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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577201

RESUMO

This work addresses a method that combines immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and paper-based nucleic acid immunochromatographic assay for the sensitive detection of Mycolicibacterium fortuitum (basonym Mycobacterium fortuitum) In particular, the preconcentration of the bacteria was achieved by using magnetic particles modified with an antibody specific towards mycobacteria. Following the IMS, the bacteria were lysed, and the genome was amplified by double-tagging PCR, using a set of primers specific for the 16S rRNA gene for Mycobacterium. During the amplification, the amplicons were labeled with biotin and digoxigenin tags. Moreover, a comparative study of paper-based immunochromatographic platforms, relying on vertical and lateral flow and on the use of streptavidin gold nanoparticles as a signal generating system, was also performed. The visual readout was achieved when the gold-modified amplicons were captured by the anti-DIG antibody in the test line. The analytical performance of both methods, nucleic acid vertical flow (NAVF) and nucleic acid lateral flow (NALF), is also discussed. Although NALF showed lower limit of detections (LODs), both NALF and NAVF combined with IMS were able to detect the required LOD in hemodialysis water, becoming two promising and useful techniques for the rapid screening of water supplies in hemodialysis centers, to prevent the exposure of immunosuppressed patients to contaminated sources.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Mycobacterium , Ouro , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Separação Imunomagnética , Mycobacterium/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 712274, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512635

RESUMO

At present, concerns that the recent global emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants could compromise the current vaccines have been raised, highlighting the urgent demand for new vaccines capable of eliciting T cell-mediated immune responses, as well as B cell-mediated neutralizing antibody production. In this study, we developed a novel recombinant Mycobacterium paragordonae expressing the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) (rMpg-RBD-7) that is capable of eliciting RBD-specific immune responses in vaccinated mice. The potential use of rMpg-RBD-7 as a vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 infections was evaluated in in vivo using mouse models of two different modules, one for single-dose vaccination and the other for two-dose vaccination. In a single-dose vaccination model, we found that rMpg-RBD-7 versus a heat-killed strain could exert an enhanced cell-mediated immune (CMI) response, as well as a humoral immune response capable of neutralizing the RBD and ACE2 interaction. In a two-dose vaccination model, rMpg-RBD-7 in a two-dose vaccination could also exert a stronger CMI and humoral immune response to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infections in pseudoviral or live virus infection systems, compared to single dose vaccinations of rMpg-RBD or two-dose RBD protein immunization. In conclusion, our data showed that rMpg-RBD-7 can lead to an enhanced CMI response and humoral immune responses in mice vaccinated with both single- or two-dose vaccination, highlighting its feasibility as a novel vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first in which mycobacteria is used as a delivery system for a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Mycobacterium , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Animais , Vacinas contra COVID-19/farmacologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Domínios Proteicos , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 10(2): 155-161, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558467

RESUMO

Background: Mycobacterium leprae was considered the only causal agent of leprosy until Mycobacterium lepromatosis was identified' which it has been suggested has greater pathogenicity and is linked to diffuse lepromatous leprosy (DLL) and Lucio's phenomenon (LPh). Our objective is to identify Mycobacterium spp. in an endemic area of leprosy in Colombia. Methods: The study included cases with a diagnosis of leprosy by clinical and histopathological analysis. DNA extraction and two specific rounds of semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed in paraffin biopsies skin to identify M. leprae and M. lepromatosis. Demographic, clinical, and histopathological data were extracted and tabulated for analysis. Results: Forty-one cases of leprosy were analyzed. The most frequent clinical diagnosis was lepromatous leprosy (36.6%); there was one case with DLL and two with LPh. The most common histopathological finding was tuberculoid leprosy (36.59%); three cases had negative histopathology. M. lepromatosis was not detected; all cases corresponded to M. leprae including cases with negative histopathology' DLL, and LPh. Conclusion: In this study, M. leprae was the causative agent of leprosy, encompassing even its most severe phenotypic forms. It is appropriate to consider PCR as an indispensable tool for the diagnosis of leprosy and to continue to carry out the active search for M. lepromatosis.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Virchowiana , Hanseníase , Mycobacterium , Região do Caribe , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/genética
5.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 10(2): 188-192, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558473

RESUMO

Objective: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been recognized as a diverse group of organisms that are ubiquitous in environmental sources. In most regions of the world, NTM are not reportable as a public health disease, so epidemiological data are not easily available. However, data in published studies note increasing trends at the rate of NTM isolation from different geographic regions of the world. Increasing NTM isolation may have important public health implications. The aim of our study is the investigation of NTM from water resources and networks in Düzce, Turkey. Methods: NTM are common in water resources and water networks. They can cause waterborne infections in humans. A total of 120 water samples measured of chlorine and pH levels were decontaminated and filtered. Then, the filters were placed in the culturing media. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square and t-test were used for the statistical analysis. Results: NTM were detected in 20 (16.6%) samples. Nine of them (45%) were Mycobacterium fortuitum, three (15%) were Mycobacterium gordonae, three (15%) were Mycobacterium szulgai, two (10%) were Mycobacterium lentiflavum, two (10%) were Mycobacterium chelonae, and one (5%) was Mycobacterium peregrinum. Conclusions: These environmental bacteria can cause serious illnesses in both immunocompetent and especially immunocompromised individuals. For the correct treatment of these patients, it is important to determine NTM in clinical samples. Surveillance is necessary to know the source of NTM infection, to identify and type the strains, and to establish effective control measures such as disinfection, maintenance, and modernization of water systems.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas , Mycobacterium , Humanos , Mycobacteriaceae , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/epidemiologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas
6.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 10(3): 293-300, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494569

RESUMO

Background: Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are increasingly being recognized as potential pathogens. RGM, particularly Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium chelonae, have been observed in both pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections including cutaneous, soft-tissue, and wound infections. However, there are limited reports of these potential pathogens from skin and soft-tissue infections. Moreover, the drug susceptibility profile of RGM is largely unknown in several regions of the world. Methods: We analyzed reports on RGM isolated from skin and soft-tissue infections globally for details of RGM species and drug susceptibility profile. We also analyzed the drug susceptibility profile of four RGM isolates, obtained from skin and soft-tissue infections in our laboratory, by broth microdilution method. Results: In the reports reviewed, the most common RGM isolated from skin and soft-tissue infections were M. abscessus (184/475, 38.7%), M. fortuitum (150/475, 31.5%), M. chelonae (72/475, 15%), and M. chelonae-M. abscessus complex (46/475, 9.6%). However, drug susceptibility was tested only in 26/39 (66.6%) reports. In our own laboratory, we obtained three isolates of M. abscessus and one isolate of M. fortuitum from one case of breast abscess and three cases of postsurgical wound infections. Maximum susceptibility of M. abscessus was observed to clarithromycin, amikacin, and linezolid. The M. fortuitum isolate was susceptible to clarithromycin, amikacin, clofazimine, and linezolid. Conclusion: Paucity of information available on RGM isolated from skin and soft-tissue infections highlights the need to be aware of the pathogenic potential and the drug susceptibility profile of these organisms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas , Mycobacterium , Amicacina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Claritromicina , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas
7.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 10(2): 170-176, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558470

RESUMO

Background: Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are a group of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) implicated in difficult-to-treat pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases, possibly associated with invasive procedures and failures in sterilization of materials and equipment. Methods: We report our experience with the laboratory identification of RGM in a routine work and give an overview of the RGM isolated in our setting. Laboratorial data from all RGM mycobacterial isolates received at Adolfo Lutz Institute of São José do Rio Preto were analyzed from January 2000 to December 2015. Results: Five hundred and seventy-nine isolates were identified with NTM, of which 193 were RGM, which affected 113 patients. Among the 113 patients, the female gender was more frequent (55%) and the average age was 50 years. Pulmonary samples were the most frequent (79%), and 54.9% of the cases were isolated from sputum. Twelve different species were found and the most identified were group Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium fortuitum, making up 77.9% of all identified RGM. The most frequent comorbidities were smoking (n = 21), alcoholism (n = 12), and human immunodeficiency virus (n = 16). Drug susceptibility test was performed for nine patients and all showed susceptibility to amikacin and seven resistances to doxycycline. Conclusions: This study showed the experience of mycobacterial diagnosis in a routine laboratory, revealing that failure to meet the bacteriological criteria generates losses in the establishment of cases of RGM and consequently its correct treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas , Mycobacterium , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/epidemiologia , Nigéria , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554081

RESUMO

The definition of a genus has wide-ranging implications both in terms of binomial species names and also evolutionary relationships. In recent years, the definition of the genus Mycobacterium has been debated due to the proposed split of this genus into five new genera (Mycolicibacterium, Mycolicibacter, Mycolicibacillus, Mycobacteroides and an emended Mycobacterium). Since this group of species contains many important obligate and opportunistic pathogens, it is important that any renaming of species does not cause confusion in clinical treatment as outlined by the nomen periculosum rule (56a) of the Prokaryotic Code. In this study, we evaluated the proposed and original genus boundaries for the mycobacteria, to determine if the split into five genera was warranted. By combining multiple approaches for defining genus boundaries (16S rRNA gene similarity, amino acid identity index, average nucleotide identity, alignment fraction and percentage of conserved proteins) we show that the original genus Mycobacterium is strongly supported over the proposed five-way split. Thus, we propose that the original genus label be reapplied to all species within this group, with the proposed five genera potentially used as sub-genus complex names.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Mycobacterium , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Mycobacterium/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468760

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of peripartal administration of a commercially available nonspecific immune stimulant (mycobacterium cell wall fraction; MCWF [Amplimune, NovaVive Inc., Napanee, ON, Canada]) on the incidence of disease during early lactation and subsequent fertility of dairy cows. A second objective was to characterize the dynamics of circulating white blood cells (WBC) and metabolic markers following treatment administration. Cows in an United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic-certified dairy herd were blocked by parity and, based on sequential calving dates, randomly assigned to receive two injections (5 mL s.c.) of either a placebo (saline solution) as a control (CON; n = 71) or MCWF (n = 65) at enrollment (7 d before expected calving) and within 24 h after calving. Blood samples were collected from a subsample of the study population (MCWF = 16; CON = 18) for WBC count at enrollment, at day 2 post enrollment, and at days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after calving. Serum fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and Ca concentrations were determined at days 1 and 7 postpartum (MCWF = 21; CON = 21). Main outcome variables included incidence risk of peripartal and early lactation health disorders and pregnancy at first artificial insemination (AI), at 100, and at 150 days in milk (DIM). In addition, the average daily milk yield up to 90 DIM and death and live culling before 305 DIM were compared. Treatment effects were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, time-to-event analyses, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). A treatment effect on the incidence risk of some of the health disorders in the study was established. Incidence risk of metritis and clinical mastitis <28 DIM was smaller in MCWF than in CON cows (36.9% vs. 50.7% and 6.3% vs. 19.7%, respectively). On the contrary, the incidence risk of respiratory disease <28 DIM was smaller in CON (0%) than in MCWF (7.7%). Reproductive performance of multiparous cows was affected by MCWF administration: pregnancy at first AI and pregnancy at 100 and 150 DIM were greater in MCWF than in CON (35.6% vs. 19.2%; 51.1% vs. 25.0%; and 64.4% vs. 40.4%, respectively). Overall, median intervals from calving to pregnancy were 90 vs. 121 d in MCWF and CON cows, respectively. No treatment effects on the dynamics of circulating WBC or in postpartum metabolic status were established. No differences for milk yield or for the proportion of cows that survived up to 305 DIM were determined, although cows in MCWF left the herd earlier than cows in CON. In conclusion, incidence risks of metritis and mastitis in early lactation were smaller in cows receiving MCWF, whereas the incidence risk of respiratory disease was smaller in CON. Fertility significantly improved in MCWF compared with CON cows. As this study was performed in an organic-certified dairy, specific health and reproductive management practices may affect the external validity of the current findings.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Mycobacterium , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Parede Celular , Feminino , Fertilidade , Lactação , Leite , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Reprodução
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(38): 54153-54160, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389952

RESUMO

The prevalence and interactions with biofilm and disinfectant of opportunistic pathogens in drinking water supply systems (DWSSs) have been extensively interpreted. In contrast, the large geographical distribution and in situ removal of opportunistic pathogens are overlooked aspects. Here, paired source and tap water samples of 36 parallel DWSSs across China were collected, with five common waterborne pathogens characterized by qPCR. From source to tap, the removal of bacterial biomass (16S rRNA gene copy number) was 1.10 log, and gene marker removal of five opportunistic pathogens ranged from 0.66 log to 2.27 log, with the order of Escherichia coli > Mycobacterium spp. > Clostridium perfringens > Bacillus cereus > Aeromonas hydrophila. Different with bacterial community, geographical location and source water types (river or reservoir) were not key contributor to variation of opportunistic pathogens. Gene marker removal efficacies of E. coli, Mycobacterium spp., and C. perfringens from source to tap were restricted to removal efficacy of overall bacterial biomass, while abundance of B. cereus in tap water linked to the input of B. cereus from source water. Although culture-dependent approach is important for pathogen enumeration in drinking water, qPCR-based molecular survey shows advantages of quantifiable high-throughput and easy operation, providing abundant and timely information on pathogen occurrence in water. This study provides the in situ, molecular-level evidence toward differential propagation features of multiple opportunistic pathogens in DWSSs and suggests the source protection and early warning of treatment-resistant pathogens.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Mycobacterium , Escherichia coli , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água
11.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372584

RESUMO

Double-stranded DNA bacteriophages end their lytic cycle by disrupting the host cell envelope, which allows the release of the virion progeny. Each phage must synthesize lysis proteins that target each cell barrier to phage release. In addition to holins, which permeabilize the cytoplasmic membrane, and endolysins, which disrupt the peptidoglycan (PG), mycobacteriophages synthesize a specific lysis protein, LysB, capable of detaching the outer membrane from the complex cell wall of mycobacteria. The family of LysB proteins is highly diverse, with many members presenting an extended N-terminus. The N-terminal region of mycobacteriophage Ms6 LysB shows structural similarity to the PG-binding domain (PGBD) of the φKZ endolysin. A fusion of this region with enhanced green fluorescent protein (Ms6LysBPGBD-EGFP) was shown to bind to Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium vaccae, Mycobacterium bovis BGC and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra cells pretreated with SDS or Ms6 LysB. In pulldown assays, we demonstrate that Ms6 LysB and Ms6LysBPGBD-EGFP bind to purified peptidoglycan of M. smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis, demonstrating affinity to PG of the A1γ chemotype. An infection assay with an Ms6 mutant producing a truncated version of LysB lacking the first 90 amino acids resulted in an abrupt lysis. These results clearly demonstrate that the N-terminus of Ms6 LysB binds to the PG.


Assuntos
Bacteriólise/fisiologia , Micobacteriófagos/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Endopeptidases , Hidrólise , Mycobacterium/metabolismo , Mycobacterium/virologia , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445367

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic multisystem disease, therapy of which remains a challenge for basic research. The present work examined the effect of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) administration in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA)-an experimental model, in which oxidative stress (OS), inflammation and inadequate immune response are often similar to RA. Male Lewis rats were randomized into groups: CO-control, AIA-untreated adjuvant-induced arthritis, AIA-BIL-adjuvant-induced arthritis administrated UCB, CO-BIL-control with administrated UCB. UCB was administered intraperitoneally 200 mg/kg of body weight daily from 14th day of the experiment, when clinical signs of the disease are fully manifested, to 28th day, the end of the experiment. AIA was induced by a single intradermal immunization at the base of the tail with suspension of Mycobacterium butyricum in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Clinical, hematologic, biochemical and histologic examinations were performed. UCB administration to animals with AIA lead to a significant decrease in hind paws volume, plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and ceruloplasmin, drop of leukocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin and an increase in platelet count. UCB administration caused significantly lowered oxidative damage to DNA in arthritic animals, whereas in healthy controls it induced considerable oxidative damage to DNA. UCB administration also induced atrophy of the spleen and thymus in AIA and CO animals comparing to untreated animals. Histological signs of joint damage assessed by neutrophils infiltration and deposition of fibrin were significantly reduced by UCB administration. The effects of exogenously administered UCB to the animals with adjuvant-induced arthritis might be identified as therapeutic, in contrast to the effects of UCB administration in healthy animals rather classified as toxic.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Bilirrubina/administração & dosagem , Adjuvante de Freund/efeitos adversos , Lipídeos/efeitos adversos , Mycobacterium/imunologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Artrite Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Bilirrubina/farmacologia , Proteína C-Reativa , Ceruloplasmina/metabolismo , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361751

RESUMO

Species of Mycobacteriaceae cause disease in animals and humans, including tuberculosis and leprosy. Individuals infected with organisms in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) or non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may present identical symptoms, however the treatment for each can be different. Although the NTM infection is considered less vital due to the chronicity of the disease and the infrequency of occurrence in healthy populations, diagnosis and differentiation among Mycobacterium species currently require culture isolation, which can take several weeks. The use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a promising approach for species identification and in recent years has shown promise for use in the rapid analysis of both in vitro cultures as well as ex vivo diagnosis using breath or sputum. The aim of this contribution is to analyze VOCs in the culture headspace of seven different species of mycobacteria and to define the volatilome profiles that are discriminant for each species. For the pre-concentration of VOCs, solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) was employed and samples were subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS). A machine learning approach was applied for the selection of the 13 discriminatory features, which might represent clinically translatable bacterial biomarkers.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Mycobacterium abscessus/química , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/química , Mycobacterium avium/química , Mycobacterium bovis/química , Mycobacterium/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina/estatística & dados numéricos , Mycobacterium/metabolismo , Mycobacterium abscessus/metabolismo , Mycobacterium avium/metabolismo , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/metabolismo , Mycobacterium bovis/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/classificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
14.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117863, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352636

RESUMO

Bio-stimulation of the indigenous microbial community is considered as an effective strategy for the bioremediation of polluted environments. This examination explored the near effects of various bio-stimulants on pyrene degradation, prokaryotic community compositions, and functions using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and qPCR. At first, the results displayed significant differences (p < 0.05) between the prokaryotic community structures of the control group, PYR (contains pyrene only), and bio-stimulants amended groups. Among the bio-stimulants, biochar, oxalic acid, salicylate, NPK, and ammonium sulfate augmented the pyrene degradation potential of microbial communities. Moreover, the higher abundance of genera, such as Flavobacterium, Hydrogenophaga, Mycobacterium, Rhodococcus, Flavihumibacter, Pseudomonas, Novosphingobium, etc., across the treatments indicated that these genera play a vital role in pyrene metabolism. Based on the higher abundance of GP-RHD and nidA genes, we speculated that Gram-positive prokaryotic communities are more competent in pyrene dissipation than Gram-negative. Furthermore, the marked abundance of nifH, and pqqC genes in the NPK and SA treatments, respectively, suggested that different bio-stimulants might enrich certain bacterial assemblages. Besides, the significant distinctions (p < 0.05) between the bacterial consortia of HA (humic acid) and SA (sodium acetate) groups from NPK, OX (oxalic acid), UR (urea), NH4, and SC (salicylate) groups also suggested that different bio-stimulants might induce distinct ecological impacts influencing the succession of prokaryotic communities in distinct directions. This work provides new insight into the bacterial degradation of pyrene using the bio-stimulation technique. It suggests that it is equally important to investigate the community structure and functions along with studying their impacts on degradation when devising a bio-stimulation technology.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Mycobacterium/genética , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Pirenos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
15.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(9): 2604-2611, 2021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355905

RESUMO

The rifamycins are broad-spectrum antibiotics that are primarily utilized to treat infections caused by mycobacteria, including tuberculosis. Interestingly, various species of bacteria are known to contain an enzyme called Arr that catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of rifamycin antibiotics as a mechanism of resistance. Here, we study Arr modulation in relevant Gram-positive and -negative species. We show that a C-terminal truncation of Arr (ArrC), encoded in the genome of Mycobacterium smegmatis, activates Arr-mediated rifamycin modification. Through structural comparisons of mycobacterial Arr and human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), we identify a known small molecule PARP inhibitor that can act as an adjuvant to sensitize M. smegmatis to the rifamycin antibiotic rifampin via inhibition of Arr, even in the presence of ArrC. Finally, we demonstrate that this rifampin/adjuvant combination treatment is effective at inhibiting growth of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) nontuberculosis pathogen Mycobacterium abscessus, which has become a growing cause of human infections in the clinic.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium , Rifamicinas , ADP Ribose Transferases , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium/genética , Rifamicinas/farmacologia
16.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 114(10): 1735-1744, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392432

RESUMO

A Gram-positive, acid-fast and rapidly growing rod, designated S2-37 T, that could form yellowish colonies was isolated from one soil sample collected from cotton cropping field located in the Xinjiang region of China. Genomic analyses indicated that strain S2-37 T harbored T7SS secretion system and was very likely able to produce mycolic acid, which were typical features of pathogenetic mycobacterial species. 16S rRNA-directed phylogenetic analysis referred that strain S2-37 T was closely related to bacterial species belonging to the genus Mycolicibacterium, which was further confirmed by pan-genome phylogenetic analysis. Digital DNA-DNA hybridization and the average nucleotide identity presented that strain S2-37 T displayed the highest values of 39.1% (35.7-42.6%) and 81.28% with M. litorale CGMCC 4.5724 T, respectively. And characterization of conserved molecular signatures further supported the taxonomic position of strain S2-37 T belonging to the genus Mycolicibacterium. The main fatty acids were identified as C16:0, C18:0, C20:3ω3 and C22:6ω3. In addition, polar lipids profile was mainly composed of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. Phylogenetic analyses, distinct fatty aids and antimicrobial resistance profiles indicated that strain S2-37 T represented genetically and phenotypically distinct from its closest phylogenetic neighbour, M. litorale CGMCC 4.5724 T. Here, we propose a novel species of the genus Mycolicibacterium: Mycolicibacterium gossypii sp. nov. with the type strain S2-37 T (= JCM 34327 T = CGMCC 1.18817 T).


Assuntos
Mycobacterium , Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Genômica , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia do Solo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360967

RESUMO

Microbial biodegradation is one of the acceptable technologies to remediate and control the pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Several bacteria, fungi, and cyanobacteria strains have been isolated and used for bioremediation purpose. This review paper is intended to provide key information on the various steps and actors involved in the bacterial and fungal aerobic and anaerobic degradation of pyrene, a high molecular weight PAH, including catabolic genes and enzymes, in order to expand our understanding on pyrene degradation. The aerobic degradation pathway by Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PRY-1 and Mycobactetrium sp. KMS and the anaerobic one, by the facultative bacteria anaerobe Pseudomonas sp. JP1 and Klebsiella sp. LZ6 are reviewed and presented, to describe the complete and integrated degradation mechanism pathway of pyrene. The different microbial strains with the ability to degrade pyrene are listed, and the degradation of pyrene by consortium is also discussed. The future studies on the anaerobic degradation of pyrene would be a great initiative to understand and address the degradation mechanism pathway, since, although some strains are identified to degrade pyrene in reduced or total absence of oxygen, the degradation pathway of more than 90% remains unclear and incomplete. Additionally, the present review recommends the use of the combination of various strains of anaerobic fungi and a fungi consortium and anaerobic bacteria to achieve maximum efficiency of the pyrene biodegradation mechanism.


Assuntos
Klebsiella/metabolismo , Mycobacterium/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Pirenos/metabolismo , Klebsiella/genética , Consórcios Microbianos , Mycobacterium/genética , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/genética
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26744, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397815

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Cured leprosy patients have special physical conditions, which could pose challenges for safety and immunogenicity after immunization. We performed an observational clinical study aimed to identify the safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in cured leprosy patients. A total of 65 participants from a leprosarium were recruited into leprosy cured group or control group, and received a 0.5 ml dose of the inactivated split-virion trivalent influenza vaccine and a follow-up 28 days proactive observation of any adverse events. Hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition test was performed to evaluate serum antibody titer, flow cytometry was conducted to screen of cytokines level. The total rate of reactogenicity was 0.0% [0/41] in leprosy cured group and 37.5% [9/24] in control group. The seroconversion rate for H1N1 was difference between leprosy cured group and control group (41.83% vs 79.17%, P = .0082), but not for H3N2 (34.25% vs 50.00%, P = .4468). At day 0, leprosy cured group have relatively high concentration of interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, and interleukin-17 compared to control group. The interleukin-2 concentration increased 2 weeks after vaccination compared to pre-vaccination in leprosy cured group, but declined in control group (0.92 pg/ml vs -0.02 pg/ml, P = .0147). Leprosy cured group showed a more rapid down-regulation of interleukin-6 when influenza virus was challenged compared to control group (-144.38 pg/ml vs -11.52 pg/ml, P < .0001). Subgroup analysis revealed that the immunization administration declined interleukin-17 concentration in Tuberculoid type subgroup, but not in Lepromatous type subgroup or control group. Clinically cured leprosy patients are relatively safe for influenza vaccine. Leprosy cured patient have immune deficit in producing antibody. Interleukin-6 and interleukin-17 were 2 sensitive indicators in immune response for leprosy affected patients. The identification of indicators might be help management of leprosy and used as predictive markers in leprosy early symptom monitoring.


Assuntos
Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Vacinas contra Influenza/normas , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Formação de Anticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/imunologia , Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium/patogenicidade , Mycobacterium leprae/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium leprae/patogenicidade
19.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 50(7): 768-772, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405612

RESUMO

Objective: To study the clinicopathologic features, and the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumor in children. Methods: The clinical data, histopathological features, immunophenotype and special staining of 2 mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumors were analyzed. The related literatures were reviewed. Results: The age of the two boys was 11 months and 22 months respectively, but their clinical symptoms became apparent at the age of about 4 months. The lesions involved lymph nodes and skin. The first patient also had fever for more than 4 months. Both patients received anti-inflammatory treatment in the outside hospital, but had no obvious improvements of the symptoms. A tumor resection was performed at the outside hospital. Histologically, mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumor consisted of bland spindle cells, which formed fascicles, without any obvious atypia and mitoses. The cell nuclei were vesicular, with small nucleoli and abundant cytoplasm in some of the cases. The spindle cells expressed histiocyte-associated markers, such as CD68. The Ki-67 proliferation index was low. The mycobacteria were usually readily highlighted by acid-fast staining, which located in the cytoplasm of proliferative spindle cells. In the first case, there was obstructive jaundice because of the progressive enlargement of live portal lymph nodes and systemic disseminated lesions. The second patient had disease recurrence after only operation, and gradually developed other skin nodules and superficial lymph node enlargement. The high-throughput molecular analysis of the skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of mycobacterium tuberculosis. After 11 days of anti-tuberculosis treatment, the patient's condition improved significantly. Conclusions: Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumor in children is a very rare benign lesion. It is characterized by spindle-histiocyte proliferation caused by mycobacterium infection. An acid-fast stain appears necessary for confirming the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Histiócitos , Humanos , Lactente , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Masculino
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361097

RESUMO

Although the therapeutic effect of mycobacteria as antitumor agents has been known for decades, recent epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that mycobacterium-related chronic inflammation may be a possible mechanism of cancer pathogenesis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous Mycobacterium avium complex infections have been implicated as potentially contributing to the etiology of lung cancer, whereas Mycobacterium ulcerans has been correlated with skin carcinogenesis. The risk of tumor development with chronic mycobacterial infections is thought to be a result of many host effector mechanisms acting at different stages of oncogenesis. In this paper, we focus on the nature of the relationship between mycobacteria and cancer, describing the clinical significance of mycobacteria-based cancer therapy as well as epidemiological evidence on the contribution of chronic mycobacterial infections to the increased lung cancer risk.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/microbiologia , Mycobacterium/fisiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Mycobacterium/tratamento farmacológico
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