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1.
Plant J ; 108(2): 411-425, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331782

RESUMO

Flavonols are health-promoting bioactive compounds important for plant defense and human nutrition. Quercetin (Q) and kaempferol (K) biosynthesis have been studied extensively while little is known about myricetin (M) biosynthesis. The roles of flavonol synthases (FLSs) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) in M biosynthesis in Morella rubra, a member of the Myricaceae rich in M-based flavonols, were investigated. The level of MrFLS transcripts alone did not correlate well with the accumulation of M-based flavonols. However, combined transcript data for MrFLS1 and MrF3'5'H showed a good correlation with the accumulation of M-based flavonols in different tissues of M. rubra. Recombinant MrFLS1 and MrFLS2 proteins showed strong activity with dihydroquercetin (DHQ), dihydrokaempferol (DHK), and dihydromyricetin (DHM) as substrates, while recombinant MrF3'5'H protein preferred converting K to M, amongst a range of substrates. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) overexpressing 35S::MrFLSs produced elevated levels of K-based and Q-based flavonols without affecting M-based flavonol levels, while tobacco overexpressing 35S::MrF3'5'H accumulated significantly higher levels of M-based flavonols. We conclude that M accumulation in M. rubra is affected by gene expression and enzyme specificity of FLS and F3'5'H as well as substrate availability. In the metabolic grid of flavonol biosynthesis, the strong activity of MrF3'5'H with K as substrate additionally promotes metabolic flux towards M in M. rubra.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Myricaceae/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Flavonoides/genética , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonóis/genética , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Myricaceae/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/genética , Quercetina/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Especificidade por Substrato , Tabaco/genética
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(2): 741-749, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404218

RESUMO

Chemical structural characterization of phenolic compounds from the red ("Biqi") and white ("Shuijing") bayberries was carried out in the present study. With the aid of Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS), 18 flavonoid glycosides and 13 proanthocyanidins (PACs) in bayberry extracts were tentatively identified. Three cyanidin-3-glucoside derivatives (cyanidin-acetylapiosyl-glucoside, catechin-cyanidin-3-glucoside, and gallocatechin-cyanidin-3-glucoside), two quercetin derivatives (quercetin-3-arabinoside and quercetin-3-glucuronide), patuletin-7-glucoside, and individual PACs consisting of (epi)catechin or (epi)gallocatechin units were reported for the first time in bayberry fruits. In addition, "Biqi" exhibited a considerable increase of flavonoid glycoside content together with a dramatic decrease in the content of PACs in mature fruits, while "Shuijing" showed a decrease in levels of PACs but failed to accumulate flavonoid glycosides during fruit development.


Assuntos
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Myricaceae/química , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cor , Flavonoides/química , Frutas/química , Glucosídeos/química , Myricaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
Molecules ; 25(24)2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371425

RESUMO

Terrestrial plants, due to their sessile nature, are highly exposed to environmental pressure and therefore need to produce very effective molecules that enable them to survive all the threats. Myrica and Morella (Myricaceae) are taxonomically close genera, which include species of trees or shrubs with edible fruits that exhibit relevant uses in traditional medicine. For instance, in Chinese or Japanese folk medicine, they are used to treat diarrhea, digestive problems, headache, burns, and skin diseases. A wide array of compounds isolated from different parts of Myrica and/or Morella species possess several biological activities, like anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, and cardio-/neuro-/hepatoprotective activities, both in vitro and in vivo, with myricanol, myricitrin, quercitrin, and betulin being the most promising. There are still many other compounds isolated from both genera whose biological activities have not been evaluated, which represents an excellent opportunity to discover new applications for those compounds and valorize Morella/Myrica species.


Assuntos
Myrica/química , Myricaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Animais , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química
4.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226619, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877179

RESUMO

Inorganic N fertilizers are commonly used in commercial blueberry fields; however, this form of N can favor increased weed species' growth, which can ultimately reduce the benefits of fertilization. We hypothesized that chipped ramial wood (CRW) compost is an effective alternative organic fertilizer for blueberry plants when weeds are present, as ericaceous shrub species are generally more efficient in utilizing organic N than herbaceous weed species. In this study, we measured the growth, fruit yield, and foliar N response of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) to an application of 45 kg N ha-1 in the form of organic (CRW) or inorganic N (ammonium sulfate) in two areas of a commercial field colonized by either poverty oat grass (Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv.) or sweet fern (Comptonia peregrina (L.) Coult.). We also assessed the impact of the fertilization treatments on litter decomposition rates. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found no significant increase in blueberry fruit yield or growth using CRW. By contrast, inorganic N-fertilization increased fruit yield by 70%. The effect was higher in the area colonized by D. spicata (+83%) than by C. peregrina (+45%). Blueberry fruit yield was on average twice higher in the area of the field having D. spicata than C. peregrina, suggesting a stronger competition with the latter. However, the increase in D. spicata density from 0-1 to >25 plants m-2 reduced fruit production by three-fold and strongly impacted vegetative growth in both fertilized and unfertilized plots. The impact of increased C. peregrina density was comparatively much lower, especially on vegetative growth, which was much higher in the area having C. peregrina. These patterns are likely due to a lower competition for N uptake with C. peregrina as this species can derive N from the atmosphere. Interestingly, the higher fruit yield in the area colonized by D. spicata occurred even in plots where the weeds were nearly absent (density of 0-1 plant m-2), revealing the influence of unidentified variables on blueberry fruit yield. We hypothesized that this difference resulted from over-optimal foliar N concentrations in the area colonized by C. peregrina as suggested by the significantly higher foliar N concentrations and by the negative correlation between foliar N concentrations and fruit yields in this area. The possibility of an influence of C. peregrina on flowering and pollination success, as well as of unidentified local site conditions is discussed. The tested N-fertilization treatments did not affect foliar N concentrations or litter decomposition rates. Overall, our results show that ammonium sulfate is very effective at increasing fruit yields but that both fruit yields and the efficiency of the N-fertilization treatment are decreased by increased D. spicata density, especially above 25 plants m-2. Although CRW did not significantly enhance fruit yields in the short term, this fertilizer may have a long-term beneficial effect.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilizantes , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sulfato de Amônio/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Myricaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/análise , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Gene ; 717: 144045, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425741

RESUMO

The MADS-box gene family encodes transcription factors and plays an important role in plant growth and the development of flower and fruit. A perennial dioecious plant, the red bayberry genome has been published recently, providing the opportunity to analyze the MADS-box gene family and its role in fruit development and ripening. Here, we identified 54 MADS-box genes in the red bayberry genome, and classified them into two types based on phylogenetic analysis. Thirteen Type I MADS-box genes were subdivided into three subfamilies and 41 Type II MADS-box genes into 13 subfamilies. A total of 46 MADS-box genes were distributed across eight red bayberry chromosomes, and the other eight genes were located on the unmapped scaffolds. Transcriptome analysis suggested that the expression of most Type II genes was higher than Type I in five female tissues. Moreover, 26 MADS-box genes were expressed during red bayberry fruit development and ten of them showed high expression. qRT-PCR showed that the expression of MrMADS01 (SEP, MIKCC), with differences between the pale pink and red varieties, increased significantly at the final ripening stage, suggesting it may participate in ripening as positive regulator and related to anthocyanin biosynthesis. These results provide some clues for future study of MADS-box genes in red bayberry, especially in ripening process.


Assuntos
Frutas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Myricaceae/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Família Multigênica , Filogenia
6.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215253, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978227

RESUMO

Numerous studies have speculated that lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) is less efficient than weed species at taking up inorganic nitrogen (N) derived from fertilizers, thus raising questions as to the effectiveness of N fertilization in commercial fields. However, competition for acquiring N as well as specific interactions between blueberry and companion weeds characterized by contrasted functional traits remain poorly documented. Here, we assessed fertilizer-derived N acquisition efficiency and biomass production in lowbush blueberry and two common weed species that have different functional traits-sweet fern (Comptonia peregrina), a N2-fixing shrub, and poverty oat grass (Danthonia spicata), a perennial grass-in a commercial blueberry field in Québec, Canada. In 2015, 15N-labelled ammonium sulfate was applied at a rate of 45 kg ha-1 to 1 m2 field plots containing lowbush blueberry and one of the two weeds present at several different density levels (0 to 25 plants m-2). In 2016, each plot was harvested to determine vegetative biomass and the percentage of fertilizer-derived N recovered (PFNR) in each species. The PFNR was higher in blueberry (24.4 ± 9.3%) than in sweet fern (13.4 ± 2.6%) and poverty oat grass (3.3 ± 2.9%). However, lowbush blueberry required about four times more root biomass than sweet fern and poverty oat grass to uptake an equivalent amount of N from ammonium sulfate. The PFNR in poverty oat grass increased with plant density (from 0.8% to 6.4% at 2-3 and >6 plants m-2, respectively), which resulted in a decrease in blueberry's PFNR (from 26.0 ± 1.4% to 8.6 ± 1.8%) and aboveground vegetative biomass production (from 152 ± 58 to 80 ± 28 g m-2). The increase in biomass production and N content in sweet fern with increasing plant density was not accompanied by an increase in PFNR (29.7 ± 8.4%), suggesting an increasing contribution of atmospherically-derived N. This mechanism (i.e., N sparing) likely explained blueberry's higher biomass production and N concentration in association with sweet fern than with poverty oat grass. Overall, our study confirms lowbush blueberry low efficiency (on a mass basis) at taking up N derived from the fertilizer as compared to weeds and reveals contrasted and complex interactions between blueberry and both weed species. Our results also suggest that the use of herbicides may not be necessary when poverty oat grass is present at a low density (<15 plants of poverty oat grass m-2) and that adding inorganic N fertilizer is counterproductive when this species is present at a high density as it takes up as much fertilizer as lowbush blueberry.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Daninhas/metabolismo , Agricultura/métodos , Biomassa , Fertilizantes , Myricaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Myricaceae/metabolismo , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/metabolismo , Quebeque
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 272: 300-307, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366289

RESUMO

Tandem bio-inorganic platform by combining efficient light harvesting properties of nano-inorganic semiconductor cadmium sulfide (CdS) with biocatalytic ability of electro-active bacteria (EAB) towards carbon dioxide (CO2) conversion is reported. Sulfur was obtained from either cysteine (EAB-Cys-CdS) or hydrogen sulfide (EAB-H2S-CdS) and experiments were carried out under similar conditions. Anchoring of the nano CdS cluster on the microbe surface was confirmed using electronic microscope. Bio-inorganic hybrid system was able to produce single and multi-carbon compounds from CO2 in visible spectrum (λ > 400 nm). Though, acetic acid was dominant (EAB-Cys-CdS, 1.46 g/l and EAB-H2S-CdS, 1.55 g/l) in both the microbe-CdS hybrids, its concentration as well as product slate varied significantly. EAB-H2S-CdS produced hexanoic acid and less methanol fraction, while the EAB-Cys-CdS produced no hexanoic acid along with almost double the concentration of methanol. Due to easy harvesting process, this bio-inorganic hybrid represents unique sustainable approach for solar-to-chemical production via CO2 transformation.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Luz Solar , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Acetobacterium/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Compostos de Cádmio/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Clostridium/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Elétrons , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Myricaceae/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Sulfetos/química
8.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 112(1): 57-65, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030730

RESUMO

Strain CpI1T was, in 1978, the first isolate of the genus Frankia to be obtained from Comptonia peregrina root nodules. In this study, a polyphasic approach was performed to identify the taxonomic position of strain CpI1T among the members of the genus Frankia. The strain contains meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, ribose and xylose as cell wall sugars. The polar lipids were found to consist of phosphatidylinositol, diphosphatidylglycerol, glycophospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol, an aminophospholipid and unidentified phospholipids and lipids. The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-9 (H8), while the major fatty acid are iso-C16:0 and C17:1ω 8c. The 16S rRNA gene sequence identity varies from 97.4 to 99.6% with the type strains of currently described Frankia species. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) using atp1, ftsZ, dnaK, gyrA and secA gene sequences showed that strain CpI1T is closely related to Frankia alni ACN14aT. The genome size of strain CpI1T is 7.6 Mb with a digital DNA G+C content of 72.4%. Digital DNA:DNA hybridization (values between strain CpI1T and its close phylogenetic relative F. alni ACN14aT was 44.1%, well below the threshold of 70% for distinguishing between bacterial genomic species. Based on the phenotypic, phylogenetic and genomic data, strain CpI1T (= DSM44263T = CECT9035T) warrants classification as the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Frankia torreyi sp. nov. is proposed.


Assuntos
Frankia/isolamento & purificação , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Cultura Axênica , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Frankia/classificação , Frankia/genética , Frankia/metabolismo , Myricaceae/microbiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
9.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 41(4): 311-323, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653822

RESUMO

Diazotrophic Actinobacteria of the genus Frankia represent a challenge to classical bacterial taxonomy as they include many unculturable strains. As a consequence, we still have a poor understanding of their diversity, evolution and biogeography. In this study, a Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) using atpD, dnaA, ftsZ, pgk, and rpoB loci was done on a large set of cultured and uncultured strains, compared to 16S rRNA and correlated to Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) from available Frankia genomes. MLSA provided a robust resolution of Frankia genus phylogeny and clarified the status of unresolved species and complex of species. The robustness of single-gene topologies and their congruence with the MLSA tree were tested. Lateral Gene Transfers (LGT) were few and scattered, suggesting they had no impact on the concatenate topology. The pgk marker - providing the longest sequence, highest mean genetic divergence and least occurrence of LGT - was used to survey an unequalled number of Alnus-infective Frankia - mainly uncultured strains from a broad range of host-species and geographic origins. This marker allowed reliable Single-Locus Strain Typing (SLST) below the species level, revealed an undiscovered taxonomical diversity, and highlighted the effect of cultivation, sporulation phenotype and host plant species on symbiont richness, diversity and phylogeny.


Assuntos
Alnus/microbiologia , Frankia/classificação , Frankia/genética , Myricaceae/microbiologia , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Sequência de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Frankia/isolamento & purificação , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Simbiose
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e17498, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-974415

RESUMO

The goal of this research was to identify major compounds of the aerial parts of M. parvifolia (Benth.) Parra-Os., that could enhance its possible application as additive in dermocosmetic products, as well as evaluate the antioxidant properties. The extracts agreed with the broad-spectrum UVB/UVA absorption detected and could act as broad-spectrum sunscreens, covering the UVA and UVB range. Methanolic extracts showed an important antiradical capacity (0.46 and 0.47 g/µmol DPPH), TPC (37.58 and 51.41mg GAE/g DS) and TAC (1.12 and 3.31 mg C3GE/g DS) in fruits and leaves, respectively. M. parvifolia could be considered as a prospective source of natural UV-radiation absorbers with antioxidant capacity. Although the results have clearly demonstrated the potential photoprotection capacity, more studies are needed to enhance its application as an additive in pharmaceutical and medicinal formulations.


Assuntos
Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais , Myricaceae/classificação , Absorção , Protetores Solares/efeitos adversos , Técnicas In Vitro/instrumentação , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Aditivos em Cosméticos , Antioxidantes
11.
Molecules ; 22(12)2017 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29257058

RESUMO

A methanolic extract of Morella salicifolia bark was fractionated by various chromatographic techniques yielding six previously unknown cyclic diarylheptanoids, namely, 7-hydroxymyricanol 5-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (1), juglanin B 3-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (2), 16-hydroxyjuglanin B 17-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (3), myricanone 5-O-ß-d-gluco-pranosyl-(1→6)-ß-d-glucopyranoside (4), neomyricanone 5-O-ß-d-glucopranosyl-(1→6)-ß-d-glucopyranoside (5), and myricanone 17-O-α-l-arabino-furanosyl-(1→6)-ß-d-glucopyranoside (6), respectively, together with 10 known cyclic diarylheptanoids. The structural diversity of the diarylheptanoid pattern in M. salicifolia resulted from varying glycosidation at C-3, C-5, and C-17 as well as from substitution at C-11 with hydroxy, carbonyl or sulfate groups, respectively. Structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was achieved on the basis of one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as well as high-resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) analyses. The absolute configuration of the glycosides was confirmed after hydrolysis and synthesis of O-(S)-methyl butyrated (SMB) sugar derivatives by comparison of their ¹H-NMR data with those of reference sugars. Additionally, absolute configuration of diarylheptanoid aglycones at C-11 was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra simulation and comparison with experimental CD spectra after hydrolysis.


Assuntos
Diarileptanoides/química , Glicosídeos/química , Myricaceae/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dicroísmo Circular , Diarileptanoides/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Metanol/química , Conformação Molecular , Peso Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 205: 8-15, 2017 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28435048

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Morella serrata L. is an indigenous medicinal plant to South and southern Africa with folkloric applications as aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-hypertensive, antitussive and antidiabetic agent. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study evaluated the membrane stabilization and aphrodisiac potentials of its aqueous root extract in male Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: While the membrane stabilization of the extract was investigated against bovine erythrocytes (BE), the male rats for the aphrodisiac study were randomized into five groups with animals in group 1 given sterile placebo and served as control. The rats in group 2 were treated with 7.14mg/kg body weight of PowMaxM, while animals in groups 3, 4 and 5 were administered with the extract (100, 200 and 400mg/kg, respectively). All treatments (1mL) were done once daily for 4 weeks via oral gavaging and their mating behavioural, testicular, spermatogenetic and antioxidant parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: With the exception of the mount, intromission and post ejaculatory latencies that were dose-dependently reduced by the extract, other mating parameters were significantly improved when compared with the control. Similar patterns of significant improvement were also observed on the testes-body weight ratio, quality and viability of sperm cells as well as testicular concentrations of proteins, cholesterol, glycogen, testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, leuitenizing hormone and glutathione (reduced) subsequent to treatment with the extract. Although, administration of M. serrata had no significant (p>0.05) effect on the testicular activity of gamma glutamyl transferase, those of lactate dehydrogenase, phosphatases (alkaline and acid), superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (p<0.05) induced in the treated animals. The extract also conferred respective significant (p<0.05) membrane stabilization potential of 66.02% and 60.87% on the BE against hypotonic solution and heat-induced hemolysis relative to 62.14% and 40.19% for ibuprofen. The effect elicited by the extract at the tested doses could partly be attributed to its antioxidant and adaptogenic constituents. CONCLUSION: The data presented in this study have enriched biochemical information on the root extract of M. serrata as a viable source of phytonutrients that could be potentially useful for the development of aphrodisiac drugs, and thus lending scientific credence to its much touted sex enhancing attributes by the Basothos of the eastern Free State Province of South Africa.


Assuntos
Myricaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Molecules ; 21(9)2016 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27589714

RESUMO

Chinese bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) fruit have a diverse flavonoid composition responsible for the various medicinal activities, including anti-diabetes. In the present study, efficient simultaneous purification of four flavonoid glycosides, i.e., cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (1), myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (2), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (3), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (4), from Chinese bayberry pulp was established by the combination of solid phase extract (SPE) by C18 Sep-Pak(®) cartridge column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC (Prep-HPLC), which was followed by HPLC and LC-MS identification. The purified flavonoid glycosides, as well as different fractions of fruit extracts of six bayberry cultivars, were investigated for α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. The flavonol extracts (50% methanol elution fraction) of six cultivars showed strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 = 15.4-69.5 µg/mL), which were higher than that of positive control acarbose (IC50 = 383.2 µg/mL). Four purified compounds 1-4 exerted α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 1444.3 µg/mL, 418.8 µg/mL, 556.4 µg/mL, and 491.8 µg/mL, respectively. Such results may provide important evidence for the potential anti-diabetic activity of different cultivars of Chinese bayberry fruit and the possible bioactive compounds involved.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Frutas/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Myricaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , alfa-Glucosidases/química , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação
14.
J Diabetes Res ; 2016: 4602820, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27437404

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) belongs to the group of five leading important diseases causing death globally and remains a major health problem in Africa. A number of factors such as poverty, poor eating habit, and hormonal imbalance are responsible for the occurrence of the disease. It poses a major health challenge in Africa continent today and the prevalence continues to increase at an alarming rate. Various treatment options particularly the usage of herbs have been effective against diabetes because they have no adverse effects. Interestingly, South Africa, especially the Basotho tribe, is blessed with numerous medicinal plants whose usage in the treatment of DM has been effective since the conventional drugs are expensive and often unaffordable. The present study attempted to update the various scientific evidence on the twenty-three (23) plants originating from different parts of the world but widely used by the Sotho people in the management of DM. Asteraceae topped the list of sixteen (16) plant families and remained the most investigated according to this review. Although limited information was obtained on the antidiabetic activities of these plants, it is however anticipated that government parastatals and scientific communities will pay more attention to these plants in future research.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais , Aloe , Apocynaceae , Asparagus (Planta) , Asteraceae , Cannabis , Commelina , Fabaceae , Humanos , Hypoxidaceae , Hypoxis , Malvaceae , Mimulus , Myricaceae , Rubiaceae , Rumex , África do Sul , Xanthorrhoeaceae
15.
Pharm Biol ; 54(12): 2901-2908, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27267728

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Morella serrata L. (Myricaceae) is commonly used in South Africa to treat several diseases including constipation. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated toxicological implications and laxative potential of the ethanol root extract of the plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: While normal control animals were placed on sterile placebo, the loperamide-constipated rats were treated with the extract at 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg doses for 7 days, and their feeding patterns and faecal properties were monitored. Gastrointestinal transit ratio and the toxicity profile of the tested doses were thereafter evaluated. RESULTS: The significantly increased faecal volume (192.08%), feed (63.63%), water intake (55.97%) and improved intestinal motility (95.05%) in the constipated rats following treatment with the extract (at 300 mg/kg) suggested laxative potential of the extract. The 1.5-2.0-fold normalization of the platelets, erythrocytes and leukocytes counts in the extract-treated constipated rats suggests its non-haematotoxic tendency. Furthermore, the extract (at the highest investigated dose) reversed the attenuation in the concentrations of the electrolytes (0.5-2-fold), total protein (62.12%) and albumin (55.88%) in the constipated animals as well as attenuated activities of hepatic enzymes (0.5-3.0-fold) and levels of urea (126.67%), creatinine (40.32%), cholesterol (3-fold) and triglycerides (9-fold). These further support its non-toxic and therapeutic attributes against constipation. CONCLUSION: Overall, the effect exhibited by M. serrata in this study competed well with Senokot (standard drug) and proved that it may be relatively safe and with excellent laxative potential, thus, supporting its pharmacological applications in South Africa.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Laxantes/uso terapêutico , Loperamida/toxicidade , Myricaceae , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Raízes de Plantas , Animais , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Constipação Intestinal/metabolismo , Etanol/uso terapêutico , Laxantes/isolamento & purificação , Laxantes/toxicidade , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
PLoS One ; 10(10): e0139840, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26431030

RESUMO

Phylogenetic relationships among Chinese species of Morella (Myricaceae) are unresolved. Here, we use restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to identify candidate loci that will help in determining phylogenetic relationships among Morella rubra, M. adenophora, M. nana and M. esculenta. Three methods for inferring phylogeny, maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian concordance, were applied to data sets including as many as 4253 RAD loci with 8360 parsimony informative variable sites. All three methods significantly favored the topology of (((M. rubra, M. adenophora), M. nana), M. esculenta). Two species from North America (M. cerifera and M. pensylvanica) were placed as sister to the four Chinese species. According to BEAST analysis, we deduced speciation of M. rubra to be at about the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (5.28 Ma). Intraspecific divergence in M. rubra occurred in the late Pliocene (3.39 Ma). From pooled data, we assembled 29378, 21902 and 23552 de novo contigs with an average length of 229, 234 and 234 bp for M. rubra, M. nana and M. esculenta respectively. The contigs were used to investigate functional classification of RAD tags in a BLASTX search. Additionally, we identified 3808 unlinked SNP sites across the four populations of M. rubra and discovered genes associated with fruit ripening and senescence, fruit quality and disease/defense metabolism based on KEGG database.


Assuntos
Myricaceae/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Genes de Plantas , Myricaceae/classificação
17.
Biol Lett ; 11(8)2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26246332

RESUMO

A recent study by Stohlgren & Rejmánek (SR: Stohlgren TJ, Rejmánek M. 2014 Biol. Lett. 10. (doi:10.1098/rsbl.2013.0939)) purported to test the generality of a recent finding of scale-dependent effects of invasive plants on native diversity; dominant invasive plants decreased the intercept and increased the slope of the species-area relationship. SR (2014) find little correlation between invasive species cover and the slopes and intercepts of SARs across a diversity of sites. We show that the analyses of SR (2014) are inappropriate because of confounding causality.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Extinção Biológica , Gleiquênias/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Lonicera/fisiologia , Myricaceae/fisiologia , Plantas/classificação
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 16(8): 17160-80, 2015 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26225964

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is one of the risk factors for the development of several chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidants are therefore highly sought and can be seen as a type of preventive medicine against several diseases. Myrica and Morella genus (Myricaceae) are taxonomically very close and their species are trees or shrubs with edible fruits that exhibit relevant uses in traditional medicine, for instance in Chinese or Japanese folk medicine they are used to treat diarrhea, digestive problems, headache, burns and skin diseases. Nearly 36 compounds were isolated from different morphological parts of Myrica and/or Morella species and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities evaluated. Thirteen of these compounds exhibit greater effects than the positive controls used. Adenodimerin A was the most active compound reported (in a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay EC50= 7.9 ± 0.3 µM). These results are just one aspect of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory evaluations reported regarding Myrica and Morella species, so a comprehensive overview on the current status, highlighting the antioxidant health promoting effect of these species, their key antioxidant compounds as well as the compounds with protective effects against oxidative stress related diseases such as inflammation, is relevant.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Myricaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química
20.
Ecotoxicology ; 24(1): 194-201, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25336045

RESUMO

Soils contaminated with explosive compounds occur on a global scale. Research demolition explosive (RDX) (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) and trinitrotoluene (TNT) (2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene) are the most common explosive compounds in the environment. These compounds, by variably impacting plant health, can affect species establishment in contaminated areas. Our objective was to quantify comparative effects of RDX and TNT on a woody shrub, Morella cerifera, commonly found on bombing ranges along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. Two life stages of M. cerifera, Seeds and juvenile plants, were exposed to soil amended with concentrations of RDX and TNT representative of field levels; RDX up to 1,500 ppm and TNT up to 900 ppm. Percent germination was recorded for 3 weeks; morphological metrics of necrotic, reduced, and curled leaves, in addition to shoot length and number measured at the end of the experiment (8 weeks) for juvenile plants. All concentrations of RDX inhibited seed germination while TNT did not have an effect at any concentration. As contaminant concentration increased, significant increases in seedling morphological damage occurred in the presence of RDX, whereas TNT did not affect seedling morphology at any concentration. Overall the plants were more sensitive to the presence of RDX. Species specific responses to explosive compounds in the soil have the potential to act as a physiological filter, altering plant recruitment and establishment. This filtering of species may have a number of large scale impacts including: altering species composition and ecological succession.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Myricaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triazinas/toxicidade , Trinitrotolueno/toxicidade , Substâncias Explosivas/toxicidade , Myricaceae/anatomia & histologia , Plântula/anatomia & histologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos
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