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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803557

RESUMO

Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats serve as a unique model of heightened alcohol preference and anxiety disorders. Their innate enhanced stress and poor stress-coping strategies are driven by a genetic polymorphism of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) in brain areas involved in glucocorticoid signaling. The activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) regulates the stress response, making GRs a candidate target to treat stress and anxiety. Here, we examined whether mifepristone, a GR antagonist known to reduce alcohol drinking in dependent rats, decreases innate symptoms of anxiety in msPs. Male and female msPs were compared to non-selected Wistar counterparts across three separate behavioral tests. We assessed anxiety-like behavior via the novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH) assay. Since sleep disturbances and hyperarousal are common features of stress-related disorders, we measured sleeping patterns using the comprehensive lab monitoring system (CLAMS) and stress sensitivity using acoustic startle measures. Rats received an acute administration of vehicle or mifepristone (60 mg/kg) 90 min prior to testing on NIH, acoustic startle response, and CLAMS. Our results revealed that both male and female msPs display greater anxiety-like behaviors as well as enhanced acoustic startle responses compared to Wistar counterparts. Male msPs also displayed reduced sleeping bout duration versus Wistars, and female msPs displayed greater acoustic startle responses versus male msPs. Importantly, the enhanced anxiety-like behavior and startle responses were not reduced by mifepristone. Together, these findings suggest that increased expression of stress-related behaviors in msPs are not solely mediated by acute activation of GRs.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/patologia , Comportamento Animal , Mifepristona/farmacologia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Nível de Alerta/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804366

RESUMO

Emotion recognition based on electroencephalograms has become an active research area. Yet, identifying emotions using only brainwaves is still very challenging, especially the subject-independent task. Numerous studies have tried to propose methods to recognize emotions, including machine learning techniques like convolutional neural network (CNN). Since CNN has shown its potential in generalization to unseen subjects, manipulating CNN hyperparameters like the window size and electrode order might be beneficial. To our knowledge, this is the first work that extensively observed the parameter selection effect on the CNN. The temporal information in distinct window sizes was found to significantly affect the recognition performance, and CNN was found to be more responsive to changing window sizes than the support vector machine. Classifying the arousal achieved the best performance with a window size of ten seconds, obtaining 56.85% accuracy and a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.1369. Valence recognition had the best performance with a window length of eight seconds at 73.34% accuracy and an MCC value of 0.4669. Spatial information from varying the electrode orders had a small effect on the classification. Overall, valence results had a much more superior performance than arousal results, which were, perhaps, influenced by features related to brain activity asymmetry between the left and right hemispheres.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Nível de Alerta , Emoções , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina
3.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(3): 263-7, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effect of acupuncture at Tiaoshen (regulating the spirit) acupoints on chronic insomnia and hyperarousal state, and explore its possible mechanism. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with chronic insomnia were randomly divided into an acupuncture group (30 cases, 1 case dropped off) and a sham acupuncture group (30 cases, 1 cases dropped off). Both groups were given basic sleep health education. The acupuncture group was treated with acupuncture at Tiaoshen acupoints including Baihui (GV 20), Shenting (GV 24), Yintang (GV 29), Shenmen (HT 7) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6). The sham acupuncture group was treated with non-effective point shallow acupuncture. Both groups were treated once every other day, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) score, pre-sleep arousal scale (PSAS) score, hyperarousal scale (HAS) score, and serum gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) level before and after treatment were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Compared before treatment, the sleep quality, time to fall asleep, sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, daytime dysfunction scores and total score of PSQI, various scores and total score of PSAS, and HAS score in the acupuncture group after treatment were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01); in the sham acupuncture group, the time to fall asleep, daytime dysfunction scores and total score of PSQI, and cognitive arousal score of PSAS after treatment were decreased (P<0.05). After treatment, the sleep quality, time to fall asleep, sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, daytime dysfunction scores and total score of PSQI, various scores and total score of PSAS, and HAS score in the acupuncture group were lower than those in the sham acupuncture group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared before treatment, the serum GABA level in the acupuncture group were increased (P<0.05), and the serum GABA level in the acupuncture group was higher than that in the sham acupuncture group after treatment (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture at Tiaoshen acupoints can obviously improve the sleep and hyperarousal state of patients with chronic insomnia, and up-regulating serum GABA content is one of its possible mechanisms.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Pontos de Acupuntura , Nível de Alerta , Humanos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800116

RESUMO

Emotion recognition, as a challenging and active research area, has received considerable awareness in recent years. In this study, an attempt was made to extract complex network features from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals for emotion recognition. We proposed a novel method of constructing forward weighted horizontal visibility graphs (FWHVG) and backward weighted horizontal visibility graphs (BWHVG) based on angle measurement. The two types of complex networks were used to extract network features. Then, the two feature matrices were fused into a single feature matrix to classify EEG signals. The average emotion recognition accuracies based on complex network features of proposed method in the valence and arousal dimension were 97.53% and 97.75%. The proposed method achieved classification accuracies of 98.12% and 98.06% for valence and arousal when combined with time-domain features.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Emoções , Nível de Alerta , Visualização de Dados , Humanos
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(9)2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919251

RESUMO

In human emotion estimation using an electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), there are two main issues as far as we know. The first is that measurement devices for physiological signals are expensive and not easy to wear. The second is that unnecessary physiological indexes have not been removed, which is likely to decrease the accuracy of machine learning models. In this study, we used single-channel EEG sensor and photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor, which are inexpensive and easy to wear. We collected data from 25 participants (18 males and 7 females) and used a deep learning algorithm to construct an emotion classification model based on Arousal-Valence space using several feature combinations obtained from physiological indexes selected based on our criteria including our proposed feature selection methods. We then performed accuracy verification, applying a stratified 10-fold cross-validation method to the constructed models. The results showed that model accuracies are as high as 90% to 99% by applying the features selection methods we proposed, which suggests that a small number of physiological indexes, even from inexpensive sensors, can be used to construct an accurate emotion classification model if an appropriate feature selection method is applied. Our research results contribute to the improvement of an emotion classification model with a higher accuracy, less cost, and that is less time consuming, which has the potential to be further applied to various areas of applications.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Eletroencefalografia , Nível de Alerta , Emoções , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808329

RESUMO

Psychological-psychiatric factors have a different effect on sexual functioning in men and women. This research aimed to examine the association between psychopathological dimensions and dimensions of sexual functioning in Spanish young adults in two studies. Study 1 examined sexual functioning and psychopathological dimensions in 700 women and 516 men. Study 2 conducted an experimental laboratory task to evaluate subjective sexual arousal and genital sensations when watching visual sexual stimuli in a subsample of participants from Study 1 (143 women and 123 men). As a result, the first study showed that depression and anxiety-related symptoms had a negative effect, both in men and women, and having a partner had a positive influence on the dimensions of sexual functioning. The second study showed that anxiety symptoms were positively associated with subjective sexual arousal in both men and women, and anxiety was associated with the assessment of genital sensations in men. The differences between the results of anxiety may be explained because sexual arousal was evaluated in general terms in Study 1, whereas it was evaluated as a state in Study 2. These findings confirm that the presence of psychopathological symptoms contributes to sexual functioning, as well as the necessity of strengthening mental illness prevention programs that include sexual health components.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Ansiedade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicopatologia , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562699

RESUMO

Exercise programs are considered an effective (add-on) treatment option for depressive disorders. However, little is known about the acute effects of exercise on affective responses in in-patient settings. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a single 30-min bout of walking on affective responses to a passive control condition in patients with major depressive disorder during treatment in a mental health center. In total, 23 in-patients were exposed to two conditions (duration: 30 min) using a within-subject design: an exercise (light-moderate walking outdoors) and a passive control condition (sitting and reading). Affective responses were assessed based on the Circumplex Model in four phases: pre, during, post, and two hours following the conditions. The main results include a significantly larger pre-post increase in energetic arousal in the exercise condition compared to the control condition, p = 0.012, ηp² = 0.25, but no significantly different pre-follow-up change between conditions, p = 0.093, ηp² = 0.12. Negatively valenced affective responses showed significantly stronger pre-post decreases after the exercise condition compared to the passive control condition, p < 0.036, ηp² > 0.18. Positively valenced affective response activity showed a pre-post increase in the exercise condition and a pre-post decrease in the passive control condition, p = 0.017, ηp² = 0.23. The higher-activated, positively valenced immediate response of light- to moderate-intensity walking may serve as an acute emotion regulation in patients with major depressive disorder and provide a favorable state for adherence to exercise programs.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Nível de Alerta , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Caminhada
8.
Cryobiology ; 99: 46-54, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524338

RESUMO

Antioxidant defense is essential for animals to cope with homeostasis disruption during hibernation. The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant defense response of juvenile soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis during hibernation and following arousal. Turtle brain, liver, and kidney samples were collected at pre-hibernation (17 °C mud temperature; MT), during hibernation (5.8 °C MT) and after arousal (20.1 °C MT) in the field. Transcript levels of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) decreased significantly during hibernation and recovered after arousal in all tissues. Cerebral and nephric copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) and nephric GPx4 mRNA showed similar changing patterns as Nrf2. Cerebral Mn SOD, GPx1 and nephric GPx1 up-regulated after arousal. Hepatic Cu/Zn SOD, GPx1 and GPx3 mRNA kept stable, except hepatic GPx4 increased during hibernation. Hepatic Mn SOD and CAT increased after arousal. In the GSH system, mRNA levels of glutathione synthetases (GSs) kept stable during hibernation and up-regulated after arousal in most tissues except nephric GS2 mRNA remained unchanged. Gene expressions of glutathione reductase (GR) exhibited a tissue specific changing pattern, while those of glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) shared a similar pattern among tissues: remained stable or down-regulated during hibernation then recovered in arousal. In contrast to these diverse responses in gene expressions, most of the antioxidant enzyme activities maintained high and stable. Overall, no preparation for oxidative stress (POS) strategy was found in enzymatic antioxidant system in P. sinensis juveniles during hibernation, the Chinese soft-shelled turtles were able to stay safe from potential oxidative stress during hibernation by maintaining high level activities/concentrations of the antioxidant enzymes/antioxidants.


Assuntos
Hibernação , Tartarugas , Animais , Antioxidantes , Nível de Alerta , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , China , Criopreservação/métodos , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Tartarugas/genética
9.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 945-952, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often comorbid with anxiety disorders or symptoms. Brain hyperactivity, frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA), and parietal alpha asymmetry (PAA) have been considered as trait markers in patients with MDD. This study investigated the electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns among patients with MDD comorbid with anxiety symptoms. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five patients with MDD comorbid with anxiety (MDD group) and 135 healthy controls (HC group) were analyzed. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were completed, and 19 EEG channels were measured during the resting state, depressive recall and recovery tasks, and happiness recall and recovery tasks. FAA and PAA were computed by log (F4 alpha)-log (F3 alpha) and log (P4 alpha)-log (P3 alpha). RESULTS: The FAA and PAA indices between the two groups showed no significant differences; however, compared with the HC group, the MDD group had lower total delta and theta values, and higher total beta, low beta, and high beta values in the resting state. The total beta value positively correlated with the BDI-II and BAI scores in the MDD group. LIMITATIONS: Most patients had anxious MDD and taking prescriptions, antidepressants or benzodiazepine may affect EEG patterns. CONCLUSION: Compared with HCs, patients with MDD comorbid with anxiety had a higher beta activity in the entire brain region, supporting the role of brain hyperactivity, instead of FAA or PAA, as a trait marker in these patients. A neurofeedback protocol could be developed in future based on the brain hyperactivity findings.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Nível de Alerta , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos
10.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616111

RESUMO

Establishing an accurate diagnosis is crucial for patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) following a severe brain injury. The Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) is the recommended behavioral scale for assessing the level of consciousness among these patients, but its long duration of administration is a major hurdle in clinical settings. The Simplified Evaluation of CONsciousness Disorders (SECONDs) is a shorter scale that was developed to tackle this issue. It consists of six mandatory items, observation, command-following, visual pursuit, visual fixation, oriented behaviors, and arousal, and two conditional items, communication and localization to pain. The score ranges between 0 and 8 and corresponds to a specific diagnosis (i.e., coma, unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, minimally conscious state minus/plus, or emergence from the minimally conscious state). A first validation study on patients with prolonged DoC showed high concurrent validity and intra- and inter-rater reliability. The SECONDs requires less training than the CRS-R and its administration lasts about 7 minutes (interquartile range: 5-9 minutes). An additional index score allows the more precise tracking of a patient's behavioral fluctuation or evolution over time. The SECONDs is therefore a fast and valid tool for assessing the level of consciousness in patients with severe brain injury. It can easily be used by healthcare staff and implemented in time-constrained clinical settings, such as intensive care units, to help decrease misdiagnosis rates and to optimize treatment decisions. These administration guidelines provide detailed instructions for administering the SECONDs in a standardized and reproducible manner, which is an essential requirement for achieving a reliable diagnosis.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Consciência/diagnóstico , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Guias como Assunto , Adulto , Idoso , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Comunicação , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
J Sex Med ; 18(2): 303-314, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-regulation is an important process to explain sexual, emotional, and pain-related responses in the context of genital pain. Although highly relevant, self-regulatory focus theory is not well integrated into the literature on genital pain. AIM: This study explored the impact of a promotion and prevention regulatory focus on genital pain responding. Sex would typically endorse a promotion focus, whereas pain during sex is likely to provoke a prevention focus oriented toward harm avoidance and safety. METHOD: We induced gradually increasing vaginal pressure in a sample of 56 women using an intra-vaginal balloon that simulated potentially painful vaginal sensations. Women were first primed with a promotion vs prevention focus by making them list their ideals vs responsibilities as a sexual partner. We measured trait regulatory focus, pleasant and painful vaginal pressure sensations, sexual arousal, expectations, and approach-avoidance motivational tendencies. MAIN OUTCOME: The effect of trait and state promotion and prevention regulatory focuses on the appraisal of vaginal pressure and sexual arousal. RESULTS: When primed with a prevention compared with a promotion focus, women with a predominant prevention orientation reported less sexual arousal, less pleasant vaginal pressure appraisals, and lower approach tendencies regarding sexual stimuli. Women who experienced a match between their state and trait promotion focus appraised the vaginal pressure as less painful. No significant effects of regulatory focus were found on the expectancy measures. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: We provided first evidence on self-regulatory motivation in the context of genital pain responses using an experimentally controlled laboratory design. Our sample was small and consisted of young students without (a clinical diagnosis of) genital pain, which limits our conclusions on the effect of promotion vs prevention regulation on genital pain responses. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Future research is needed to examine the clinical value of self-regulation and regulatory fit and to identify possible ways to target self-regulatory motivation in clinical interventions of genital pain. CONCLUSION: Self-regulatory focus theory has clear potential to explain the sexual and motivational correlates of genital pain. Dewitte M and Kindermans H. Exploring the Effect of a Promotion and Prevention Regulatory Focus on Subjective Responses to Vaginal Sensations in a Laboratory Research Design. J Sex Med 2021;18:303-314.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Laboratórios , Feminino , Humanos , Pesquisa , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais
12.
Neurology ; 96(9): e1334-e1346, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) may be a key network structure of altered functional connectivity in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we examined fMRI with network-based analyses. METHODS: We acquired resting-state fMRI in 40 adults with TLE and 40 matched healthy control participants. We calculated functional connectivity of NBM and used multiple complementary network-based analyses to explore the importance of NBM in TLE networks without biasing our results by our approach. We compared patients to controls and examined associations of network properties with disease metrics and neurocognitive testing. RESULTS: We observed marked decreases in connectivity between NBM and the rest of the brain in patients with TLE (0.91 ± 0.88, mean ± SD) vs controls (1.96 ± 1.13, p < 0.001, t test). Larger decreases in connectivity between NBM and fronto-parietal-insular regions were associated with higher frequency of consciousness-impairing seizures (r = -0.41, p = 0.008, Pearson). A core network of altered nodes in TLE included NBM ipsilateral to the epileptogenic side and bilateral limbic structures. Furthermore, normal community affiliation of ipsilateral NBM was lost in patients, and this structure displayed the most altered clustering coefficient of any node examined (3.46 ± 1.17 in controls vs 2.23 ± 0.93 in patients). Abnormal connectivity between NBM and subcortical arousal community was associated with modest neurocognitive deficits. Finally, a logistic regression model incorporating connectivity properties of ipsilateral NBM successfully distinguished patients from control datasets with moderately high accuracy (78%). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that while NBM is rarely studied in epilepsy, it may be one of the most perturbed network nodes in TLE, contributing to widespread neural effects in this disabling disorder.


Assuntos
Núcleo Basal de Meynert/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Núcleo Basal de Meynert/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/psicologia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Sistema Límbico/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Límbico/fisiopatologia , Modelos Logísticos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 83(4): 1552-1561, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512699

RESUMO

Experiences of time vary intra- and interindividually, depending on factors such as attentional resource allocation and arousal. Music as a temporal art that is structured by multiple temporal layers is ideal for investigating human time experiences. The current study used examples of hip-hop music that varied in arousal but were constant in tempo. Participants judged the passage of time to be quicker when cognitive load was high in a dual-task condition, and perceived duration to be shorter when performing a concurrent motor task (tapping along with the music). Perceived musical arousal did not affect subjective time. Attending to a higher metrical level by tapping with half notes resulted in shorter duration estimates and a quicker passage of time, compared to tapping with eighth notes of the same music. Results were not influenced by spontaneous motor tempo, musical expertise, preference or familiarity with the music. Taken together, these findings indicate consistent effects of cognitive load and attention to meter on time experiences.


Assuntos
Música , Percepção do Tempo , Nível de Alerta , Percepção Auditiva , Cognição , Humanos
14.
Behav Ther ; 52(1): 86-98, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483127

RESUMO

Pathological worry is characterized by an inability to distract or disengage from worry, and this uncontrollability is the defining feature of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The present study assessed a novel computerized strategy that targets these attention difficulties. Worry Disengagement Training (WDT), which involves alternating between writing about one's worry and positive topics, was evaluated in a sample with elevated worry (N = 50), most of whom met for GAD diagnosis (66%). Compared to waitlist, WDT led to increased ability to disengage from in vivo worry on a breath focus task, resulting in fewer negative intrusions (ß = -.29, p = .02; sr2 = .08). Relative to waitlist, WDT also led to lower self-reported general worry (ß = -.36, p = .001, sr2 = .14) and depressive symptoms (ß = -.25, p = .02, sr2 = .07). These effects remained in the subset of participants meeting criteria for GAD. WDT did not impact anxious arousal, suggesting some specificity of effects. These findings provide preliminary support for WDT as an effective strategy to increase disengagement ability and reduce worry and depression. Limitations and future directions are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Ansiedade , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Nível de Alerta , Humanos
15.
Epilepsy Behav ; 115: 107645, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334720

RESUMO

While temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a focal epilepsy, previous work demonstrates that TLE causes widespread brain-network disruptions. Impaired visuospatial attention and learning in TLE may be related to thalamic arousal nuclei connectivity. Our prior preliminary work in a smaller patient cohort suggests that patients with TLE demonstrate abnormal functional connectivity between central lateral (CL) thalamic nucleus and medial occipital lobe. Others have shown pulvinar connectivity disturbances in TLE, but it is incompletely understood how TLE affects pulvinar subnuclei. Also, the effects of epilepsy surgery on thalamic functional connectivity remains poorly understood. In this study, we examine the effects of TLE on functional connectivity of two key thalamic arousal-nuclei: lateral pulvinar (PuL) and CL. We evaluate resting-state functional connectivity of the PuL and CL in 40 patients with TLE and 40 controls using fMRI. In 25 patients, postoperative images (>1 year) were also compared with preoperative images. Compared to controls, patients with TLE exhibit loss of normal positive connectivity between PuL and lateral occipital lobe (p < 0.05), and a loss of normal negative connectivity between CL and medial occipital lobe (p < 0.01, paired t-tests). FMRI amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in TLE trended higher in ipsilateral PuL (p = 0.06), but was lower in the lateral occipital (p < 0.01) and medial occipital lobe in patients versus controls (p < 0.05, paired t-tests). More abnormal ALFF in the ipsilateral lateral occipital lobe is associated with worse preoperative performance on Rey Complex Figure Test Immediate (p < 0.05, r = 0.381) and Delayed scores (p < 0.05, r = 0.413, Pearson's Correlations). After surgery, connectivity between PuL and lateral occipital lobe remains abnormal in patients (p < 0.01), but connectivity between CL and medial occipital lobe improves and is no longer different from control values (p > 0.05, ANOVA, post hoc Fischer's LSD). In conclusion, thalamic arousal nuclei exhibit abnormal connectivity with occipital lobe in TLE, and some connections may improve after surgery. Studying thalamic arousal centers may help explain distal network disturbances in TLE.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal , Nível de Alerta , Encéfalo , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/complicações , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
J Homosex ; 68(1): 138-156, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430230

RESUMO

To determine the cerebral functionality associated with the perception and processing of erotic stimuli in men with different sexual orientation, this work evaluated the electroencephalographic activity (EEG) from several cortical areas, as well as subjective arousal in homosexual and heterosexual men during observation of an erotic film with heterosexual content. The heterosexual men rated the erotic video with higher general and sexual arousal than the homosexual participants. During observation of the neutral and erotic videos, both groups showed a decreased amplitude of the alpha band in prefrontal and parietal cortices, indicating increased attention. When watching the erotic video, the homosexual men showed an increased amplitude of the theta and fast bands only in the prefrontal cortex, which could be related to the cognitive processing of the erotic stimulus. These EEG results should broaden our knowledge of the cortical mechanisms related to the different perception and processing of erotic stimuli in men with different sexual orientations.


Assuntos
Cérebro/fisiologia , Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Adulto , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Masculino , Filmes Cinematográficos , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci ; 25(1): 19-39, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308388

RESUMO

Synchronization is a special case of self-organization in which one can observe close mimicry in behavior of the system components. Synchrony in body movements, autonomic arousal, and EEG activity among human individuals has attracted considerable attention for their possible roles in social interaction. This article is specifically concerned with autonomic synchrony and finding the best model for the dyadic relationships, with regard to both theoretical and empirical accuracy, that could be extrapolated to synchrony levels for groups and teams of three or more people. The four models that are compared in this study have different theoretical origins: the two-variable linear regression function, a three-parameter nonlinear regression function, the logistic map function stated in polynomial form, and the logistic map function stated as an exponential regression structure. The data for this study were electrodermal responses collected from a team of four people engaged in an emergency response simulation that produced 12 dyadic time series. Results shows strong levels of fit between the data and all four models, although there were significant differences among them. Further research directions point toward finding conditions that favor one model over another and exploring other possible nonlinear structures.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Psicológicos , Atenção , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Eletroencefalografia , Emergências/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Dinâmica não Linear
18.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374947

RESUMO

Caffeine is widely consumed among elite athletes for its well-known ergogenic properties, and its ability to increase exercise performance. However, studies to date have predominantly focused on the anhydrous form of caffeine in male participants. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of caffeinated coffee ingestion on lower-upper body muscular endurance, cognitive performance, and heart rate variability (HRV) in female athletes. A total of 17 participants (mean ± standard deviation (SD): age = 23 ± 2 years, body mass = 64 ± 4 kg, height = 168 ± 3 cm) in a randomized cross-over design completed three testing sessions, following the ingestion of 3 mg/kg/bm of caffeine (3COF), 6 mg/kg/bm of caffeine (6COF) provided from coffee or decaffeinated coffee (PLA) in 600 mL of hot water. The testing results included: (1) repetition number for muscular endurance performance; (2): reaction time and response accuracy for cognitive performance; (3): HRV parameters, such as standard deviation of normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (SDNN), standard deviation of successive differences (SDSD), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), total power (TP), the ratio of low- and high-frequency powers (LF/HF), high-frequency power (HF), normalized HF (HFnu), low-frequency power (LF), and normalized LF (LFnu). A one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed that 3COF (p = 0.024) and 6COF (p = 0.036) improved lower body muscular endurance in the first set as well as cognitive performance (p = 0.025, p = 0.035 in the post-test, respectively) compared to PLA. However, no differences were detected between trials for upper body muscular endurance (p = 0.07). Lastly, all HRV parameters did not change between trials (p > 0.05). In conclusion, ingesting caffeinated coffee improved lower body muscular endurance and cognitive performance, while not adversely affecting cardiac autonomic function.


Assuntos
Atletas , Cafeína/farmacologia , Café/química , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Nível de Alerta , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glucose , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ácido Láctico , Masculino , Percepção da Dor , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(1)2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374281

RESUMO

Recognizing user emotions while they watch short-form videos anytime and anywhere is essential for facilitating video content customization and personalization. However, most works either classify a single emotion per video stimuli, or are restricted to static, desktop environments. To address this, we propose a correlation-based emotion recognition algorithm (CorrNet) to recognize the valence and arousal (V-A) of each instance (fine-grained segment of signals) using only wearable, physiological signals (e.g., electrodermal activity, heart rate). CorrNet takes advantage of features both inside each instance (intra-modality features) and between different instances for the same video stimuli (correlation-based features). We first test our approach on an indoor-desktop affect dataset (CASE), and thereafter on an outdoor-mobile affect dataset (MERCA) which we collected using a smart wristband and wearable eyetracker. Results show that for subject-independent binary classification (high-low), CorrNet yields promising recognition accuracies: 76.37% and 74.03% for V-A on CASE, and 70.29% and 68.15% for V-A on MERCA. Our findings show: (1) instance segment lengths between 1-4 s result in highest recognition accuracies (2) accuracies between laboratory-grade and wearable sensors are comparable, even under low sampling rates (≤64 Hz) (3) large amounts of neutral V-A labels, an artifact of continuous affect annotation, result in varied recognition performance.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Emoções , Frequência Cardíaca , Reconhecimento Psicológico
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(24)2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321895

RESUMO

Based on the growing interest in encephalography to enhance human-computer interaction (HCI) and develop brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for control and monitoring applications, efficient information retrieval from EEG sensors is of great importance. It is difficult due to noise from the internal and external artifacts and physiological interferences. The enhancement of the EEG-based emotion recognition processes can be achieved by selecting features that should be taken into account in further analysis. Therefore, the automatic feature selection of EEG signals is an important research area. We propose a multistep hybrid approach incorporating the Reversed Correlation Algorithm for automated frequency band-electrode combinations selection. Our method is simple to use and significantly reduces the number of sensors to only three channels. The proposed method has been verified by experiments performed on the DEAP dataset. The obtained effects have been evaluated regarding the accuracy of two emotions-valence and arousal. In comparison to other research studies, our method achieved classification results that were 4.20-8.44% greater. Moreover, it can be perceived as a universal EEG signal classification technique, as it belongs to unsupervised methods.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções , Nível de Alerta , Humanos
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