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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244308, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370349

RESUMO

Many human behaviors are discussed in terms of discrete categories. Quantizing behavior in this fashion may provide important traction for understanding the complexities of human experience, but it also may bias understanding of phenomena and associated mechanisms. One example of this is absolute pitch (AP), which is often treated as a discrete trait that is either present or absent (i.e., with easily identifiable near-perfect "genuine" AP possessors and at-chance non-AP possessors) despite emerging evidence that pitch-labeling ability is not all-or-nothing. We used a large-scale online assessment to test the discrete model of AP, specifically by measuring how intermediate performers related to the typically defined "non-AP" and "genuine AP" populations. Consistent with prior research, individuals who performed at-chance (non-AP) reported beginning musical instruction much later than the near-perfect AP participants, and the highest performers were more likely to speak a tonal language than were the lowest performers (though this effect was not as statistically robust as one would expect from prior research). Critically, however, these developmental factors did not differentiate the near-perfect AP performers from the intermediate AP performers. Gaussian mixture modeling supported the existence of two performance distributions-the first distribution encompassed both the intermediate and near-perfect AP possessors, whereas the second distribution encompassed only the at-chance participants. Overall, these results provide support for conceptualizing intermediate levels of pitch-labeling ability along the same continuum as genuine AP-level pitch labeling ability-in other words, a continuous distribution of AP skill among all above-chance performers rather than discrete categories of ability. Expanding the inclusion criteria for AP makes it possible to test hypotheses about the mechanisms that underlie this ability and relate this ability to more general cognitive mechanisms involved in other abilities.


Assuntos
Biometria/métodos , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Música/psicologia , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232514, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate if, regardless of language background (tonal or non-tonal), musicians may show stronger CP than non-musicians; To examine if native speakers of English (English or non-tonal musicians henceforth) or Mandarin Chinese (Mandarin or tonal musicians henceforth) can better accommodate multiple functions of the same acoustic cue and if musicians' sensitivity to pitch of lexical tones comes at the cost of slower processing. METHOD: English and Mandarin Musicians and non-musicians performed a categorical identification and a discrimination task on rising and falling continua of fundamental frequency on two vowels with 9 duration values. RESULTS: Non-tonal musicians exhibited significantly stronger categorical perception of pitch contour than non-tonal non-musicians. However, tonal musicians did not consistently perceive the two types of pitch directions more categorically than tonal non-musicians. Both tonal and non-tonal musicians also benefited more from increasing stimulus duration in processing pitch changes than non-musicians and they generally require less time for pitch processing. Musicians were also more sensitive to intrinsic F0 in pitch perception and differences of pitch types. CONCLUSION: The effect of musical training strengthens categorical perception more consistently in non-tonal speakers than tonal speakers. Overall, musicians benefit more from increased stimulus duration, due perhaps to their greater sensitivity to temporal information, thus allowing them to be better at forming a more robust auditory representation and matching sounds to internalized memory templates. Musicians also attended more to acoustic details such as intrinsic F0 and pitch types in pitch processing, and yet, overall, their categorization of pitch was not compromised by traces of these acoustic details from their auditory short-term working memory. These findings may lead to a better understanding of pitch perception deficits in special populations, particularly among individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).


Assuntos
Idioma , Música/psicologia , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Acústica da Fala , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3912, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127585

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between vocal pitch discrimination abilities and vocal responses to auditory pitch-shifts. Twenty children (6.6-11.7 years) and twenty adults (18-28 years) completed a listening task to determine auditory discrimination abilities to vocal fundamental frequency (fo) as well as two vocalization tasks in which their perceived fo was modulated in real-time. These pitch-shifts were either unexpected, providing information on auditory feedback control, or sustained, providing information on sensorimotor adaptation. Children were subdivided into two groups based on their auditory pitch discrimination abilities; children within two standard deviations of the adult group were classified as having adult-like discrimination abilities (N = 11), whereas children outside of this range were classified as having less sensitive discrimination abilities than adults (N = 9). Children with less sensitive auditory pitch discrimination abilities had significantly larger vocal response magnitudes to unexpected pitch-shifts and significantly smaller vocal response magnitudes to sustained pitch-shifts. Children with less sensitive auditory pitch discrimination abilities may rely more on auditory feedback and thus may be less adept at updating their stored motor programs.


Assuntos
Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Neurosci ; 40(11): 2259-2268, 2020 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024780

RESUMO

Frequency discrimination learning is often accompanied by an expansion of the functional region corresponding to the target frequency within the auditory cortex. Although the perceptual significance of this plastic functional reorganization remains debated, greater cortical representation is generally thought to improve perception for a stimulus. Recently, the ability to expand functional representations through passive sound experience has been demonstrated in adult rats, suggesting that it may be possible to design passive sound exposures to enhance specific perceptual abilities in adulthood. To test this hypothesis, we exposed adult female Long-Evans rats to 2 weeks of moderate-intensity broadband white noise followed by 1 week of 7 kHz tone pips, a paradigm that results in the functional over-representation of 7 kHz within the adult tonotopic map. We then tested the ability of exposed rats to identify 7 kHz among distractor tones on an adaptive tone discrimination task. Contrary to our expectations, we found that map expansion impaired frequency discrimination and delayed perceptual learning. Rats exposed to noise followed by 15 kHz tone pips were not impaired at the same task. Exposed rats also exhibited changes in auditory cortical responses consistent with reduced discriminability of the exposure tone. Encouragingly, these deficits were completely recovered with training. Our results provide strong evidence that map expansion alone does not imply improved perception. Rather, plastic changes in frequency representation induced by bottom-up processes can worsen perceptual faculties, but because of the very nature of plasticity these changes are inherently reversible.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The potent ability of our acoustic environment to shape cortical sensory representations throughout life has led to a growing interest in harnessing both passive sound experience and operant perceptual learning to enhance mature cortical function. We use sound exposure to induce targeted expansions in the adult rat tonotopic map and find that these bottom-up changes unexpectedly impair performance on an adaptive tone discrimination task. Encouragingly, however, we also show that training promotes the recovery of electrophysiological measures of reduced neural discriminability following sound exposure. These results provide support for future neuroplasticity-based treatments that take into account both the sensory statistics of our external environment and perceptual training strategies to improve learning and memory in the adult auditory system.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/efeitos adversos , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Transtornos da Percepção/etiologia , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Feminino , Plasticidade Neuronal , Ruído , Transtornos da Percepção/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Percepção/reabilitação , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Recompensa
6.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 131: 109865, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is a condition wherein the pre-neural or cochlear outer hair cell activity is intact, but the neural activity in the auditory nerve is disrupted. Cochlear implant (CI) can be beneficial for subjects with ANSD; however, little is known about the music perception and psychoacoustic abilities of CI users with ANSD. Music perception in CI users is a multidimensional and complex ability requiring the contribution of both auditory and nonauditory abilities. Even though auditory abilities lay the foundation, the contribution of patient-related variables such as ANSD may affect the music perception. This study aimed to evaluate the psychoacoustic and music perception abilities of CI recipients with ANSD. STUDY DESIGN: Twelve CI users with ANSD and twelve age- and gendermatched CI users with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) were evaluated. Music perception abilities were measured using the Turkish version of the Clinical Assessment of Music Perception (T-CAMP) test. Psychoacoustic abilities were measured using the spectral ripple discrimination (SRD) and temporal modulation transfer function (TMTF) tests. In addition, the age of diagnosis and implantation was recorded. RESULTS: Pitch direction discrimination (PDD), timbre recognition, SRD, and TMTF performance of CI users with ANSD were concordant with those reported in previous studies, and differences between ANSD and SNHL groups were not statistically significant. However, the ANSD group performed poorly compared with SNHL group in melody recognition subtest of T-CAMP, and the difference was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: CI can prove beneficial for patients with ANSD with respect to their music and psychoacoustic abilities, similar to patients with SNHL, except for melody recognition. Recognition of melodies requires both auditory and non-auditory abilities, and ANSD may have an extensive but subtle effect in the life of CI users.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Perda Auditiva Central/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva Central/psicologia , Música , Adolescente , Nervo Coclear/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Células Ciliadas Auditivas Externas , Perda Auditiva Central/terapia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/psicologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Nível de Discriminação Sonora , Psicoacústica
7.
Brain Dev ; 42(3): 248-255, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with Williams syndrome (WS) show a marked interest in music, a characteristic often explored in clinical settings. However, the actual musical abilities of patients with WS remain debatable due to some of the relevant data being derived from experimental tasks that require a verbal response, despite the known language impairments in WS. The present study aimed to examine musical ability in children with WS using a newly invented pitch discrimination task with minimal involvement of language and clarify its relationship with language skill. METHODS: Eleven children with WS participated in the study. We used a novel pitch discrimination task that required minimal language use. Two piano tones were presented sequentially, and children were asked to give a non-verbal response as to whether the second tone was higher than, lower than, or the same as the first tone. RESULTS: Pitch discrimination performance in children with WS was lower than the level predicted for their chronological age (CA), even in the non-verbal task. Pitch discrimination ability and verbal mental age (VMA) were shown to be dissociated, such that children with WS with a lower skill level for language showed an unexpectedly higher level of pitch discrimination ability and vice versa. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated reduced musical ability with respect to CA in children with WS. The dissociation between musical ability and language skills may indicate unique developmental relationships that differ from those in normal children. These findings provide new evidence to support the importance of assessing actual musical ability in WS prior to implementing interventional music therapy.


Assuntos
Aptidão/fisiologia , Idioma , Música , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Síndrome de Williams/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 149(1): 94-103, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157531

RESUMO

A person's ability to discriminate fine differences in tone frequency is vital for everyday hearing such as listening to speech and music. This ability can be improved through training (i.e., tone frequency learning). Depending on stimulus configurations and training procedures, tone frequency learning can either transfer to new frequencies, which would suggest learning of a general task structure, or show significant frequency specificity, which would suggest either changes in neural representations of trained frequencies, or reweighting of frequency-specific neural responses. Here we tested the hypothesis that frequency specificity in tone frequency learning can be abolished with a double-training procedure. Specifically, participants practiced tone frequency discrimination at 1 or 6 kHz, presumably encoded by different temporal or place coding mechanisms, respectively. The stimuli were brief tone pips known to produce significant specificity. Tone frequency learning was indeed initially highly frequency specific (Experiment 1). However, with additional exposure to the other untrained frequency via an irrelevant temporal interval discrimination task, or even background play during a visual task, learning transferred completely (1-to-6 kHz or 6-to-1 kHz; Experiments 2-4). These results support general task structure learning, or concept learning in our term, in tone frequency learning despite initial frequency specificity. They also suggest strategies to design efficient auditory training in practical settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Música , Fala , Adulto Jovem
9.
Exp Brain Res ; 238(1): 247-258, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844911

RESUMO

Musical expertise promotes both the perception and the processing of music. The aim of the present study was to analyze if musicians compared to non-musicians already have auditory processing advantages at the neural level. 50 musicians and 50 non-musicians worked on a task to determine the individual auditory difference threshold (individual JND threshold). A passive oddball paradigm followed while the EEG activity was recorded. Frequent standard sounds (528 hertz [Hz]) and rare deviant sounds (individual JND threshold, 535 Hz, and 558 Hz) were presented in the oddball paradigm. The mismatch negativity (MMN) and the P3a were used as indicators of auditory discrimination skills for frequency differences. Musicians had significantly smaller individual JND thresholds than non-musicians, but musicians were not faster than non-musicians. Musicians and non-musicians showed both the MMN and the P3a at the 535 Hz and 558 Hz condition. In the individual JND threshold condition, non-musicians, whose individual JND threshold was at 539.8 Hz (and therefore even above the deviant sound of 535 Hz), predictably showed the MMN and the P3a. Musicians, whose individual JND threshold was at 531.1 Hz (and thus close to the standard sound of 528 Hz), showed no MMN and P3a-although they were behaviorally able to differentiate frequencies individually within their JND threshold range. This may indicate a key role of attention in triggering the MMN during the detection of frequency differences in the individual JND threshold range (see Tervaniemi et al. in Exp Brain 161:1-10, 2005).


Assuntos
Limiar Auditivo/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Música , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Potencial Evocado P300/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(1): 356-363, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583624

RESUMO

We tested the ability to recognise speech-in-noise and its relation to the ability to discriminate vocal pitch in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developed adults (matched pairwise on age, sex, and IQ). Typically developed individuals understood speech in higher noise levels as compared to the ASD group. Within the control group but not within the ASD group, better speech-in-noise recognition abilities were significantly correlated with better vocal pitch discrimination abilities. Our results show that speech-in-noise recognition is restricted in people with ASD. We speculate that perceptual impairments such as difficulties in vocal pitch perception might be relevant in explaining these difficulties in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Nível de Percepção Sonora , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nível de Discriminação Sonora , Fala
11.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(12): 4300-4308, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805240

RESUMO

Purpose This study aimed to explore the effects of Mandarin congenital amusia with or without lexical tone deficit (i.e., tone agnosia and pure amusia) on Mandarin vowel and tone identification in different types of vowels (e.g., monophthong, diphthongs, and triphthongs) embedded in consonant-vowel contexts with and without semantic content. Method Thirteen pure amusics (i.e., amusics with normal lexical processing), 5 tone agnosics (i.e., with lexical tone deficit), and 12 controls were screened with Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia and lexical tone tests (Nan et al., 2010; Peretz et al., 2003). Vowel-plus-tone identification tasks with the factors of vowel type and syllables with and without semantic content (e.g., real and nonsense words) were examined among the 3 groups, and identification scores were calculated in 3 formats: vowel-plus-tone identification, vowel identification, and tone identification. Results Tone agnosics showed significantly poorer performances on identifications of vowel, tone, and vowel plus tone across monophthongs, diphthongs, and triphthongs in both real and nonsense words compared to pure amusics and controls. Their deficits were similar across the 3 types of vowels, while the deficit on vowel-plus-tone identification was more severe in nonsense words than in real words. On the other hand, pure amusics performed similarly with controls across all these conditions. Conclusions Tone agnosia might affect both musical pitch and phonological processing, resulting in deficits in lexical tone and vowel perception. On the contrary, pure amusics's effect is primarily on musical pitch perception but not on lexical tone or phonemic deficit. Vowel type did not affect speech deficits for tone agnosics, while they relied more on semantic content as a compensation.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/psicologia , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Semântica , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226114, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869369

RESUMO

During nightly foraging activity, echolocating bats drink by flying low over the water surface and dipping the lower jaw while avoiding further bodily contact with the water. This task poses different sensorimotor challenges than flying in the open to forage for insects. Of interest is how bats adjust the timing of their echolocation pulses to accommodate the surrounding scene, from the progressively nearer water surface itself to objects at longer distances. Drinking behavior has been described in only a few of the roughly 1,000 echolocating bat species, and in none of the 110 species in the Indian subcontinent. Here, we describe how bats emitting frequency-modulated (FM) echolocation pulses behaved while drinking from a swimming pool in urban northeast India. At least two different bat species were present, using 1st-harmonic frequencies sweeping down to about 35 Hz ("low frequency") and down to about 50 kHz ("high frequency"), separable at a 40 kHz boundary. Over entire drinking maneuvers, intervals between broadcast pulses accommodate both the proximate task of registering the water surface while drinking and registering echoes from the farther reaches of the scene. During approach to the water, both low and high frequency bats emit longer, more stable interpulse intervals that matched the time interval covering echo arrival-times out to the frequency-dependent maximum operating range. High frequency bats use shorter interpulse intervals than low frequency bats, consistent with the shorter operating range at higher frequencies. Bats then accelerate their pulse rate to guide the dive down to drinking, with low frequency bats continuing to decrease pulse intervals and high frequency bats maintaining a more steady interval during the drinking buzz. The circumstance that both groups were engaged in the same task made this a natural experiment on the behavior during approach.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/fisiologia , Ecolocação , Animais , Ingestão de Líquidos , Nível de Discriminação Sonora
13.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(12): 4256-4268, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738857

RESUMO

Purpose We recently demonstrated that individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) respond differentially to specific altered auditory feedback parameters during speech production. Participants with PD respond more robustly to pitch and less robustly to formant manipulations compared to control participants. In this study, we investigated whether differences in perceptual processing may in part underlie these compensatory differences in speech production. Methods Pitch and formant feedback manipulations were presented under 2 conditions: production and listening. In the production condition, 15 participants with PD and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy control participants judged whether their own speech output was manipulated in real time. During the listening task, participants judged whether paired tokens of their previously recorded speech samples were the same or different. Results Under listening, 1st formant manipulation discrimination was significantly reduced for the PD group compared to the control group. There was a trend toward better discrimination of pitch in the PD group, but the group difference was not significant. Under the production condition, the ability of participants with PD to identify pitch manipulations was greater than that of the controls. Conclusion The findings suggest perceptual processing differences associated with acoustic parameters of fundamental frequency and 1st formant perturbations in PD. These findings extend our previous results, indicating that different patterns of compensation to pitch and 1st formant shifts may reflect a combination of sensory and motor mechanisms that are differentially influenced by basal ganglia dysfunction.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Idoso , Gânglios da Base/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Retroalimentação Sensorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acústica da Fala , Testes de Discriminação da Fala
14.
eNeuro ; 6(5)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591138

RESUMO

The auditory cortex is topographically organized for sound frequency and contains highly selective frequency-tuned neurons, yet the role of auditory cortex in the perception of sound frequency remains unclear. Lesion studies have shown that auditory cortex is not essential for frequency discrimination of pure tones. However, transient pharmacological inactivation has been reported to impair frequency discrimination. This suggests the possibility that successful tone discrimination after recovery from lesion surgery could arise from long-term reorganization or plasticity of compensatory pathways. Here, we compared the effects of lesions and optogenetic suppression of auditory cortex on frequency discrimination in mice. We found that transient bilateral optogenetic suppression partially but significantly impaired discrimination performance. In contrast, bilateral electrolytic lesions of auditory cortex had no effect on performance of the identical task, even when tested only 4 h after lesion. This suggests that when auditory cortex is destroyed, an alternative pathway is almost immediately adequate for mediating frequency discrimination. Yet this alternative pathway is insufficient for task performance when auditory cortex is intact but has its activity suppressed. These results indicate a fundamental difference between the effects of brain lesions and optogenetic suppression, and suggest the existence of a rapid compensatory process possibly induced by injury.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos
15.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 146(3): EL232, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590538

RESUMO

While dynamic pitch is helpful for speech perception in temporally-modulated noise, the ability to benefit from this cue varies substantially among older listeners. To examine the perceptual factors that contribute to this variability, this study aimed to characterize individuals' ability to perceive dynamic pitch in temporally-modulated noise using dynamic pitch segments extracted from real speech and embedded in temporally modulated noise. Data from younger and older listeners showed stronger pitch contours were more easily perceived than weaker pitch contours. The metric significantly predicted speech-in-noise ability in older listeners. Potential implications of this work are discussed.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Nível de Percepção Sonora , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído , Nível de Discriminação Sonora , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 146(3): 1696, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590555

RESUMO

The discrimination of amplitude modulation (AM) from frequency modulation (FM) of a 1000-Hz carrier, with equally detectable AM and FM, is better for a 2-Hz than for a 10-Hz modulation rate. This might reflect greater sensitivity to temporal fine structure for low than for high rates. Alternatively, AM-FM discrimination may depend on comparing fluctuations in excitation level on the two sides of the excitation pattern, which are in phase for AM and out of phase for FM. Discrimination of the relative phase of fluctuations might worsen with increasing rate, which could account for the effect of rate on AM-FM discrimination. To test this, discrimination of the phase of AM applied to two sinusoidal carriers was assessed, with a band of noise between the two carriers to prevent use of within-channel cues. Young and older subjects with normal hearing were tested. Performance was almost constant for AM rates from 2 to 10 Hz, but worsened at 20 Hz. Performance was near chance for AM depths near the detection threshold. The results suggest that the superior AM-FM discrimination at 2 Hz cannot be explained in terms of comparison of the phase of fluctuations on the two sides of the excitation pattern.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Limiar Auditivo , Nível de Discriminação Sonora , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Audição , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
J Neurosci ; 39(49): 9797-9805, 2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641052

RESUMO

In principle, selective attention is the net result of target selection and distractor suppression. The way in which both mechanisms are implemented neurally has remained contested. Neural oscillatory power in the alpha frequency band (∼10 Hz) has been implicated in the selection of to-be-attended targets, but there is lack of empirical evidence for its involvement in the suppression of to-be-ignored distractors. Here, we use electroencephalography recordings of N = 33 human participants (males and females) to test the preregistered hypothesis that alpha power directly relates to distractor suppression and thus operates independently from target selection. In an auditory spatial pitch discrimination task, we modulated the location (left vs right) of either a target or a distractor tone sequence, while fixing the other in the front. When the distractor was fixed in the front, alpha power relatively decreased contralaterally to the target and increased ipsilaterally. Most importantly, when the target was fixed in the front, alpha lateralization reversed in direction for the suppression of distractors on the left versus right. These data show that target-selection-independent alpha power modulation is involved in distractor suppression. Although both lateralized alpha responses for selection and for suppression proved reliable, they were uncorrelated and distractor-related alpha power emerged from more anterior, frontal cortical regions. Lending functional significance to suppression-related alpha oscillations, alpha lateralization at the individual, single-trial level was predictive of behavioral accuracy. These results fuel a renewed look at neurobiological accounts of selection-independent suppressive filtering in attention.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although well established models of attention rest on the assumption that irrelevant sensory information is filtered out, the neural implementation of such a filter mechanism is unclear. Using an auditory attention task that decouples target selection from distractor suppression, we demonstrate that two sign-reversed lateralized alpha responses reflect target selection versus distractor suppression. Critically, these alpha responses are reliable, independent of each other, and generated in more anterior, frontal regions for suppression versus selection. Prediction of single-trial task performance from alpha modulation after stimulus onset agrees with the view that alpha modulation bears direct functional relevance as a neural implementation of attention. Results demonstrate that the neurobiological foundation of attention implies a selection-independent alpha oscillatory mechanism to suppress distraction.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Filtro Sensorial/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Neuroimage ; 203: 116198, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539590

RESUMO

Can human listeners use implicit temporal contingencies in auditory input to form temporal predictions, and if so, how are these predictions represented endogenously? To assess this question, we implicitly manipulated temporal predictability in an auditory pitch discrimination task: unbeknownst to participants, the pitch of the standard tone could either be deterministically predictive of the temporal onset of the target tone, or convey no predictive information. Predictive and non-predictive conditions were presented interleaved in one stream, and separated by variable inter-stimulus intervals such that there was no dominant stimulus rhythm throughout. Even though participants were unaware of the implicit temporal contingencies, pitch discrimination sensitivity (the slope of the psychometric function) increased when the onset of the target tone was predictable in time (N = 49, 28 female, 21 male). Concurrently recorded EEG data (N = 24) revealed that standard tones that conveyed temporal predictions evoked a more negative N1 component than non-predictive standards. We observed no significant differences in oscillatory power or phase coherence between conditions during the foreperiod. Importantly, the phase angle of delta oscillations (1-3 Hz) in auditory areas in the post-standard and pre-target time windows predicted behavioral pitch discrimination sensitivity. This suggests that temporal predictions are encoded in delta oscillatory phase during the foreperiod interval. In sum, we show that auditory perception benefits from implicit temporal contingencies, and provide evidence for a role of slow neural oscillations in the endogenous representation of temporal predictions, in absence of exogenously driven entrainment to rhythmic input.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Ritmo Delta , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 146(2): 956, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472563

RESUMO

This study examined the role of acquisition order and crosslinguistic similarity in influencing transfer at the initial stage of perceptually acquiring a tonal third language (L3). Perception of tones in Yoruba and Thai was tested in adult sequential bilinguals representing three different first (L1) and second language (L2) backgrounds: L1 Mandarin-L2 English (MEBs), L1 English-L2 Mandarin (EMBs), and L1 English-L2 intonational/non-tonal (EIBs). MEBs outperformed EMBs and EIBs in discriminating L3 tonal contrasts in both languages, while EMBs showed a small advantage over EIBs on Yoruba. All groups showed better overall discrimination in Thai than Yoruba, but group differences were more robust in Yoruba. MEBs' and EMBs' poor discrimination of certain L3 contrasts was further reflected in the L3 tones being perceived as similar to the same Mandarin tone; however, EIBs, with no knowledge of Mandarin, showed many of the same similarity judgments. These findings thus suggest that L1 tonal experience has a particularly facilitative effect in L3 tone perception, but there is also a facilitative effect of L2 tonal experience. Further, crosslinguistic perceptual similarity between L1/L2 and L3 tones, as well as acoustic similarity between different L3 tones, play a significant role at this early stage of L3 tone acquisition.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nível de Discriminação Sonora , Acústica da Fala
20.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(9): 3339-3358, 2019 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518510

RESUMO

Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of nonmodal phonation on estimates of subglottal pressure (Ps) derived from the magnitude of a neck-surface accelerometer (ACC) signal and to confirm previous findings regarding the impact of vowel contexts and pitch levels in a larger cohort of participants. Method Twenty-six vocally healthy participants (18 women, 8 men) were asked to produce a series of p-vowel syllables with descending loudness in 3 vowel contexts (/a/, /i/, and /u/), 3 pitch levels (comfortable, high, and low), and 4 elicited phonatory conditions (modal, breathy, strained, and rough). Estimates of Ps for each vowel segment were obtained by averaging the intraoral air pressure plateau before and after each segment. The root-mean-square magnitude of the neck-surface ACC signal was computed for each vowel segment. Three linear mixed-effects models were used to statistically assess the effects of vowel, pitch, and phonatory condition on the linear relationship (slope and intercept) between Ps and ACC signal magnitude. Results Results demonstrated statistically significant linear relationships between ACC signal magnitude and Ps within participants but with increased intercepts for the nonmodal phonatory conditions; slopes were affected to a lesser extent. Vowel and pitch contexts did not significantly affect the linear relationship between ACC signal magnitude and Ps. Conclusion The classic linear relationship between ACC signal magnitude and Ps is significantly affected when nonmodal phonation is produced by a speaker. Future work is warranted to further characterize nonmodal phonatory characteristics to improve the ACC-based prediction of Ps during naturalistic speech production.


Assuntos
Glote/fisiologia , Pescoço/fisiologia , Fonação/fisiologia , Fonética , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Aceleração , Acelerometria , Adulto , Pressão do Ar , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Medida da Produção da Fala/métodos
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