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1.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0268053, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048874

RESUMO

Body-size scaling of metabolic rate in animals is typically allometric, with mass exponents that vary to reflect differences in the physiological status of organisms of both endogenous and environmental origin. Regarding the intraspecific analysis of this relationship in bivalve molluscs, one important source of metabolic variation comes from the large inter-individual differences in growth performance characteristic of this group. In the present study, we aimed to address the association of growth rate differences recorded among individual mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) with variable levels of the standard metabolic rate (SMR) resulting in growth-dependent shift in size scaling relationships. SMR was measured in mussels of different sizes and allometric functions fitting SMR vs. body-mass relationships were compared both inter- and intra-individually. The results revealed a metabolic component (the overhead of growth) attributable to the differential costs of maintenance of feeding and digestion structures between fast and slow growers; these costs were estimated to amount to a 3% increase in SMR per unit of increment in the weight specific growth rate. Scaling exponents computed for intraindividual SMR vs body-mass relationships had a common value b = 0.79 (~ ¾); however, when metabolic effects caused by differential growth were discounted, this value declined to 0.67 (= ⅔), characteristic of surface dependent processes. This last value of the scaling exponent was also recorded for the interindividual relationships of both standard and routine metabolic rates (SMR and RMR) after long-lasting maintenance of mussels under optimal uniform conditions in the laboratory. The above results were interpreted based on the metabolic level boundaries (MLB) hypothesis.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal , Mytilus , Animais , Metabolismo Basal/fisiologia , Tamanho Corporal , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Mytilus/fisiologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13632, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948747

RESUMO

Shellfish aquaculture needs the development of new tools for the improvement of good practices avoiding the reliance on natural spat collection to increase production efficiently. The aim of this work was to improve the cryopreservation protocol for Mytilus galloprovincialis larvae described in Paredes et al. (in: Wolkers, Oldenhof (eds) Cryopreservation and freeze-drying protocol, methods in molecular biology, Humana Press, 2021, pp 2180, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0783-1_18 ). Moreover, the capability of producing adult mussels from cryopreserved 72 h-old D-larvae and potential long-term effects of cryopreservation through progenies were evaluated. The selection of 72-h old D-larvae for cryopreservation yielded 75% of recovery, higher than 50% from trochophores. The best combination was 10% Ethylene-Glycol + 0.4 M Trehalose in Filtered Sea Water (FSW) with cooling at - 1 °C/min and a water bath at 35 °C for thawing. Sucrose (SUC) solutions did not improve larval recovery (p > 0.05). At settlement, 5.26% of cryopreserved F1 larvae survived and over 70% settled. F2 cryopreservation produced 0.15% survival of spat and settlement varied from 35 to 50%. The delay of shell size showed on cryopreserved larvae declined throughout larval rearing without significant differences with controls from settlement point (p > 0.05). Long-term experiments showed that it is possible to obtain adult mussels from cryopreserved larvae and this tool does not compromise the quality of following progenies, neither for cryopreservation nor post-thawing development of them.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Animais , Criopreservação/métodos , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Etilenoglicol/farmacologia , Larva , Trealose/farmacologia
3.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(8)2022 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36006178

RESUMO

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are an increasingly important source of pollution. Bivalves, as the main transmission medium, accumulate and metabolize PSTs while protecting themselves from damage. At present, the resistance mechanism of bivalves to PSTs is unclear. In this study, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Argopecten irradians were used as experimental shellfish species for in situ monitoring. We compared the inflammatory-related gene responses of the two shellfish during PSTs exposure by using transcriptomes. The results showed that the accumulation and metabolism rate of PSTs in M. galloprovincialis was five-fold higher than that in A. irradians. The inflammatory balance mechanism of M. galloprovincialis involved the co-regulation of the MAPK-based and AMPK-based anti-inflammatory pathways. A. irradians bore a higher risk of death because it did not have the balance system, and the regulation of apoptosis-related pathways such as the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway were upregulated. Taken together, the regulation of the inflammatory balance coincides with the ability of bivalves to cope with PSTs. Inflammation is an important factor that affects the metabolic pattern of PSTs in bivalves. This study provides new evidence to support the studies on the resistance mechanism of bivalves to PSTs.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Mytilus , Pectinidae , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Toxinas Marinhas/metabolismo , Mytilus/genética , Mytilus/metabolismo , Pectinidae/genética , Pectinidae/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/metabolismo
4.
Aquat Toxicol ; 250: 106263, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939883

RESUMO

Marine-coastal systems have been increasingly exposed to multiple stressors, including anthropogenic pollution and variations of Climate Change (CC) related factors, whose coexistence could create associated environmental and ecotoxicological risks. Among emergent stressors, 4-methylbenzylidenecamphor (4-MBC) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) UV-filters are compounds widely used in increasing consumer products, resulting in their ubiquity in aquatic environments and possible pressing challenges on gamete susceptibility. Since most marine invertebrates reproduce by external fertilization, after spawning, gametes may be exposed to several pressures, affecting reproductive success and outcome. The present study focuses on the spermiotoxicity of the environmentally relevant UV-filters 4-MBC and BP-3 combined with salinity shifts, as potential modulators of their harmful effects. For this, Mytilus galloprovincialis male gametes were exposed in vitro to environmentally relevant and slightly higher concentrations (1, 10 and 100 µg/L) of 4-MBC or BP-3 under three different salinities (S 20, 30 and 40). Sperm quality endpoints associated with oxidative status, viability, motility, kinetics, and genotoxicity were evaluated. Similarities and differences in sperm responses among all conditions were highlighted by principal coordinates analysis (PCO). Results showed that salinity acting alone posed greater sperms impairments at the lowest (20) and highest (40) tested levels. When salinity acts as a co-varying stressor, salinity-dominant interactive effects resulted evident, especially for 4-MBC at S 40 and BP-3 at S 20. These findings were pointed out as the worst exposure conditions for M. galloprovincialis sperms, since caused major toxicological effects in terms of: (I) oxidative stress, sperm structural impairments, motility and kinetic alterations in 4-MBC-exposed sperms; (II) DNA damage, compromised mitochondrial activity and hyperactivation in BP-3-exposed ones. Overall, it stands out that salinity influences UV-filter toxicological pathways and, thereby, the potential environmental risk of these contaminants on M. galloprovincialis male gametes, especially in an expected salinity stress scenario.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Masculino , Salinidade , Sêmen/química , Sêmen/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
5.
Mar Environ Res ; 180: 105725, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987041

RESUMO

Differences in the food acquisition rates and in the energetic costs of metabolism seem to affect the growth rate variability of mussels. The aim of this study was to analyze if the physiological performances responsible for such growth rate variability are accompanied by structural differences at tissue or cellular level in the main organs involved in energy acquisition (gill) and processing (digestive gland). Fast growers had higher cilia density and metabolic efficiency in their gill, and well-developed digestive tissue with barely no connective tissue or atrophy. Slow-growing mussels displayed stress signs that impede the proper acquisition, digestion and absorption of food: low cilia density, low mitochondrial capacity and high antioxidant activity levels in the gills, and high atrophy of the digestive gland. The data herein explains the growth rate variability of mussels, demonstrating that morphological and functional differences exist between fast and slow growers.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Animais , Antioxidantes , Atrofia/metabolismo , Brânquias/metabolismo , Mytilus/fisiologia
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 182: 113944, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35908486

RESUMO

Cobalt (Co) is among the hazardous substances identified in aquatic environments. Industrialization and population growth have also contributed to climate change, namely in what concerns ocean temperature rise. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of temperature rise on the impacts caused by Co on Mytilus galloprovincialis. To this end, mussels were exposed for 28 days to 17 °C and 21 °C, without and with 200 µg L-1 of Co. Results showed no significant differences in Co bioaccumulation by the organisms between temperatures. A significant interaction between temperature and Co contamination was observed in terms of oxidative damage, detoxification capacity, and neurotoxicity, with a synergistic effect particularly evident in terms of biotransformation enzymes' activity. The obtained results point out that population survival and distribution may be limited in the long term, highlighting the need for future research on the combined effects of both stressors.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cobalto/toxicidade , Oceanos e Mares , Estresse Oxidativo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 438: 129471, 2022 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35785737

RESUMO

Biokinetic information on microplastics in bivalves is required to reduce the human exposure, but little is known about the time-course and size effect on tissue absorption and clearance. The biokinetics of fluorophore-labeled polystyrene microbeads with diameters 10 µm (PL10) and 90 µm (PL90) in Mytilus galloprovincialis marine mussels was investigated in the present study. It was found that both PL10 and PL90 showed a biphasic tissue distribution pattern in digestive and non-digestive tissues, highlighting the significant tissue distribution starting from 48 h post-treatment. The differential size effect on tissue distribution was observed only in the gills, which suggests that PL10 accumulates more than PL90. The depuration kinetics show that particles of both sizes can be cleared in any tissue, but non-digestive tissue requires a longer duration for depuration than digestive tissue. The differential size effect on depuration was observed for both digestive and non-digestive tissues, suggesting that PL10 needed a longer duration for depuration than PL90. More than seven days were needed for depuration of microplastics in mussels, which is an exceptionally longer period compared to conventional depuration of bivalves. The most significant improvement of this study is providing the biokinetics of two different-sized microplastics in mussels and the differential time for purging microplastics from mussels.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Humanos , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Poliestirenos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Chemosphere ; 306: 135425, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809744

RESUMO

The massive contamination of the environment by plastics is an increasing global scientific and societal concern. Knowing whether and how these pollutants affect the behaviour of keystone species is essential to identify environmental risks effectively. Here, we focus on the effect of plastic leachates on the behavioural response of the common blue mussel Mytilus edulis, an ecosystem engineer responsible for the creation of biogenic structures that modify the environment and provide numerous ecosystem functions and services. Specifically, we assess the effect of virgin polypropylene beads on mussels' chemotactic (i.e. a directional movement in response to a chemical stimulus) and chemokinetic (i.e. a non-directional change in movement properties such as speed, distance travelled or turning frequency in response to a chemical stimulus) responses to different chemical cues (i.e. conspecifics, injured conspecifics and a predator, the crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus). In the presence of predator cues, individual mussels reduced both their gross distance and speed, changes interpreted here as an avoidance behaviour. When exposed to polypropylene leachates, mussels moved less compared to control conditions, regardless of the cues tested. Additionally, in presence of crab cues with plastic leachates, mussels significantly changed the direction of movement suggesting a leachate-induced loss of their negative chemotaxis response. Taken together, our results indicate that the behavioural response of M. edulis is cue-specific and that its anti-predator behaviour as well as its mobility are impaired when exposed to microplastic leachates, potentially affecting the functioning of the ecosystem that the species supports.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Mytilus edulis , Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Microplásticos , Mytilus edulis/fisiologia , Plásticos/química , Polipropilenos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(7)2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35878199

RESUMO

Prorocentrum lima is a global benthic dinoflagellate that produces diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins, which can be ingested by filter-feeding bivalves, and eventually pose a great threat to human health through food chain. After being exposed to P. lima, different bivalves may accumulate various levels of DSP toxins and display different toxic responses. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we found that the content of okadaic acid-equivalents (OA-eq) varied in the digestive glands of the three bivalves including Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus coruscus and Tegillarca granosa after P. lima exposure. The degree of esterification of OA-eq in the three bivalves were opposite to the accumulation of OA-eq. The digestive gland tissues of the three bivalve species were damaged to different degrees. The transcriptional induction of Nrf2 targeted genes such as ABCB1 and GPx indicates the functionality of Nrf2 pathway against DSP toxins in bivalves. The oyster could protect against DSP toxins mainly through ABC transporters and esterification, while the mussel and clam reduce the damage induced by DSP toxins mainly by regulating the expression of antioxidant genes. Our findings may provide some explanations for the difference in toxic response to DSP toxins in different shellfish.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Mytilus , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Animais , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Humanos , Toxinas Marinhas/metabolismo , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Mytilus/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Ácido Okadáico/metabolismo , Ácido Okadáico/toxicidade , Frutos do Mar
10.
Environ Pollut ; 308: 119701, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779660

RESUMO

Ocean acidification may increase the risk of disease outbreaks that would challenge the future persistence of marine organisms if their immune system and capacity to produce vital structures for survival (e.g., byssus threads produced by bivalves) are compromised by acidified seawater. These potential adverse effects may be exacerbated by microplastic pollution, which is forecast to co-occur with ocean acidification in the future. Thus, we evaluated the impact of ocean acidification and microplastics on the health of a mussel species (Mytilus coruscus) by assessing its physiological performance, immunity and byssus properties. We found that ocean acidification and microplastics not only reduced hemocyte concentration and viability due to elevated oxidative stress, but also undermined phagocytic activity of hemocytes due to lowered energy budget of mussels, which was in turn caused by the reduced feeding performance and energy assimilation. Byssus quality (strength and extensibility) and production were also reduced by ocean acidification and microplastics. To increase the chance of survival with these stressors, the mussels prioritized the synthesis of some byssus proteins (Mfp-4 and Mfp-5) to help maintain adhesion to substrata. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that co-occurrence of ocean acidification and microplastic pollution would increase the susceptibility of bivalves to infectious diseases and dislodgement risk, thereby threatening their survival and undermining their ecological contributions to the community.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Mytilus , Animais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Mytilus/fisiologia , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos/toxicidade , Água do Mar/química
11.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270825, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797370

RESUMO

Oysters and blue mussels are important hydrobiological resources for aquaculture. In Chile, they are farming on the Chiloé island, where around 18% of the world's mussels are produced, however, their nutritional dynamics are largely unknown. For this reason, the objective of this study was to determine the proximal biochemical composition and the fatty acid profile in the Chilean oyster (Ostrea chilensis), the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and the Chilean mussel (Mytilus chilensis), to perform an intra and interspecific comparison. Shellfish sampled in winter were characterized by a high protein content, followed by medium values for lipid content and a low carbohydrate content compared to similar species in Europe. Also, oysters and mussels were found to be rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA), so they can be considered excellent functional food option for a healthy human diet. Their high contribution of n-3 LC-PUFA ranged between 5.2-12.9 µg FA mg-1 dry weight with high n-3/n-6 ratios, which depends on both the species and the on-growing location. Both taxa can be considered a plausible option to promote a healthy diet of marine origin in future generations. Also, these results could benefit the projection and development of aquaculture of these mollusks.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Crassostrea , Mytilus , Ostrea , Animais , Bivalves/química , Chile , Ácidos Graxos , Humanos
12.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 1): 113763, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779621

RESUMO

Plastics production and usage has exponentially increased in the last decades around the world. Due to the insufficient waste management, a significant amount of plastic ends up in the environment, where they tend to fragment into micro- and nano-plastics (NPs), and accumulate in aquatic organisms with still unknown effects. Although studies have indicated that lipid metabolism is a main target of NPs, this mechanism has not been extensively explored. In this study, we evaluated changes in the lipidome of mussel hemocytes after exposure to polystyrene (PS) NPs of 50 and 500 nm, at two different concentrations (106 and 109 particles/mL) for 24 h. The lipidome of hemocytes, analyzed by FIA-ESI (±) Orbitrap, was characterized by a relatively high abundance of cholesteryl esters (CEs) and phosphatidylcholine-plasmalogens (PC-Os/PC-Ps), involved in cell's defense against oxidative stress and membrane reorganization. In hemocytes exposed to PS NPs, a number of highly unsaturated membrane lipids were down-regulated, indicating a reorganization of the cell membranes after exposure to the particles and an oxidation of lipids with a high number of double bonds. This reduction was more evident after exposure to 50 nm NPs -both concentrations- and 500 nm NPs -high concentration-. The analysis of culture medium suggested increased release of vesicles enriched in triglycerides (TGs). The relevance of these responses to NP exposure on the immune function of hemocytes remains to be investigated.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Nanopartículas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Hemócitos , Lipidômica , Microplásticos , Poliestirenos
13.
Mar Environ Res ; 178: 105665, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644077

RESUMO

The invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a heat-tolerant species relative to its competative congener M. trossulus, that dominates warm seawater environments but it is unknown how multiple stressors (MS) may affect its physiology. Our study determined the effects of MS on the metabolic rate (MR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzyme activity, and clearance rate (CR) of M. galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed for 7 d to hyposalinity (20, 28, 34 ppt) then to heat shock (17, 20, 25 °C) after which MR and SOD activity were determined. CR was quantified following a 30 min MS exposure. We found a significant influence of MS on MR, SOD, and CR. We identified synergistic effects on MR under the most extreme treatment. SOD activity was the greatest under 20 °C exposure while CR declined under heat shock. Thus, our study suggests that mussels experiencing MS may become energy limited as MR increases and feeding rates decrease.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Animais , Antioxidantes , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Mytilus/fisiologia , Água do Mar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9547, 2022 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681072

RESUMO

Impacts of climate changes are particularly severe in polar regions where warmer temperatures and reductions in sea-ice covers threaten the ecological integrity of marine coastal ecosystems. Because of their wide distribution and their ecological importance, mussels are currently used as sentinel organisms in monitoring programs of coastal ecosystems around the world. In the present study, we exploited the concept of liquid biopsy combined to a logistically friendly sampling method to study the hemolymphatic bacterial microbiome in two mussel species (Aulacomya atra and Mytilus platensis) in Kerguelen Islands, a remote Subantarctic volcanic archipelago. We found that the circulating microbiome signatures of both species differ significantly even though their share the same mussel beds. We also found that the microbiome differs significantly between sampling sites, often correlating with the particularity of the ecosystem. Predictive models also revealed that both species have distinct functional microbiota, and that the circulating microbiome of Aulacomya atra was more sensitive to changes induced by acute thermal stress when compared to Mytilus platensis. Taken together, our study suggests that defining circulating microbiome is a useful tool to assess the health status of marine ecosystems and to better understand the interactions between the sentinel species and their habitat.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Mytilidae , Mytilus , Animais , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ecossistema , Espécies Sentinelas
15.
Environ Res ; 213: 113739, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750122

RESUMO

Present in an increasing number of products, UV-filters are continuously discharged into aquatic environments. Despite potential risks for inhabiting organisms are recognized, the effects of UV-filter 4-methylbenzylidenecamphor (4-MBC) on marine invertebrates are poorly investigated. By combining in vitro/in vivo exposures through a multi-biomarker approach on sperms and adults, the present study evaluated how 4-MBC affect the mussel species Mytilus galloprovincialis, providing ecologically relevant information on organisms' responses. From the obtained results, considering mortality as endpoint, sperms revealed a greater sensitivity (EC50:347 µg/L) than adults (EC50: not calculable). From an ecotoxicological perspective, this resulted in a derived threshold concentration (LOEC) of 100 µg/L and 72 µg/L, respectively. Effects at the cell/molecular level were provided by general redox-status imbalance and oxidative stress. Sperms showed functional and structural impairments, hyperactivation and DNA damage, while adults showed physiological, metabolic/energetic dysfunctions, DNA damage and activation of oxidative and biotransformation enzymes. High 4-MBC bioaccumulation was also observed in exposed mussels (BCFs:14.0-32.0 L/kg). These findings suggest that 4-MBC may impair fitness and survival of the broadcast spawning mussel M. galloprovincialis, affecting reproduction success and population growth.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Ecotoxicologia , Alimentos Marinhos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
J Exp Biol ; 225(14)2022 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749162

RESUMO

Climate change is forecasted to increase temperature variability and stochasticity. Most of our understanding of thermal physiology of intertidal organisms has come from laboratory experiments that acclimate organisms to submerged conditions and steady-state increases in temperatures. For organisms experiencing the ebb and flow of tides with unpredictable low tide aerial temperatures, the reliability of reported tolerances and thus predicted responses to climate change requires incorporation of environmental complexity into empirical studies. Using the mussel Mytilus californianus, our study examined how stochasticity of the thermal regime influences physiological performance. Mussels were acclimated to either submerged conditions or a tidal cycle that included either predictable, unpredictable or no thermal stress during daytime low tide. Physiological performance was measured through anaerobic metabolism, energy stores and cellular stress mechanisms just before low tide, and cardiac responses during a thermal ramp. Both air exposure and stochasticity of temperature change were important in determining thermal performance. Glycogen content was highest in the mussels from the unpredictable treatment, but there was no difference in the expression of heat shock proteins between thermal treatments, suggesting that mussels prioritise energy reserves to deal with unpredictable low tide conditions. Mussels exposed to fluctuating thermal regimes had lower gill anaerobic metabolism, which could reflect increased metabolic capacity. Our results suggest that although thermal magnitude plays an important role in shaping physiological performance, other key elements of the intertidal environment complexity such as stochasticity, thermal variability and thermal history are also important considerations for determining how species will respond to climate warming.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Aclimatação , Animais , Mudança Climática , Temperatura Alta , Mytilus/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 127: 109-118, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697269

RESUMO

Filter-feeding bivalves, such as the Mytilus species, are exposed to different types of bacteria in the surrounding waters, in particular of the Vibrio genus. Mussels lack an adaptive immune system and hemocytes can recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to activate intracellular signaling pathways to trigger the antimicrobial effectors synthesis. Among the areas of bivalve immunity that deserve study include the role of hemocyte subpopulations. Since little information are available on immune responses at the tissue level to human pathogenic vibrios commonly detected in coastal waters involved in seafood-borne diseases, in this work, immunological parameters of the hemocytes from the Mediterranean mussel M. galloprovincialis were evaluated in response to in vivo challenge with Vibrio splendidus. The histological approach has been first used in order to identify the hemocytes recruitment at the infection site and the morphological change of muscular fibers. In addition, using immunolabeling with specific antibody we detected the production of molecules involved in the inflammatory activated cascade: Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4), the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), the Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) and the ribonucleases RNASET2, belonging to the T2 family, that in vertebrates are involved in the recruitment and activation of macrophages. Our results indicate the activation of TLR4 during bacterial infection preparatory to the recruitment of the MyD88 adapter with a putative role in recognition and intracellular signalling. Furthermore, the data presented in this work suggest that challenging with Gram-negative bacteria causes a massive migration of AIF-1+ hemocytes and that the ribonuclease RNASET2 could play a key role in the recruitment of these activated hemocytes. Our approach is useful for further understanding the complex molecular defence mechanisms of the host in invertebrates, especially in relation to the need to develop methods to evaluate the immunological response of bivalve molluscs used in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Vibrioses , Vibrio , Animais , Hemócitos , Humanos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Ribonucleases/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor , Vibrio/fisiologia , Vibrioses/metabolismo
18.
Environ Pollut ; 308: 119614, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709919

RESUMO

Metal pollution monitoring programs make use of organisms, such as mussels, as biomonitors to evaluate and compare the metal pollution status of coastal areas worldwide. Despite the widespread distribution of mussels of the genus Mytilus, there are places where these organisms are absent or where their abundance is insufficient for biomonitoring purposes, such as in the Canary Islands (Spain). This study considers the use of limpets of the genus Patella as alternative/complementary species in metal pollution monitoring, and compares the bioaccumulation capacity of mussels and limpets collected simultaneously during several sampling campaigns at 11 sampling sites along the continental Spanish Atlantic coastline. Results show that there are some differences in bioaccumulation capacity between limpets and mussels, with limpets showing in average higher concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, As and Cu, and lower concentrations of Zn, while concentrations of Hg and Pb were similar for both types of organisms. Significant correlations between metal concentration in mussels and limpets were found for most metals, with the notable exception of Cd, that showed a very different bioaccumulation pattern in both types of organisms. Limpet to mussel metal concentration ratios were derived that can be used to compare the results of metal biomonitoring using either limpets or mussels, and limpets were successfully used in a monitoring survey in the Canary Islands.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Metais Pesados , Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Cádmio , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Espanha , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Environ Pollut ; 308: 119598, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35718043

RESUMO

Ocean acidification (OA) and microplastics (MPs) contamination are two results of human excises. In regions like estuarine areas, OA and MPs exposure are happening at the same time. The current research investigated the synthesized effects of OA and MPs exposure for a medium-term duration on the physiology and energy budget of the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus. Mussels were treated by six combinations of three MPs levels (0, 10 and 1000 items L-1) × two pH levels (7.3, 8.1) for 21 d. As a result, under pH 7.3, clearance rate (CR), food absorption efficiency (AE), respiration rate (RR), and scope for growth (SFG) significantly decreased, while the fecal organic dry weight ratio (E) significantly increased. 1000 items L-1 MPs led to decrease of CR, E, SFG and increase of AE under pH 8.1. Interactive effects from combination of pH and MPs were found in terms of CR, AE, E and RR, but not for SFG of M. coruscus.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Animais , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microplásticos , Mytilus/fisiologia , Plásticos/farmacologia , Água do Mar
20.
Mar Environ Res ; 179: 105677, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738152

RESUMO

Behavioral parameters are increasingly considered sensitive and early bioindicators of toxicity in aquatic organisms. A video-tracking tool was specifically developed to monitor the swimming behaviour of D-larvae of the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, in controlled laboratory conditions. Both maximum and average swimming speeds and trajectories were recorded. We then investigated the impact of copper and silver with or without a moderate rise of temperature on swimming behavior and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of mussel D-larvae and the possible mechanistic link between both biological responses. Our results showed that copper and/or silver exposure, as well as temperature increase, disrupts the swimming behavior of mussel larvae which could compromise their dispersal and survival. In addition, the combined effect of temperature and metals significantly (p < 0.05) increased AChE activity in mussel larvae. Pearson's correlation analysis was performed and results showed that the AChE activity is positively correlated with maximum speeds (r = 0.71, p < 0.01). This study demonstrates the value of behavioral analyzes of aquatic invertebrates as a sensitive and integrate marker of the effects of stressors.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Larva , Mytilus/fisiologia , Prata , Natação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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