubercle bacilli in culture. Therefore, the current study was designed to compare the performance of papain-cetylpyridinium chloride [papain-CPC] and pepsin-cetylpyridinium chloride [pepsin-CPC] DDMs against N-acetyl L-Cysteine-sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH) DDM for recovery of mycobacteria from clinically suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases. To evaluate papain-CPC, pepsin-CPC and NALC-NaOH DDMs, sputum samples (N = 1381) were cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen medium and the results were compared. The papain-CPC DDM showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%, 93.27%, 71.7%, and 100%, respectively as compared to NALC-NaOH DDM. Similarly, pepsin-CPC DDM demonstrated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 98.94%, 94.7%, 76.11%, and 99.81%, respectively. In summary, both papain-CPC and pepsin-CPC DDMs are highly sensitive and specific techniques for recovery of mycobacteria as compared to NALC-NaOH DDM. However, when the overall performances of all DDMs compared, papain-CPC DDM isolated increased number of mycobacterial isolates with comparatively higher numbers of colonies on LJ media than both pepsin-CPC and NALC-NaOH DDMs, indicating its potential to replace the NALC-NaOH DDM for recovery of mycobacteria from sputum samples.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Meios de Cultura/química , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Acetilcisteína/química , Cetilpiridínio/química , Humanos , Papaína/química , Pepsina A/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237574, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822359

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Host blood transcriptomic biomarkers have potential as rapid point-of-care triage, diagnostic, and predictive tests for Tuberculosis disease. We aimed to summarise the performance of host blood transcriptomic signatures for diagnosis of and prediction of progression to Tuberculosis disease; and compare their performance to the recommended World Health Organisation target product profile. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the performance of host blood mRNA signatures for diagnosing and predicting progression to Tuberculosis disease in HIV-negative adults and adolescents, in studies with an independent validation cohort. Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and EBSCO libraries were searched for articles published between January 2005 and May 2019, complemented by a search of bibliographies. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment were done independently by two reviewers. Meta-analysis was performed for signatures that were validated in ≥3 comparable cohorts, using a bivariate random effects model. RESULTS: Twenty studies evaluating 25 signatures for diagnosis of or prediction of progression to TB disease in a total of 68 cohorts were included. Eighteen studies evaluated 24 signatures for TB diagnosis and 17 signatures met at least one TPP minimum performance criterion. Three diagnostic signatures were validated in clinically relevant cohorts to differentiate TB from other diseases, with pooled sensitivity 84%, 87% and 90% and pooled specificity 79%, 88% and 74%, respectively. Four studies evaluated signatures for progression to TB disease and performance of one signature, assessed within six months of TB diagnosis, met the minimal TPP for a predictive test for progression to TB disease. CONCLUSION: Host blood mRNA signatures hold promise as triage tests for TB. Further optimisation is needed if mRNA signatures are to be used as standalone diagnostic or predictive tests for therapeutic decision-making.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Transcriptoma , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Tuberculose/sangue , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237753, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822367

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious global public health problem in the present. TB also affects other sites (extrapulmonary tuberculosis, EPTB), and accounts for a significant proportion of tuberculosis cases worldwide. In order to comprehensively understand epidemiology of EBTB in China, and improve early diagnosis and treatment, we conducted a large-scale multi-center observational study to assess the demographic data and the prevalence of common EPTB inpatients, and further evaluate the prevalence of EPTB concurrent with Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and the associations between multiple EPTB types and gender-age group in China. All consecutive age≥15yr inpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of EPTB during the period from January 2011 to December 2017 were included in the study. The descriptive statistical analysis included median and quartile measurements for continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for categorical variables. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to compare the association of multiple EPTB types between age group and gender. The results showed that the proportion of 15-24 years and 25-34 years in EPTB inpatients were the most and the ratio of male: female was 1.51. Approximately 70% of EPTB inpatients were concurrent with PTB or other types of EPTB. The most common of EPTB was tuberculous pleurisy (50.15%), followed by bronchial tuberculosis (14.96%), tuberculous lymphadenitis of the neck (7.24%), tuberculous meningitis (7.23%), etc. It was found that many EPTB inpatients concurrent with PTB. The highest prevalence of EPTB concurrent with PTB was pharyngeal/laryngeal tuberculosis (91.31%), followed by bronchial tuberculosis (89.52%), tuberculosis of hilar lymph nodes (79.52%), tuberculosis of mediastinal lymph nodes (79.13%), intestinal tuberculosis (72.04%), tuberculous pleurisy (65.31%) and tuberculous meningitis (62.64%), etc. The results from EPTB concurrent with PTB suggested that females EPTB inpatients were less likely to be at higher risk of concurrent PTB (aOR = 0.819, 95%CI:0.803-0.835) after adjusted by age. As age increasing, the trend risk of concurrent PTB decreased (aOR = 0.994, 95%CI: 0.989-0.999) after adjusted by gender. Our study demonstrated that the common EPTB were tuberculous pleurisy, bronchial tuberculosis, tuberculous lymphadenitis of the neck, tuberculous meningitis, etc. A majority of patients with pharyngeal/laryngeal tuberculosis, bronchial tuberculosis, tuberculosis of hilar/mediastinal lymph nodes, intestinal tuberculosis, tuberculous pleurisy, tuberculous meningitis, etc. were concurrent with PTB. Female EPTB inpatients were less likely to be at higher risk of concurrent PTB, and as age increasing, the trend risk of concurrent PTB decreased. The clinicians should be alert to the presence of concurrent tuberculosis in EPTB, and all suspected cases of EPTB should be assessed for concomitant PTB to determine whether the case is infectious and to help for early diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013359, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Every year, at least one million children become ill with tuberculosis and around 200,000 children die. Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra are World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended rapid molecular tests that simultaneously detect tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults and children with signs and symptoms of tuberculosis, at lower health system levels. To inform updated WHO guidelines on molecular assays, we performed a systematic review on the diagnostic accuracy of these tests in children presumed to have active tuberculosis. OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives • To determine the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra for (a) pulmonary tuberculosis in children presumed to have tuberculosis; (b) tuberculous meningitis in children presumed to have tuberculosis; (c) lymph node tuberculosis in children presumed to have tuberculosis; and (d) rifampicin resistance in children presumed to have tuberculosis - For tuberculosis detection, index tests were used as the initial test, replacing standard practice (i.e. smear microscopy or culture) - For detection of rifampicin resistance, index tests replaced culture-based drug susceptibility testing as the initial test Secondary objectives • To compare the accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra for each of the four target conditions • To investigate potential sources of heterogeneity in accuracy estimates - For tuberculosis detection, we considered age, disease severity, smear-test status, HIV status, clinical setting, specimen type, high tuberculosis burden, and high tuberculosis/HIV burden - For detection of rifampicin resistance, we considered multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis burden • To compare multiple Xpert MTB/RIF or Xpert Ultra results (repeated testing) with the initial Xpert MTB/RIF or Xpert Ultra result SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials Number (ISRCTN) Registry up to 29 April 2019, without language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized trials, cross-sectional trials, and cohort studies evaluating Xpert MTB/RIF or Xpert Ultra in HIV-positive and HIV-negative children younger than 15 years. Reference standards comprised culture or a composite reference standard for tuberculosis and drug susceptibility testing or MTBDRplus (molecular assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance) for rifampicin resistance. We included studies evaluating sputum, gastric aspirate, stool, nasopharyngeal or bronchial lavage specimens (pulmonary tuberculosis), cerebrospinal fluid (tuberculous meningitis), fine needle aspirates, or surgical biopsy tissue (lymph node tuberculosis). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality using the Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy - Revised (QUADAS-2). For each target condition, we used the bivariate model to estimate pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We stratified all analyses by type of reference standard. We assessed certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: For pulmonary tuberculosis, 299 data sets (68,544 participants) were available for analysis; for tuberculous meningitis, 10 data sets (423 participants) were available; for lymph node tuberculosis, 10 data sets (318 participants) were available; and for rifampicin resistance, 14 data sets (326 participants) were available. Thirty-nine studies (80%) took place in countries with high tuberculosis burden. Risk of bias was low except for the reference standard domain, for which risk of bias was unclear because many studies collected only one specimen for culture. Detection of pulmonary tuberculosis For sputum specimens, Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity (95% CI) and specificity (95% CI) verified by culture were 64.6% (55.3% to 72.9%) (23 studies, 493 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and 99.0% (98.1% to 99.5%) (23 studies, 6119 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). For other specimen types (nasopharyngeal aspirate, 4 studies; gastric aspirate, 14 studies; stool, 11 studies), Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity ranged between 45.7% and 73.0%, and pooled specificity ranged between 98.1% and 99.6%. For sputum specimens, Xpert Ultra pooled sensitivity (95% CI) and specificity (95% CI) verified by culture were 72.8% (64.7% to 79.6%) (3 studies, 136 participants; low-certainty evidence) and 97.5% (95.8% to 98.5%) (3 studies, 551 participants; high-certainty evidence). For nasopharyngeal specimens, Xpert Ultra sensitivity (95% CI) and specificity (95% CI) were 45.7% (28.9% to 63.3%) and 97.5% (93.7% to 99.3%) (1 study, 195 participants). For all specimen types, Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra sensitivity were lower against a composite reference standard than against culture. Detection of tuberculous meningitis For cerebrospinal fluid, Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity and specificity, verified by culture, were 54.0% (95% CI 27.8% to 78.2%) (6 studies, 28 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and 93.8% (95% CI 84.5% to 97.6%) (6 studies, 213 participants; low-certainty evidence). Detection of lymph node tuberculosis For lymph node aspirates or biopsies, Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity and specificity, verified by culture, were 90.4% (95% CI 55.7% to 98.6%) (6 studies, 68 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and 89.8% (95% CI 71.5% to 96.8%) (6 studies, 142 participants; low-certainty evidence). Detection of rifampicin resistance Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% (67.6% to 97.5%) (6 studies, 20 participants; low-certainty evidence) and 98.3% (87.7% to 99.8%) (6 studies, 203 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found Xpert MTB/RIF sensitivity to vary by specimen type, with gastric aspirate specimens having the highest sensitivity followed by sputum and stool, and nasopharyngeal specimens the lowest; specificity in all specimens was > 98%. Compared with Xpert MTB/RIF, Xpert Ultra sensitivity in sputum was higher and specificity slightly lower. Xpert MTB/RIF was accurate for detection of rifampicin resistance. Xpert MTB/RIF was sensitive for diagnosing lymph node tuberculosis. For children with presumed tuberculous meningitis, treatment decisions should be based on the entirety of clinical information and treatment should not be withheld based solely on an Xpert MTB/RIF result. The small numbers of studies and participants, particularly for Xpert Ultra, limits our confidence in the precision of these estimates.


Assuntos
Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Meníngea/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Viés , Criança , Fezes/microbiologia , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular/normas , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Meníngea/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Tuberculose Meníngea/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Meníngea/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237345, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mixed/polyclonal infections due to different genotypes are reported in Tuberculosis. The current study was designed to understand the fate of mixed infections during the course of treatment and follow-up and its role in disease pathogenesis. METHODS: Sputum samples were collected on 0,1,2,3,6,12 and 24 months from 157 treatment-naïve patients, cultures subjected to Drug-Susceptibility-testing (MGIT 960), spoligotyping, MIRU-VNTR and SNP genotyping. All isolated colonies on thin layer agar (7H11) were subjected to spoligotyping. FINDINGS: One thirty three baseline cultures were positive (133/157, 84.7%), 43(32.3%) had mixture of genotypes. Twenty-four of these patients (55.8%) showed change in genotype while six showed different drug-susceptibility patterns while on treatment. Twenty-three (53.5%) patients with polyclonal infections showed resistance to at least one drug compared to 10/90 (11.1%) monoclonal infections (P<0.0001). Eight patients had recurrent TB, two with a new genotype and two with altered phenotypic DST. CONCLUSIONS: The coexistence of different genotypes and change of genotypes during the same disease episode, while on treatment, confirms constancy of polyclonal infections. The composition of the mixture of genotypes and the relative predominance may be missed by culture due to its limit of detection. Polyclonal infections in TB could be a rule rather than exception and challenges the age-old dogma of reactivation/reinfection.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Evolução Clonal , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prevalência , Recidiva , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(9): 1179-1182, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755530

RESUMO

Clinical specimens unfit for laboratory processing represent missed opportunities for diagnosing tuberculosis. Poor-quality cough specimens (n=61) from presumptive tuberculosis cases were cultured and GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) successfully performed on samples transferred by flocked swab into PrimeStore molecular transport medium (PS-MTM). Mycobacterium tuberculosis was grown in culture from 13 (21.3 %) and Xpert reported 15 (24.2 %) positive, of which 10 concordant. RT-PCR of PS-MTM samples showed enhanced sensitivity; three positives were missed by Xpert, five by culture and three more detected for a total of 21 positives (34.4 %).


Assuntos
Tosse/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Manejo de Espécimes/normas , Escarro/microbiologia
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 548, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacteriological confirmation (BC) proportion among notified pulmonary TB patients in China is among the lowest in the world. This study was to understand the yield of BC using different testing strategies and patient-level factors associated with BC among pulmonary TB patients in Tianjin, China during 2017-2018. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted, enrolling pulmonary TB patients reported to National TB Information Management System (TBIMS) in Tianjin during 2017-2018. BC was defined as a positive result by any of the followings: smear microscopy, culture, or nucleic acid amplification test. Individual characteristics were compared between patients with positive and negative bacteriological results using contingency tables and χ2 test. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to analyze factors associated with BC, calculating adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) (α = 0.05). RESULTS: Of 6364 reported patients, 4181 (65.7%) were bacteriologically confirmed. Positivity proportion was 43.1% (2746/6364) for smear microscopy, 57.7% (3380/5853) for culture, 61.7% (1608/2605) for Xpert® MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) and 73.4% (1824/2484) for combination of the three. The unemployed (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.2) and farmers (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.8) compared with students; diagnosis by inpatient hospitals compared with TB clinics (aOR = 3.4, 95% CI: 2.6-4.4); having symptoms for ≥2 weeks (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8); cough (aOR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.8-2.8); blood sputum (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.2); cavitation on chest X-ray (aOR = 3.3, 95% CI: 2.5-4.3); bilateral lung lobes affected (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.4-2.2) were factors associated with BC. CONCLUSIONS: Combination test was an effective way to improve BC among pulmonary TB patients. Being unemployed, farmers, having prolonged symptoms, and more severe in TB condition were factors associated with BC. We recommend combination of tests to improve BC for pulmonary TB patients, especially who are in early stage of the disease or with conditions tend to be bacteriologically negative.


Assuntos
Microscopia/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Desemprego , Adulto Jovem
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