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2.
J Endod ; 46(3): 391-396, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029265

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Information is scarce regarding current usage practices of nickel-titanium (NiTi) engine-driven instruments in clinical practice. Therefore, the specific purpose of this survey was to assess trends among endodontists regarding the use and reuse of NiTi instruments. METHODS: A 16-question survey was sent by e-mail to about 4000 active members of the American Association of Endodontists. Data were collected over a 6-month period and compared using chi-square tests. RESULTS: A total of 957 surveys were collected (response rate = 23%). Of the respondents, 40.2% worked in solo practices; among them, there were significantly fewer recent graduates (<10 years) compared with those who graduated more than 10 years ago. Furthermore, 41.7% were in a group practice, 4.3% in corporate practice, 10.7% in university settings, and 3% in the military. Overall, 98.3% of respondents reported using NiTi instruments. Respondents who graduated less than 25 years ago use NiTi instruments significantly more (99%) than those who graduated more than 25 years ago (92.6%). Although 22.9% of respondents buy presterilized instruments, 41.6% sterilize them before use, and 35.5% do not sterilize new instruments before use; dental officers in the military reported that they use sterile new instruments in 100% of cases. NiTi instruments were reused by 74% of respondents. The 2 largest segments of the specialist endodontic instrument market belonged to Dentsply (York, PA; 56.9%) and EdgeEndo (Albuquerque, NM; 28.8%). CONCLUSIONS: There are significant differences in the use of NiTi instruments among types of practice and years since graduation. There were noticeable changes compared with findings reported about 10 years ago.


Assuntos
Ligas Dentárias , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Endodontistas , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Níquel , Padrões de Prática Odontológica , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Inquéritos e Questionários , Titânio , Estados Unidos
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(5): 2985-2993, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072813

RESUMO

Lithium-ion battery demand, particularly for electric vehicles, is projected to increase by over 300% throughout the next decade. With these expected increases in demand, cobalt (Co)-dependent technologies face the risk of significant impact from supply concentration and mining limitations in the short term. Increased extraction and secondary recovery form the basis of modeling scenarios that examine implications on Co supply to 2030. Demand for Co is estimated to range from 235 to 430 ktonnes in 2030. This upper bound on Co demand in 2030 corresponds to 280% of world refinery capacity in 2016. Supply from scheduled and unscheduled production as well as secondary production is estimated to range from 320 to 460 ktonnes. Our analysis suggests the following: (1) Co price will remain relatively stable in the short term, given that this range suggests even a supply surplus, (2) future Co supply will become more diversified geographically and mined more as a byproduct of nickel (Ni) over this period, and (3) for this demand to be met, attention should be paid to sustained investments in refined supply of Co and secondary recovery.


Assuntos
Cobalto , Lítio , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Mineração , Níquel
4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(20): 3065-3068, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049076

RESUMO

Herein, a novel stacked hexagonal prism, Ag@Ni-MOF-1, was designed and developed as an integrated SERS platform not only for successfully catalyzing the in situ synthesis of DA-quinone under physiological pH, but also for establishing an approach for specific determination of Cys, an important species in the brain related to Alzheimer's disease (AD).


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas/síntese química , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Dopamina/síntese química , Níquel/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Prata/química , Benzoquinonas/química , Catálise , Cisteína/análise , Dopamina/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Análise Espectral Raman
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 303: 122853, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044646

RESUMO

In this study, competitive adsorption behaviour and mechanisms of Cd2+, Ni2+ and NH4+ by fresh and artificially ageing biochars produced from rice straw at 400 and 700 °C (RB400, RB700, HRB400 and HRB700) were investigated. Cd2+ competed with Ni2+ and NH4+ for the overlapped adsorption sites on the biochars. For Cd2+ and Ni2+ adsorption, cation exchange (Qci) and mineral co-precipitation (Qcp) were the primary mechanisms for the low-temperature and high-temperature biochars, respectively. However, the other potential mechanisms (Qco) made the greatest contributions to NH4+ adsorption (>60%). Cd2+ and Ni2+ competition increased the proportions of mineral co-precipitation (Qcp) and other potential mechanisms (Qco) but decreased that of cation exchange (Qci) mechanism. Biochar ageing increased the contribution of surface complexation (Qcf) mechanism, especially for the low-temperature biochars. This study indicated that biochar aging and types and states of adsorbates should be considered when biochars were applied to remove contaminants.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Oryza , Adsorção , Cádmio , Carvão Vegetal , Níquel
6.
J Endod ; 46(3): 431-436, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911005

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare the influences from different access angles and curvature radii on cyclic fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium rotary files. METHODS: Two file systems (2Shape [TS; MicroMega, Besançon, France] and HyFlex CM [HCM; Coltène/Whaledent, Allstätten, Switzerland]) were used. A total of 192 instruments of TS #25/.04 (TS1), TS #25/.06 (TS2), HCM #25/.04, and HCM #25/.06 were evaluated at 3 insertion angles (0°, 10°, and 20°) and 2 radii (5 mm and 3 mm) in 16-mm stainless steel artificial canals with a 60° curvature. Cyclic fatigue resistance was determined by the number of cycles to failure (NCF) using a customized testing device. Data were analyzed statistically with the significance level established at 95%. RESULTS: In the 3-mm radius canal, the instruments showed lower cyclic fatigue resistance than in the 5-mm radius canal (P < .05). HCM #25/.06 and all .04 taper instruments had a significant NCF reduction at 20° and 10° in the 3-mm radius canal (P < .05), whereas TS2 showed no significant differences. In the 5-mm radius of curvature, although .06 taper instruments had no significant NCF reduction for each angle tested, .04 taper files exhibited significant NCF reduction when tested at 20° (P < .05). Comparing the same size instruments, HCM had higher NCF than TS (P < .05). Instruments with a .04 taper exhibited higher NCF than the .06 ones with the same heat treatment (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: An inclined insertion into the canals decreased cyclic fatigue resistance of thermal-treated instruments with a .04 taper at all radii of curvature tested. The synergistic effect of a small radius of curvature and access angulation of heat-treated instruments decreases their fatigue resistance.


Assuntos
Ligas Dentárias , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Falha de Equipamento , Níquel , Titânio , Cavidade Pulpar , Desenho de Equipamento , Teste de Materiais , Rádio (Anatomia) , Preparo de Canal Radicular
7.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110113, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999610

RESUMO

Soaring demand for technology metals (e.g., Cd, Ni) and its ever-depleting primary resources ask for alternative recovery from secondary sources. Ni-Cd battery is one such source that can abridge the gap between demand and supply of such metals. Biogenic recovery, being environmentally benign, is explored for Cd and Ni recovery to manage the menace of spent Ni-Cd battery. Studies with 20, 40 and 60 mg/L Cd2+ initial concentrations in batch mode (in triplicates) at pH 7.0 ± 0.2, 30 ± 0.5 °C and 120 rpm were conducted using sulfate-reducing bacteria for 10 days. Analysis of extracellular polymeric substance revealed that protein secretion was enhanced, thereby forming Cd-EPS binding. Biosolids were collected and freeze-dried for morphological analysis viz. FESEM/EDX, PXRD and TEM, which revealed the formation of CdS nanoparticles (JCPDS card #00-042-1411) in range of 2-6 nm. Similarly, combined effect with 5, 10 and 20 mg/L Ni2+ at 20 mg/L Cd2+ were also investigated. Furthermore, to test the efficacy for real field application, spent Ni-Cd battery was dismantled and its powder was characterized, digested with concentrated HCl at 70 °C and was fed in batch mode after cooling, wherein nanoparticles of Ni and Cd sulfides were formed that has potential as semi-conducting material.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Nanopartículas , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Metais , Níquel , Sulfetos
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 300: 122642, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911315

RESUMO

This study reports the use of multi-layered reduced graphene oxide (rGO) coating on porous nickel foam (NF) electrodes for enhancing biofilm growth of Rhodobacter Sphaeroides spp fed with methanol in microbial fuel cells (CH3OH-MFCs). Electrochemical methods were used to assess the methylotrophic activity on rGO/NF electrodes. The power density and current density offered by rGO/NF (1200 mW m-2 and 680 mA m-2) were 220-fold and 540-fold higher compared to bare NF (5.50 mW m-2 and 1.26 mA m-2), respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results show that rGO/NF suppresses charge transfer resistance to CH3OH oxidation by 40-fold compared to the control. This improved performance is due to the ability of rGO coatings to decrease the wetting contact angle (improve the hydrophilicity) of NF from 1280 to 00. A preliminary cost analysis was carried out to assess the viability of rGO/NF electrodes via vitamin-C-enabled graphene oxide chemistry for CH3OH-MFCs applications.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Grafite , Ácido Ascórbico , Biofilmes , Eletrodos , Níquel , Fenótipo , Vitaminas
9.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125259, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896176

RESUMO

Activated carbon (AC), prepared from dried loofah sponge, was supported on nickel foam to fabricate AC/Ni electrodes. The characteristics of ammonium electrosorption on AC/Ni electrodes was studied. Results showed that AC prepared in one-step activation (without pre-pyrolysis), i.e., OAC, had relatively low crystallinity, high mesoporosity, and high specific capacitance compared to those made in two-step carbonation followed by activation. Adsorption and desorption density of NH4+ were measured at constant potential of -1.0 V (vs. Hg/HgO) and +0.1 V (vs. Hg/HgO), respectively. Non-faradaic charging contributed to the electrochemical storage and adsorption of ammonium ions on the AC surface with a maximal charge efficiency of 80%, at an applied potential of -1.0 V (vs. Hg/HgO). Multiple-layer adsorption isotherm better described the electrosorption of ammonium ion on OAC/Ni electrodes yielding a maximum adsorption capacity of 6 mg-N g-1, which was comparable with other similar systems. Overall, results clearly demonstrated the effect of synthesis strategy on the capacitive charging behaviors of AC/Ni electrodes and its relationship to NH4+ electrosorption.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Luffa/química , Níquel/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Capacitância Elétrica , Eletrodos , Íons , Modelos Teóricos , Propriedades de Superfície
11.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125439, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995887

RESUMO

This paper introduces a novel method for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-enhanced electrokinetic (EK) remediation by combining dual cation-exchange membranes and circulation methods for an aged electroplating soil contaminated by chrome (Cr), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni). Three laboratory-scale EK experiments were carried out, including T1, the traditional EK process; T2, the traditional EDTA-enhanced EK process; and T3, the assisted EDTA-enhanced EK process. The results obtained show that removal of Cu and Ni in T3 was 3-10 times higher than after T1 and T2. However, the removal of Cr (total) was small in all experiments because of the high content of Cr(III). T3 eliminated the metal accumulation problem that existed for T1 and T2. Simultaneously, the highly acidified area (pH < 4) was reduced from 80% in T1 and T2 to only 20% in T3. The results obtained in T3 indicate that the chelating effect of EDTA has a greater ability to dissolve oxidizable Cu and Ni in the soil than the acidification effect. Toxicity evaluation confirmed that the soil treated by T3 presented a lower effect on a luminescent bacterium (Photobacterium phosphoreum T3) because soil pH tended to be more neutral after this treatment. This research provides a novel method for removing heavy metals from soil in a more environmentally friendly way and clarifies the cause of the existing problems of low removal efficiency and high accumulation in the traditional EK process.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Resinas de Troca de Cátion , Compostos de Cromo/isolamento & purificação , Cobre/química , Cobre/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Edético/química , Galvanoplastia , Metais Pesados/isolamento & purificação , Níquel/isolamento & purificação , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/isolamento & purificação
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 713: 136593, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955094

RESUMO

In order to solve problems associated with a short residence time and low conversion efficiency when CO2 gas is aerated directly into raceway ponds, a novel porous nickel-foam filled CO2 absorptive photobioreactor system was developed to promote CO2 conversion to NaHCO3 in a short time to improve photosynthesis of microalgal cells. Numerical simulation showed that the porous nickel-foam promoted the Na2CO3 solution radial velocity and CO2 volume fraction in the CO2 absorption reactor, which enhanced the reaction rate of CO2 gas and soluble Na2CO3. The conversion efficiency of CO2 gas to soluble NaHCO3 gradually increased with an increasing nickel-foam pore diameter and a decreasing CO2 gas outflow rate, while it first increased and then decreased with an increasing relative nickel-foam height in the CO2 absorption reactor. The conversion efficiency from soluble NaHCO3 to microalgal biomass first increased and then decreased with an increasing nickel-foam pore diameter (peaking at 2 mm) and relative height (peaking at 0.24); and CO2 gas outflow rate (peaking at 2 L/min). The chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed that a sufficient HCO3- supply promoted the quantum ratio used for electron transfer (from 0.19 to 0.23) and the maximum photochemical efficiency (from 0.48 to 0.52), resulting in an increased biomass growth rate (by 1.1 times) when the nickel-foam pore diameter increased from 0.1 to 2 mm.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Fotobiorreatores , Biomassa , Dióxido de Carbono , Níquel , Porosidade
13.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(1): 70-76, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902902

RESUMO

In this study, nickel-aluminium complex hydroxides at different molar ratios (nickel-aluminium = 1 : 2, 1 : 1, 2 : 1, 3 : 1, and 4 : 1, referred to as NA12, NA11, NA21, NA31, and NA41) were prepared, and their adsorption capability for chromium(VI) ion was investigated. Firstly, physicochemical characteristics (SEM images, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, specific surface area, amount of hydroxyl groups, and surface pH) of nickel-aluminum complex hydroxide were evaluated. The amount of chromium(VI) ion adsorbed onto NA11 (15.3 mg/g) was greater than that adsorbed onto the other adsorbents. This research elucidated that the amount of chromium(VI) ion adsorbed using nickel-aluminium complex hydroxide was related to the adsorbent surface properties (r = 0.818-0.875). Subsequently, the adsorbent (NA11) surface before and after adsorption of chromium(VI) ion was evaluated, and chromium energy (577 and 586 eV) detected after adsorption onto the NA11 surface. These results revealed that the NA11 surface properties were very important for the removal of chromium(VI) ion from aqueous solution. In addition, the effects of pH, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption of chromium(VI) ion were evaluated. We confirmed a high recovery percentage of chromium(VI) ion when using sodium hydroxide solution at 10-1000 mmol/L (approximately greater than 80%) in this experimental condition. Thus, NA11 is a promising adsorbent for the removal of chromium(VI) ion from aqueous solution.


Assuntos
Alumínio/química , Cromo/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Hidróxidos/química , Níquel/química , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Termodinâmica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
14.
Inorg Chem ; 59(2): 968-971, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891256

RESUMO

A dithiolate/hydride bridged Fe-Ni complex, [(CN)(CO)2FeII(µ-pdt)(µ-H)NiII(CN)(PCy3)]- (2, pdt = propane-1,3-dithiolate) has been synthesized by the reaction of [(CN)2(CO)2FeII(pdt)]2- with [NiII(Cl)(H)(PCy3)2] as a synthetic analogue of the Ni-R state of the active site of the [Ni-Fe] hydrogenase. X-ray crystallography of this model complex suggests that the hydride unsymmetrically binds to Ni and Fe similar to natural [Ni-Fe] hydrogenases.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cianetos/química , Hidrogenase/química , Tolueno/análogos & derivados , Monóxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Complexos de Coordenação/metabolismo , Cianetos/metabolismo , Hidrogenase/metabolismo , Ferro/química , Ferro/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Níquel/química , Níquel/metabolismo , Tolueno/química , Tolueno/metabolismo
15.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(4): 1011-1024, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897563

RESUMO

Cabbage flower-like Ho3+/NiO nanostructure (CFL-Ho3+/NiO NSs) with significant electrocatalytic oxidation has been published for the first time. First, structure and morphology of CFL-Ho3+/NiO-NSs have been described by XRD, SEM, and EDX methods. Then, CFL-Ho3+/NiO-NSs have been applied as a modifier for simultaneous electrochemical detection of methotrexate (MTX) and carbamazepine (CBZ). Functions of the modified electrode have been dealt with through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It has been demonstrated that the electrode response has been linear from 0.001-310.0 µM with a limit of detection of 5.2 nM and 4.5 nM (3 s/m) through DPV for MTX and CBZ. Diffusion coefficient (D) and heterogeneous rate constant (kh) have been detected for MTX and CBZ oxidation at the surface of the modified electrode. Moreover, CFL-Ho3+/NiO-NS/GCE has been employed for determining MTX and CBZ in urine and drug specimens. Outputs showed the analyte acceptable recovery. Therefore, the electrode could be applied to analyze both analytes in drug prescription and clinical laboratories. Graphical abstract Electrochemical sensor based on bifunctional cabbage flower-like Ho3+/NiO nanostructures modified glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous detecting methotrexate and carbamazepine was fabricated.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/farmacocinética , Carbamazepina/farmacocinética , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Imunossupressores/farmacocinética , Metotrexato/farmacocinética , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/análise , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/sangue , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/urina , Carbamazepina/análise , Carbamazepina/sangue , Carbamazepina/urina , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Hólmio/química , Humanos , Imunossupressores/análise , Imunossupressores/sangue , Imunossupressores/urina , Limite de Detecção , Metotrexato/análise , Metotrexato/sangue , Metotrexato/urina , Nanoestruturas/química , Níquel/química , Oxirredução , Comprimidos
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 300: 122712, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911316

RESUMO

This study proposes a sustainable waste-to-energy/biochar platform using a toxic microalgal biomass waste. In particular, CO2-feeding pyrolysis of Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) waste was investigated, focusing on the analysis of gaseous pyrolysates and properties of biochar with a construction of mass balance. Also, the catalytic capability of biochar produced from M. aeruginosa was explored to reinforce the mechanistic impact of CO2 on the pyrolysis process within the overall process level. Ni impregnated biochar composite was further synthesized and used as a catalyst to promote syngas formation in the CO2-feeding pyrolysis process of M. aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Microcystis , Biomassa , Carvão Vegetal , Níquel , Pirólise
17.
Waste Manag ; 104: 42-50, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962216

RESUMO

Recovery of chemicals and fuels from unrecyclable waste plastics at high temperatures (>800 °C) has received much research attention. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculation suggests that it is possible to perform the low-temperature steam reforming of polystyrene. In this study, we synthesized a Ni-Fe bimetallic catalyst for the low-temperature (500 °C) steam reforming of polystyrene. XRD characterization showed that Ni-Fe alloy was formed in the catalyst. Compared to conventional Ni catalysts, the Ni-Fe bimetallic catalysts can significantly increase the H2/CO ratio in the produced gas with high gas production yield. The online gas analysis revealed that H2, CO, and CO2 were formed in the same temperature range. H2 and CO were formed simultaneously through steam reforming reactions, and CO2 was formed through water-gas shift reaction. New morphologies of carbon deposition on the catalyst surface were found, suggesting that wax could be condensed on the catalyst surface at a low temperature.


Assuntos
Poliestirenos , Vapor , Catálise , Níquel , Temperatura Ambiente
18.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113462, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706772

RESUMO

Natural birnessite-like minerals are commonly enriched in various transitional metals (TMs), which greatly modify the mineral structure and properties. However few studies are yet conducted systematically on the effects of TM doping on birnessite reactivity towards Cr(III) oxidation. In the present study, the transformation behaviors of Cr(III) on Co-, Ni-, V-containing birnessites were investigated. Co and Ni doping generally decrease the mineral crystalline sizes and hydrodynamic sizes (DH) while V-doping greatly decreases the crystalline sizes but not the DH, owing to particle aggregation. Co and Ni firstly decrease and then increase the mineral zeta potentials (ζ) at pH4 while V decreases ζ. Electrochemical specific capacitances for Co-containing birnessites are gradually reduced, while those for Ni-doped birnessites are slightly reduced and for V-doped birnessites increased, which have a positively linear relationship with the amounts of Cr(III) oxidized by these samples. Cr(III) removal efficiencies from solution by these Co-, Ni- and V-containing birnessites are 26-51%, ∼62-72% and ∼96-100%, respectively, compared to ∼92% by pure birnessite. Cr(III) oxidation kinetics analysis demonstrates the gradual decrease of Mn(IV) and concurrent increase of Mn(III) and the adsorption of mainly Cr(III) on mineral surfaces. A negatively linear relationship exists between birnessite lateral sizes and the proportions of Mn(IV/III) consumed to oxidize Cr(III). Apparent initial Cr(III) oxidation rate (kobs) for Co-containing birnessites are greatly reduced, while those for Ni-doped samples moderately decreased and for V-doped samples first increased and then decreased. A positively or negatively linear relationship exists between kobs or the amount of Mn(II) released and the mineral Mn(IV) content respectively. Cr(III) oxidation probably initiates from layer edge sites of Ni-doped birnessites but the vacancies of Co- and V-containing birnessites. These results provide insights into the reaction mechanisms of Cr(III) with natural birnessite-like minerals.


Assuntos
Óxidos/química , Adsorção , Cromo/química , Cobalto/química , Troca Iônica , Cinética , Minerais , Níquel/química , Oxirredução , Vanádio/química
19.
Waste Manag ; 102: 122-130, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671359

RESUMO

Some inevitable issues of the acid leaching method used to recycle spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), such as toxic gas emission, excessive acid-base consumption, inferior metal selectivity and equipment corrosion, have gradually emerged and restricted the promotion and development of this method. It is therefore essential to develop a sustainable closed-loop recycling technology (reduction-ammoniacal method) for spent LIBs. In this study, the effects of various species of ammonia, ammonium salts and reductants on the leaching of Li, Co, Ni, Mn and Al from spent LIBs were investigated with a hydrothermal method. An increase of the electrode potential of the reductant greatly accelerated the selective leaching of Li, Co and Ni, which agreed with the thermodynamic analysis results. The standard electrode potentials of the LiNixCoyMn1-x-yO2 (NCM) materials were also determined by using approximate calculations. When using (NH4)2SO3 as a reductant in a one-step leaching process, 100% Co, 98.3% Ni and 90.3% Li were extracted into the ammonia-ammonium chloride solutions. From the kinetics analysis, the surface chemical reaction shrinking core model was found to control the leaching behavior of Li, Co, and Ni in the reduction-ammoniacal leaching process. A shell-core structure was composed of a product layer, a diffusion layer of the solid core and an unreacted core. Species in the product layer reduced the leaching efficiencies of Li, Co, and Ni. The results obtained for this hydrothermal reduction-ammoniacal method applied to recycle spent LIBs provide insights for the design of a high-speed, exceptionally selective, closed-loop recycling technique.


Assuntos
Lítio , Níquel , Cobalto , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Reciclagem , Substâncias Redutoras , Sais
20.
Int Endod J ; 53(3): 403-409, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605377

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the weight of apically extruded debris produced during the removal of root canal filling material using various files in extracted teeth with simulated apical root resorption. METHODOLOGY: The root canals of one hundred and twenty extracted mandibular premolar teeth were prepared with Revo-S files and filled using a cold lateral compaction technique with gutta-percha and a resin-based sealer (AdSeal; Meta-Biomed, Cheongwon, Korea). Sixty teeth were randomly assigned to four control groups (hand file, ProTaper Universal retreatment file, D-RaCe retreatment file, and Reciproc file) for the removal of root canal filling material. The apical portion of the remaining 60 teeth was modified to simulate apical root resoption, and the teeth were then randomly divided into 4 experimental groups (using the same techniques as in the control groups) for the removal of root canal filling material. Apically extruded debris was collected into pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes and then dried. The mean weight of the apically extruded debris was assessed with an analytical balance to an accuracy of 10-4  g. Data were analysed using two-way analysis of variance and a Tukey's post hoc test. RESULTS: In the simulated apical root resorption groups, all file systems were associated with significantly more debris extrusion compared to the groups without simulated resorption (P < 0.05). The amount of apically extruded debris was greatest in the hand file groups compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). In the groups with simulated apical root resorption, the Reciproc system was associated with the least weight of apically extruded debris (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference between the ProTaper Universal retreatment and D-RaCe files (P > 0.05). In the groups without simulated apical root resorption, there was no significant difference between Reciproc, ProTaper Universal retreatment and D-RaCe retreatment files (P> 0.05). The time required to remove the root canal filling material was as follows: hand file > ProTaper Universal retreatment = D-RaCe retreatment > Reciproc (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The weight of apically extruded debris was significantly greater in teeth with simulated apical root resorption than in those teeth without simulated apical root resorption. Hand files were associated with significantly more apically extruded debris in all groups during removal of root canal filling material.


Assuntos
Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Reabsorção da Raiz , Cavidade Pulpar , Guta-Percha , Humanos , Níquel , República da Coreia , Retratamento , Obturação do Canal Radicular , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Titânio
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