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1.
J Oral Rehabil ; 47(3): 281-288, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to verify the associations among sleep bruxism (SB), sleep arousal (SA) and concurrent body movements. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Subjects underwent a standard overnight polysomnography test and audio-video recordings. Sleep quality was evaluated according to the Rechtschaffen and Kales criteria, while SA was determined as per the American Sleep Disorders Association criteria. Analyses were performed by an external institution after masking of the subjects' information. SB was assessed based on the presence/absence of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) episodes, which were identified by using electromyography of the masseter muscle. The observed simultaneous movements included lower leg movement (LLM), swallowing, face scratching, head movement, body movement, eye blinking, coughing, licking, sighing, body scratching, lip sucking, somniloquy and yawning. The LLM was determined visually, as well as through an increase in the tibialis electromyogram signal. Other movements were visually assessed using audio-video recordings. The incidences of all the simultaneous movements were compared between RMMA with intercurrent SA (SAwRMMA; RMMA episode derived from a masseter electromyogram showing more than 10% of maximum voluntary contraction) and SA without RMMA (SAw/oRMMA). RESULTS: Fourteen subjects were included in this study (females/males: 4/10, mean age: 31.5 ± 5.7 years). Among these, LLM, swallowing, body movement, licking, body scratching and lip sucking were frequently observed in SAwRMMA episodes than in SAw/oRMMA episodes, significantly. However, the non-specific simultaneous movements were higher observed in SAw/oRMMA episodes than that in SAwRMMA. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that SB is concurrently activated with LLM in relation to arousal.


Assuntos
Músculos da Mastigação , Bruxismo do Sono , Adulto , Nível de Alerta , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Masseter , Polissonografia , Sono
2.
Clin Anat ; 33(1): 136-145, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691374

RESUMO

Stimulating the clitoris activates the brain to instigate changes in the female genital tract, namely, the enhancement of vaginal blood flow that increases vaginal luminal pO2 , vaginal transudate (lubrication) facilitating painless penile penetration and partial neutralization of the basal luminal acidic pH, vaginal tenting, and ballooning delaying sperm transport and allowing semen de-coagulation and capacitation (sperm activation) factors to act until arousal ends (often by orgasm induction). All these genital changes taken together are of major importance in facilitating the possibility of reproductive success (and thus gene propagation) no matter how or when the clitoris is stimulated-they reveal its overlooked reproductive function. Of course, also commensurate with these changes, is its activation of sexual pleasure. The clitoris thus has both procreative (reproductive) and recreative (pleasure) functions of equal importance. Clitoridectomy creates not only sexual disability but also a reproductive disability. Clin. Anat. 32:136-145, 2019. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Clitóris/anatomia & histologia , Clitóris/fisiologia , Fertilidade , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Vagina/fisiologia , Circuncisão Feminina , Feminino , Humanos
3.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e267, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826756

RESUMO

This commentary explores how emotion fits in the dual-systems model of temporal cognition proposed by Hoerl & McCormack. The updating system would be affected by emotion via the attentional/arousal effect according to the attentional gate model. The reasoning system would be disrupted by emotion, especially for traumatic events. Time discrepancies described in the dual-systems model are also explained.


Assuntos
Cognição , Emoções , Nível de Alerta , Atenção , Resolução de Problemas
4.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(11): e1007268, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725712

RESUMO

Origin and functions of intermittent transitions among sleep stages, including short awakenings and arousals, constitute a challenge to the current homeostatic framework for sleep regulation, focusing on factors modulating sleep over large time scales. Here we propose that the complex micro-architecture characterizing the sleep-wake cycle results from an underlying non-equilibrium critical dynamics, bridging collective behaviors across spatio-temporal scales. We investigate θ and δ wave dynamics in control rats and in rats with lesions of sleep-promoting neurons in the parafacial zone. We demonstrate that intermittent bursts in θ and δ rhythms exhibit a complex temporal organization, with long-range power-law correlations and a robust duality of power law (θ-bursts, active phase) and exponential-like (δ-bursts, quiescent phase) duration distributions, typical features of non-equilibrium systems self-organizing at criticality. Crucially, such temporal organization relates to anti-correlated coupling between θ- and δ-bursts, and is independent of the dominant physiologic state and lesions, a solid indication of a basic principle in sleep dynamics.


Assuntos
Fases do Sono/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia , Animais , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Ritmo Delta/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Homeostase , Masculino , Neurônios , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sono/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4770, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628317

RESUMO

Animals perform or terminate particular behaviors by integrating external cues and internal states through neural circuits. Identifying neural substrates and their molecular modulators promoting or inhibiting animal behaviors are key steps to understand how neural circuits control behaviors. Here, we identify the Cholecystokinin-like peptide Drosulfakinin (DSK) that functions at single-neuron resolution to suppress male sexual behavior in Drosophila. We found that Dsk neurons physiologically interact with male-specific P1 neurons, part of a command center for male sexual behaviors, and function oppositely to regulate multiple arousal-related behaviors including sex, sleep and spontaneous walking. We further found that the DSK-2 peptide functions through its receptor CCKLR-17D3 to suppress sexual behaviors in flies. Such a neuropeptide circuit largely overlaps with the fruitless-expressing neural circuit that governs most aspects of male sexual behaviors. Thus DSK/CCKLR signaling in the sex circuitry functions antagonistically with P1 neurons to balance arousal levels and modulate sexual behaviors.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Comunicação Celular/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Feminino , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neurônios/citologia , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Oligopeptídeos/genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Sono/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(20)2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614504

RESUMO

Probing food experience or liking through verbal ratings has its shortcomings. We compare explicit ratings to a range of (neuro)physiological and behavioral measures with respect to their performance in distinguishing drinks associated with different emotional experience. Seventy participants tasted and rated the valence and arousal of eight regular drinks and a "ground truth" high-arousal, low-valence vinegar solution. The discriminative power for distinguishing between the vinegar solution and the regular drinks was highest for sip size, followed by valence ratings, arousal ratings, heart rate, skin conductance level, facial expression of "disgust," pupil diameter, and Electroencephalogram (EEG) frontal alpha asymmetry. Within the regular drinks, a positive correlation was found between rated arousal and heart rate, and a negative correlation between rated arousal and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Most physiological measures showed consistent temporal patterns over time following the announcement of the drink and taking a sip. This was consistent over all nine drinks, but the peaks were substantially higher for the vinegar solution than for the regular drinks, likely caused by emotion. Our results indicate that implicit variables have the potential to differentiate between drinks associated with different emotional experiences. In addition, this study gives us insight into the physiological temporal response patterns associated with taking a sip.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Nível de Alerta , Comportamento , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(18)2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533329

RESUMO

For future healthcare applications, which are increasingly moving towards out-of-hospital or home-based caring models, the ability to remotely and continuously monitor patients' conditions effectively are imperative. Among others, emotional state is one of the conditions that could be of interest to doctors or caregivers. This paper discusses a preliminary study to develop a wearable device that is a low cost, single channel, dry contact, in-ear EEG suitable for non-intrusive monitoring. All aspects of the designs, engineering, and experimenting by applying machine learning for emotion classification, are covered. Based on the valence and arousal emotion model, the device is able to classify basic emotion with 71.07% accuracy (valence), 72.89% accuracy (arousal), and 53.72% (all four emotions). The results are comparable to those measured from the more conventional EEG headsets at T7 and T8 scalp positions. These results, together with its earphone-like wearability, suggest its potential usage especially for future healthcare applications, such as home-based or tele-monitoring systems as intended.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/instrumentação , Emoções/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Nível de Alerta , Eletrodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540542

RESUMO

Abstract: Recent evidences suggest that non-arousal mechanisms can restore and stabilize breathing in sleeping patients with obstructive sleep apnea. This possibility can be examined under deep sedation which increases the cortical arousal threshold. We examined incidences of cortical arousal at termination of apneas and hypopneas in elderly patients receiving propofol sedation which increases the cortical arousal threshold. Ten elderly patients undergoing advanced endoscopic procedures under propofol-sedation were recruited. Standard polysomnographic measurements were performed to assess nature of breathing, consciousness, and occurrence of arousal at recovery from apneas and hypopneas. A total of 245 periodic apneas and hypopneas were identified during propofol-induced sleep state. Cortical arousal only occurred in 55 apneas and hypopneas (22.5%), and apneas and hypopneas without arousal and desaturation were most commonly observed (65.7%) regardless of the types of disordered breathing. Chi-square test indicated that incidence of no cortical arousal was significantly associated with occurrence of no desaturation. Higher dose of propofol was associated with a higher apnea hypopnea index (r = 0.673, p = 0.033). In conclusion, even under deep propofol sedation, apneas and hypopneas can be terminated without cortical arousal. However, extensive suppression of the arousal threshold can lead to critical hypoxemia suggesting careful respiratory monitoring.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/biossíntese , Propofol/farmacologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10677-10694, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477285

RESUMO

Affective states, which refer to feelings or emotions, are a key component of animal welfare, but these are also difficult to assess. Drawing upon a body of theoretical and applied work, we critically review the scientific literature on the assessment of affective states in animals, drawing examples where possible from research on dairy cattle, and highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of scientific methods used to assess affective states in animals. We adopt the "valence/arousal" framework, describing affect as a 2-dimensional space (with valence referring to whether an experience is positive or negative, and arousal referring to the intensity of the experience). We conclude that spontaneous physiological and behavioral responses typically reflect arousal, whereas learned responses can be valuable when investigating valence. We also conclude that the assessment of affective states can be furthered using mood assessments and that the use of drug treatments with known emotional effects in humans can be helpful in the assessment of specific affective states in animals.


Assuntos
Bovinos/psicologia , Afeto , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Nível de Alerta , Emoções
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480465

RESUMO

Oral appliance (OAm) therapy has demonstrated efficacy in treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this systematic review was to clarify the efficacy of device designs (Mono-block or Bi-block) in OAm therapy for OSA patients. We performed a meta-analysis using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Two studies (Mono-block OAm versus Bi-block OAm) remained eligible after applying the exclusion criteria. When comparing Mono-block OAm and Bi-block OAm, Mono-block OAm significantly reduced the apnea-hypopnea index (2.92; 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 1.26 to 4.58; p = 0.0006), and patient preference for Mono-block OAm was significantly higher (2.06; 95%CI, 1.44 to 2.06; p < 0.0001). Lowest SpO2, arousal index, non-REM stage 3, sleep efficiency, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Snoring Scale, and side effects were not significantly different between the two groups (lowest SpO2: -11.18; 95%CI, -26.90 to 4.54; p = 0.16, arousal index: 4.40; 95%CI, -6.00 to 14.80; p = 0.41, non-REM stage 3: -2.00; 95%CI, -6.00 to 14.80; p = 0.41, sleep efficiency: -1.42, 95%CI, -4.71 to 1.86; p = 0.40, ESS: 0.12; 95%CI, -1.55 to 1.79; p = 0.89, Snoring Scale: 0.55; 95%CI, -0.73 to 1.83, p = 0.55, side effects: 1.00, 95%CI, 0.62 to 1.61, p = 1.00). In this systematic review, the use of Mono-block OAm was more effective than Bi-block OAm for OSA patients.


Assuntos
Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Aparelhos Ortodônticos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Ronco/prevenção & controle , Nível de Alerta , Humanos
11.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(11): 2905-2908, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490432

RESUMO

Cintineo, HP and Arent, SM. Anticipatory salivary cortisol and state anxiety before competition predict match outcome in Division I collegiate wrestlers. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 2905-2908, 2019-Anticipation of exercise and other stressors has been shown to result in physiological and psychological changes, which include increased levels of cortisol and anxiety. Combat sports, in particular, typically elicit robust anticipatory responses because of the distinct nature of these sports. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between state anxiety scores, anticipatory cortisol response, and performance outcomes in college wrestlers. A secondary purpose was to determine the correlation between anticipatory cortisol and state anxiety scores. Twenty-six collegiate wrestlers were recruited to undergo saliva collection and to complete the State Anxiety Inventory before a wrestling match and again on a rest day in a time-matched, control session. Univariate analyses revealed that both salivary cortisol and anxiety were greater before competition than on a rest day. In addition, it was found that losers had higher levels of anticipatory cortisol and anxiety compared with winners. A significant correlation between salivary cortisol and anxiety was found as well. These data show that higher cortisol and anxiety may negatively affect performance. Athletes and coaches should work together to determine optimal levels of arousal and should aim to replicate this during both training and competition to ensure consistently high levels of performance through appropriate preparation.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Competitivo , Hidrocortisona/análise , Saliva/química , Luta Romana/psicologia , Adolescente , Nível de Alerta , Atletas , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
12.
Neurology ; 93(13): e1281-e1287, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ascending arousal network (AAn) connectivity is reduced in patients presenting with traumatic coma. METHODS: We performed high-angular-resolution diffusion imaging in 16 patients with acute severe traumatic brain injury who were comatose on admission and in 16 matched controls. We used probabilistic tractography to measure the connectivity probability (CP) of AAn axonal pathways linking the brainstem tegmentum to the hypothalamus, thalamus, and basal forebrain. To assess the spatial specificity of CP differences between patients and controls, we also measured CP within 4 subcortical pathways outside the AAn. RESULTS: Compared to controls, patients showed a reduction in AAn pathways connecting the brainstem tegmentum to a region of interest encompassing the hypothalamus, thalamus, and basal forebrain. When each pathway was examined individually, brainstem-hypothalamus and brainstem-thalamus CPs, but not brainstem-forebrain CP, were significantly reduced in patients. Only 1 subcortical pathway outside the AAn showed reduced CP in patients. CONCLUSIONS: We provide initial evidence for the reduced integrity of axonal pathways linking the brainstem tegmentum to the hypothalamus and thalamus in patients presenting with traumatic coma. Our findings support current conceptual models of coma as being caused by subcortical AAn injury. AAn connectivity mapping provides an opportunity to advance the study of human coma and consciousness.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Tronco Encefálico/fisiopatologia , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Adulto , Prosencéfalo Basal/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Tálamo/fisiologia
13.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 39: 100703, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487608

RESUMO

Preterm birth is a significant risk factor for a range of long-term health problems and developmental disabilities. Though touch plays a central role in many perinatal care strategies, the neurobiological basis of these approaches is seldom considered. C-Tactile afferents (CTs) are a class of unmyelinated nerve fibre activated by low force, dynamic touch. Consistent with an interoceptive function, touch specifically targeted to activate CTs activates posterior insular cortex and has been reported to reduce autonomic arousal. The present study compared the effect of 5 min of CT optimal velocity stroking touch to 5 min of static touch on the heart-rate and oxygen saturation levels of preterm infants between 28- & 37-weeks gestational age. CT touch produced a significant decrease in infants' heart-rates and increase in their blood oxygenation levels, which sustained throughout a 5-min post-touch period. In contrast, there was no significant change in heart-rate or blood oxygenation levels of infants receiving static touch. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that CTs signal the affective quality of nurturing touch, providing a neurobiological substrate for the apparent beneficial effects of neonatal tactile interventions and offering insight for their optimisation.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Fibras Nervosas Amielínicas/fisiologia , Neurônios Aferentes/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/psicologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Tato/fisiologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4030, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492881

RESUMO

The ability to track the statistics of our surroundings is a key computational challenge. A prominent theory proposes that the brain monitors for unexpected uncertainty - events which deviate substantially from model predictions, indicating model failure. Norepinephrine is thought to play a key role in this process by serving as an interrupt signal, initiating model-resetting. However, evidence is from paradigms where participants actively monitored stimulus statistics. To determine whether Norepinephrine routinely reports the statistical structure of our surroundings, even when not behaviourally relevant, we used rapid tone-pip sequences that contained salient pattern-changes associated with abrupt structural violations vs. emergence of regular structure. Phasic pupil dilations (PDR) were monitored to assess Norepinephrine. We reveal a remarkable specificity: When not behaviourally relevant, only abrupt structural violations evoke a PDR. The results demonstrate that Norepinephrine tracks unexpected uncertainty on rapid time scales relevant to sensory signals.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Som , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
15.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(10): 2607-2619, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372689

RESUMO

The arrangement of musical notes and their time intervals, also known as musical rhythm is one of the core elements of music. Nevertheless, the cognitive process and neural mechanism of the human brain that underlay the perception of musical rhythm are poorly understood. In this study, we hypothesized that changes in musical rhythmic patterns alter the emotional content expressed by music and the way it is perceived, that assumably causes specific changes in the brain functional connectome. Therefore, 18 male children aged 10-14 years old were recruited and exposed to 12 musical excerpts while their brain's electrical activity was recorded using a 32-channel EEG recorder. The musical rhythmic patterns were changed by manipulating only note values in beats while keeping time signature and other elements in a fixed state. The experienced emotions were assessed using a 2-dimensional self-assessment manikin questionnaire. The behavioral data showed that an increase in the complexity of musical rhythmic patterns significantly enhances perceived valence and arousal levels. In addition, the pattern of brain functional connectivity was also estimated using the weighted phase lag index and their association with behavioral changes was calculated. Interestingly, the behavioral changes were mainly associated with alteration of brain functional connectivity at the alpha band in the fronto-central connections. These results emphasize the important role of the motor cortical site-fronto-central connections, in the perception of musical rhythmic pattern. These findings may improve conception of the underlying brain mechanism involved in the perception of musical rhythm.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Música/psicologia , Adolescente , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção do Tempo
16.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(6): 1967-1973, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385205

RESUMO

Memories are able to update and adapt with new information about the world after they are reactivated. However, it is unknown whether the labile period following reactivation makes episodic memories more amenable to emotion regulation, an application that holds great clinical promise. Here, we investigated the efficacy of cognitive reappraisal to down regulate negative affect in response to reactivated memories. Healthy young adults (N = 119) rated the emotionality of negative pictures. After a partial reactivation of each picture 2 days later, participants voluntarily engaged in a spatial distancing regulation tactic by imagining the reactivated object extremely far away from them. Compared with no-regulation and no-reactivation controls, self-reported arousal for regulated pictures dropped significantly 2 days after the manipulation, despite no significant difference in memory accuracy or valence. These results open up a new line of work that capitalizes on reactivation-based lability to selectively alter enduring arousal responses to emotional memories.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
HNO ; 67(9): 654-662, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432231

RESUMO

The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is considered to be very high in western industrialized countries. There are conservative and surgical forms of treatment for OSA; however, the pathophysiology is largely unexplained and cannot be explained by anatomical abnormalities alone. In recent years, a number of non-anatomical factors have been found that favor the development of OSA. These include the respiratory excitation threshold (arousals), the respiratory drive (loop gain), as well as the control and function of the muscular upper airway dilators. The understanding of the individual pathophysiological processes may be helpful in the future to develop individual treatment approaches for patients.


Assuntos
Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Nível de Alerta , Humanos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia
19.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 99(28): 2193-2196, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434391

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate the clinical efficacy of magnetic levitation elastic mandibular elevator (MLEME) in treatment of mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Twenty one patients with mild or moderate OSA confirmed by polysomnographic (PSG) examination were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University between June of 2016 and June of 2017. Their PSG parameters, daytime Epworth sleepiness score (ESS) were compared before and on treatment of MLEME. In addition, any side effects and discomfort were observed during MLEME treatment. Results: Comparison of parameters during and before MLEME treatment revealed a significant decrease (all P<0.05) in apnea hypopnea index [(9.3±6.2) vs (15.6±7.8)/h], arousal index [(6.2±3.4) vs (10.3±5.4)/h], percentage of sleep time with less than 90% oxygen saturation (3.9%±2.7% vs 9.8%±3.5%), daytime ESS (6.3±2.3 vs 11.2±2.8); but a remarkable increase (all P<0.05) in mean and minimal pulse oxygen saturation (97.2%±0.9% vs 94.7%±1.1% and 87.6%±2.8% vs 81.7%±4.6% respectively). All patients could tolerate MLEME treatment well with no complain of discomfort. Following wearing of MLEME, X-ray lateral film of head and neck revealed a significantly longer distance than that before MLEME treatment from tip of uvula to posterior pharyngeal wall [(11.9±1.8) vs (9.6±1.5) mm](P<0.05). Conclusions: MLEME could significantly improve sleep respiratory parameters and daytime sleepiness of OSA without side effects. Its long-term efficacy for OSA remains to be further explored.


Assuntos
Elevadores e Escadas Rolantes , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Nível de Alerta , Humanos , Faringe , Polissonografia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438489

RESUMO

Children's favourite food and beverage brands use various tactics to foster positive associations and loyalty. This brand-consumer dynamic is frequently influenced by the use of implicit techniques and emotional appeals. Few studies have used physiological methods to examine the connections that brands build with children and the influence this has on their automatic responses. These techniques are potentially less prone to bias than behavioural or cognitive methods. This is the first study to explore the implicit response that children have to images of their favourite food and beverage brands using skin conductance responses as a marker of arousal. Australian children aged 8-11 years (n = 48) were recruited. Images of the participants' favourite branded food and beverage products, alongside images of the same products unpackaged, their family and friends, and neutral objects were presented in a randomised order with a standard timed interval between images. Children were significantly more aroused by branded images of their favourite food and beverage products than by their unpackaged counterparts (p < 0.042, d = 0.4). The physiological response to the branded products was similar to the response to the children's family and friends (p = 0.900, d = -0.02). These findings suggest that children may have an implicit connection to their favourite branded products.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Embalagem de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Alimentos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Austrália , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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