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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2786, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493923

RESUMO

Music perception is plausibly constrained by universal perceptual mechanisms adapted to natural sounds. Such constraints could arise from our dependence on harmonic frequency spectra for segregating concurrent sounds, but evidence has been circumstantial. We measured the extent to which concurrent musical notes are misperceived as a single sound, testing Westerners as well as native Amazonians with limited exposure to Western music. Both groups were more likely to mistake note combinations related by simple integer ratios as single sounds ('fusion'). Thus, even with little exposure to Western harmony, acoustic constraints on sound segregation appear to induce perceptual structure on note combinations. However, fusion did not predict aesthetic judgments of intervals in Westerners, or in Amazonians, who were indifferent to consonance/dissonance. The results suggest universal perceptual mechanisms that could help explain cross-cultural regularities in musical systems, but indicate that these mechanisms interact with culture-specific influences to produce musical phenomena such as consonance.


Assuntos
Povos Indígenas , Música , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Bolívia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Som
2.
Rev. hered. rehabil ; 3(1): 13-19, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1116194

RESUMO

A lo largo del tiempo, las alteraciones de voz han incrementado su presencia significativamente, más aún en la población infantil, afectando muchas veces su comunicación y desarrollo personal, por lo que es importante generar una cultura de prevención. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de las alteraciones de la altura tonal e intensidad vocal en niños de 4 a 6 años de las Instituciones de Educación Inicial Públicas del Distrito de Magdalena del Mar en el año 2015. Material y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de tipo transversal. Se utilizaron dos instrumentos para la recolección de datos: Una Ficha de Recolección que fue respondida por los padres de familia sobre el género, la edad y el estado actual de la voz de su niño y un Software de análisis acústico PRAAT (Versión 5.4.06) con el cual se midió la altura tonal e intensidad vocal, permitiendo determinar si la voz era la adecuada o presentaba alguna alteración, al ser comparados los resultados obtenidos con los parámetros bibliográficamente establecidos. Resultados: De una muestra total de 128 niños, se recolectó 117 datos, el 22,22% de esta población presentó tanto la altura tonal como la intensidad vocal alterados, donde el 65,38% fueron de género femenino. Además los niños de 4 y 6 años presentaron su altura tonal alterada, con un 34,29% a su población, proporcionalmente. Conclusiones: El intensidad vocal, lo que indica un inadecuado uso vocal. (AU)


Over time, the voice alterations have increased their presence significantly, affecting frequently the communication and personal development of the child population. For this reason is important to generate a culture of prevention. Objective: To determinate the frequency of the alterations of the tonal height and vocal intensity in children from 4 to 6 years old of the public Institutions of Initial Education in Magdalena del Mar district in 2015. Material and Methods: Descriptive study of transverse type. Two instruments were used for data collection: A record collection sheet that was answered by parents about the gender, age and the actual state of the voice of their child. Also a software of acoustic analysis PRAAT (Version 5.4.06) which was used to measure the tonal height and vocal intensity. It allowed to determinate if the voice was suitable or presented any alteration when the results obtained were compared with the bibliographitly parameters established. Results: A total sample of 128 children was collected 117 data, the 22.22% of this population presented both the tonal height and the vocal intensity altered, where 65.38% was of female gender. Also children of 4 and 6 years old presented their pitch altered this represents a 34.29% of their population proportionately. Conclusions: The 55.56% of the sample presented an alteration of the level of the vocal intensity which indicated a vocal inappropriate use. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Nível de Percepção Sonora , Voz , Qualidade da Voz , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14057-14065, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513702

RESUMO

Humans demonstrate a prototypical hemispheric functional segregation pattern, with language and praxis lateralizing to the left hemisphere and spatial attention, face recognition, and emotional prosody to the right hemisphere. In this study, we used fMRI to determine laterality for all five functions in each participant. Crucially, we recruited a sample of left-handers preselected for atypical (right) language dominance (n = 24), which allowed us to characterize hemispheric asymmetry of the other functions and compare their functional segregation pattern with that of left-handers showing typical language dominance (n = 39). Our results revealed that most participants with left language dominance display the prototypical pattern of functional hemispheric segregation (44%) or deviate from this pattern in only one function (35%). Similarly, the vast majority of right language dominant participants demonstrated a completely mirrored brain organization (50%) or a reversal for all but one cognitive function (32%). Participants deviating by more than one function from the standard segregation pattern showed poorer cognitive performance, in line with an oft-presumed biological advantage of hemispheric functional segregation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Emoções , Reconhecimento Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Nível de Percepção Sonora , Percepção Espacial
4.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232514, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate if, regardless of language background (tonal or non-tonal), musicians may show stronger CP than non-musicians; To examine if native speakers of English (English or non-tonal musicians henceforth) or Mandarin Chinese (Mandarin or tonal musicians henceforth) can better accommodate multiple functions of the same acoustic cue and if musicians' sensitivity to pitch of lexical tones comes at the cost of slower processing. METHOD: English and Mandarin Musicians and non-musicians performed a categorical identification and a discrimination task on rising and falling continua of fundamental frequency on two vowels with 9 duration values. RESULTS: Non-tonal musicians exhibited significantly stronger categorical perception of pitch contour than non-tonal non-musicians. However, tonal musicians did not consistently perceive the two types of pitch directions more categorically than tonal non-musicians. Both tonal and non-tonal musicians also benefited more from increasing stimulus duration in processing pitch changes than non-musicians and they generally require less time for pitch processing. Musicians were also more sensitive to intrinsic F0 in pitch perception and differences of pitch types. CONCLUSION: The effect of musical training strengthens categorical perception more consistently in non-tonal speakers than tonal speakers. Overall, musicians benefit more from increased stimulus duration, due perhaps to their greater sensitivity to temporal information, thus allowing them to be better at forming a more robust auditory representation and matching sounds to internalized memory templates. Musicians also attended more to acoustic details such as intrinsic F0 and pitch types in pitch processing, and yet, overall, their categorization of pitch was not compromised by traces of these acoustic details from their auditory short-term working memory. These findings may lead to a better understanding of pitch perception deficits in special populations, particularly among individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).


Assuntos
Idioma , Música/psicologia , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Acústica da Fala , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130244

RESUMO

Music and language have long been considered two distinct cognitive faculties governed by domain-specific cognitive and neural mechanisms. Recent work into the domain-specificity of pitch processing in both domains appears to suggest pitch processing to be governed by shared neural mechanisms. The current study aimed to explore the domain-specificity of pitch processing by simultaneously presenting pitch contours in speech and music to speakers of a tonal language, and measuring behavioral response and event-related potentials (ERPs). Native speakers of Mandarin were exposed to concurrent pitch contours in melody and speech. Contours in melody emulated those in speech were either congruent or incongruent with the pitch contour of the lexical tone (i.e., rising or falling). Component magnitudes of the N2b and N400 were used as indices of lexical processing. We found that the N2b was modulated by melodic pitch; incongruent item evoked significantly stronger amplitude. There was a trend of N400 to be modulated in the same way. Interestingly, these effects were present only on rising tones. Amplitude and time-course of the N2b and N400 may suggest an interference of melodic pitch contours with both early and late stages of phonological and semantic processing.


Assuntos
Idioma , Música/psicologia , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Semântica , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Neurosci ; 40(10): 2108-2118, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001611

RESUMO

In tonal music, continuous acoustic waveforms are mapped onto discrete, hierarchically arranged, internal representations of pitch. To examine the neural dynamics underlying this transformation, we presented male and female human listeners with tones embedded within a Western tonal context while recording their cortical activity using magnetoencephalography. Machine learning classifiers were then trained to decode different tones from their underlying neural activation patterns at each peristimulus time sample, providing a dynamic measure of their dissimilarity in cortex. Comparing the time-varying dissimilarity between tones with the predictions of acoustic and perceptual models, we observed a temporal evolution in the brain's representational structure. Whereas initial dissimilarities mirrored their fundamental-frequency separation, dissimilarities beyond 200 ms reflected the perceptual status of each tone within the tonal hierarchy of Western music. These effects occurred regardless of stimulus regularities within the context or whether listeners were engaged in a task requiring explicit pitch analysis. Lastly, patterns of cortical activity that discriminated between tones became increasingly stable in time as the information coded by those patterns transitioned from low-to-high level properties. Current results reveal the dynamics with which the complex perceptual structure of Western tonal music emerges in cortex at the timescale of an individual tone.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Little is understood about how the brain transforms an acoustic waveform into the complex perceptual structure of musical pitch. Applying neural decoding techniques to the cortical activity of human subjects engaged in music listening, we measured the dynamics of information processing in the brain on a moment-to-moment basis as subjects heard each tone. In the first 200 ms after onset, transient patterns of neural activity coded the fundamental frequency of tones. Subsequently, a period emerged during which more temporally stable activation patterns coded the perceptual status of each tone within the "tonal hierarchy" of Western music. Our results provide a crucial link between the complex perceptual structure of tonal music and the underlying neural dynamics from which it emerges.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Magnetoencefalografia , Masculino
8.
Science ; 367(6481): 1043-1047, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108113

RESUMO

Does brain asymmetry for speech and music emerge from acoustical cues or from domain-specific neural networks? We selectively filtered temporal or spectral modulations in sung speech stimuli for which verbal and melodic content was crossed and balanced. Perception of speech decreased only with degradation of temporal information, whereas perception of melodies decreased only with spectral degradation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data showed that the neural decoding of speech and melodies depends on activity patterns in left and right auditory regions, respectively. This asymmetry is supported by specific sensitivity to spectrotemporal modulation rates within each region. Finally, the effects of degradation on perception were paralleled by their effects on neural classification. Our results suggest a match between acoustical properties of communicative signals and neural specializations adapted to that purpose.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Música , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Neurosci ; 40(10): 2080-2093, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996454

RESUMO

Harmonic complex tones (HCTs) commonly occurring in speech and music evoke a strong pitch at their fundamental frequency (F0), especially when they contain harmonics individually resolved by the cochlea. When all frequency components of an HCT are shifted by the same amount, the pitch of the resulting inharmonic tone (IHCT) can also shift, although the envelope repetition rate is unchanged. A rate-place code, whereby resolved harmonics are represented by local maxima in firing rates along the tonotopic axis, has been characterized in the auditory nerve and primary auditory cortex, but little is known about intermediate processing stages. We recorded single-neuron responses to HCT and IHCT with varying F0 and sound level in the inferior colliculus (IC) of unanesthetized rabbits of both sexes. Many neurons showed peaks in firing rate when a low-numbered harmonic aligned with the neuron's characteristic frequency, demonstrating "rate-place" coding. The IC rate-place code was most prevalent for F0 > 800 Hz, was only moderately dependent on sound level over a 40 dB range, and was not sensitive to stimulus harmonicity. A spectral receptive-field model incorporating broadband inhibition better predicted the neural responses than a purely excitatory model, suggesting an enhancement of the rate-place representation by inhibition. Some IC neurons showed facilitation in response to HCT relative to pure tones, similar to cortical "harmonic template neurons" (Feng and Wang, 2017), but to a lesser degree. Our findings shed light on the transformation of rate-place coding of resolved harmonics along the auditory pathway.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Harmonic complex tones are ubiquitous in speech and music and produce strong pitch percepts when they contain frequency components that are individually resolved by the cochlea. Here, we characterize a "rate-place" code for resolved harmonics in the auditory midbrain that is more robust across sound levels than the peripheral rate-place code and insensitive to the harmonic relationships among frequency components. We use a computational model to show that inhibition may play an important role in shaping the rate-place code. Our study fills a major gap in understanding the transformations in neural representations of resolved harmonics along the auditory pathway.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Colículos Inferiores/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Animais , Vias Auditivas/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Coelhos
10.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(1): 356-363, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583624

RESUMO

We tested the ability to recognise speech-in-noise and its relation to the ability to discriminate vocal pitch in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developed adults (matched pairwise on age, sex, and IQ). Typically developed individuals understood speech in higher noise levels as compared to the ASD group. Within the control group but not within the ASD group, better speech-in-noise recognition abilities were significantly correlated with better vocal pitch discrimination abilities. Our results show that speech-in-noise recognition is restricted in people with ASD. We speculate that perceptual impairments such as difficulties in vocal pitch perception might be relevant in explaining these difficulties in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Nível de Percepção Sonora , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nível de Discriminação Sonora , Fala
11.
Brain Cogn ; 138: 103621, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862512

RESUMO

Humans automatically detect events that, in deviating from their expectations, may signal prediction failure and a need to reorient behaviour. The pupil dilation response (PDR) to violations has been associated with subcortical signals of arousal and prediction resetting. However, it is unclear how the context in which a deviant occurs affects the size of the PDR. Using ecological musical stimuli that we characterised using a computational model, we showed that the PDR to pitch deviants is sensitive to contextual uncertainty (quantified as entropy), whereby the PDR was greater in low than high entropy contexts. The PDR was also positively correlated with the unexpectedness of notes. No effects of music expertise were found, suggesting a ceiling effect due to enculturation. These results show that the same sudden environmental change can lead to differing arousal levels depending on contextual factors, providing evidence for a sensitivity of the PDR to long-term context.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Música , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225519, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790454

RESUMO

Congenital amusia, commonly known as tone deafness, is a lifelong impairment of music perception and production. It remains a question of debate whether the impairments in musical domain observed in congenital amusia are paralleled in other non-musical perceptual abilities. Using behavioral measures in two experiments, the current study explored face perception and memory in congenital amusics. Both congenital amusics and matched controls performed a face perception task (Experiment 1) and an old/novel object memory task (for both faces and houses, Experiment 2). The results showed that the congenital amusic group had significantly slower reaction times than that in matched control group when identifying whether two faces presented together were the same or different. For different face-pairs, the deficit was greater for upright faces compared with inverted faces. For object memory task, the congenital amusic group also showed worse memory performance than the control group. The results of the present study suggest that the impairment attributed to congenital amusia is not only limited to music, but also extends to visual perception and visual memory domain.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226734, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856208

RESUMO

Statistical learning is the ability to learn based on transitional probability (TP) in sequential information, which has been considered to contribute to creativity in music. The interdisciplinary theory of statistical learning examines statistical learning as a mechanism of human learning. This study investigated how TP distribution and conditional entropy in TP of the melody and bass line in music interact with each other, using the highest and lowest pitches in Beethoven's piano sonatas and Johann Sebastian Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier. Results for the two composers were similar. First, the results detected specific statistical characteristics that are unique to each melody and bass line as well as general statistical characteristics that are shared between the melody and bass line. Additionally, a correlation of the conditional entropies sampled from the TP distribution could be detected between the melody and bass line. This suggests that the variability of entropies interacts between the melody and bass line. In summary, this study suggested that TP distributions and the entropies of the melody and bass line interact with but are partly independent of each other.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Música/psicologia , Incerteza , Acústica , Humanos , Nível de Percepção Sonora , Som
14.
Brain Cogn ; 136: 103614, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546175

RESUMO

Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in music perception, including discriminating and remembering melodies and melodic contours. As non-amusic listeners can perceive contours in dimensions other than pitch, such as loudness and brightness, our present study investigated whether amusics' pitch contour deficits also extend to these other auditory dimensions. Amusic and control participants performed an identification task for ten familiar melodies and a short-term memory task requiring the discrimination of changes in the contour of novel four-tone melodies. For both tasks, melodic contour was defined by pitch, brightness, or loudness. Amusic participants showed some ability to extract contours in all three dimensions. For familiar melodies, amusic participants showed impairment in all conditions, perhaps reflecting the fact that the long-term memory representations of the familiar melodies were defined in pitch. In the contour discrimination task with novel melodies, amusic participants exhibited less impairment for loudness-based melodies than for pitch- or brightness-based melodies, suggesting some specificity of the deficit for spectral changes, if not for pitch alone. The results suggest pitch and brightness may not be processed by the same mechanisms as loudness, and that short-term memory for loudness contours may be spared to some degree in congenital amusia.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/psicologia , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Música , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222380, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518379

RESUMO

Does music penetrate cultural differences with its ability to evoke emotion? The ragas of Hindustani music are specific sequences of notes that elicit various emotions: happy, romantic, devotion, calm, angry, longing, tension and sad. They can be presented in two modes, alaap and gat, which differ in rhythm, but match in tonality. Participants from Indian and Non-Indian cultures (N = 144 and 112, respectively) rated twenty-four pieces of Hindustani ragas on eight dimensions of emotion, in a free response task. Of the 192 between-group comparisons, ratings differed in only 9% of the instances, showing universality across multiple musical emotions. Robust regression analyses and machine learning methods revealed tonality best explained emotion ratings for Indian participants whereas rhythm was the primary predictor in Non-Indian listeners. Our results provide compelling evidence for universality in emotions in the auditory domain in the realm of musical emotion, driven by distinct acoustic features that depend on listeners' cultural backgrounds.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Acústica , Implantes Cocleares , Sinais (Psicologia) , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Música/psicologia , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia
16.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 292-298, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040024

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a negative long-latency auditory potential elicited by any discriminable change in a repetitive aspect of auditory stimulation. This evoked potential can provide cortical information about the sound processing, including in children who use cochlear implants. Objective To identify MMN characteristics regarding latency, amplitude, and wave area in cochlear implanted children and to identify associations among language development, speech perception and family involvement. Methods This is a descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study, which compared two groups: study group-children with cochlear implant, and control group-hearing children. The children were submitted to MMN evaluation with non-verbal tone burst stimulus, differing in frequency in sound field at 70 dBHL, with SmartEP equipment (Intelligent Hearing Systems, Miami, FL, USA). Speech perception and language development questionnaires were also applied, and the family participation in the rehabilitation process was classified. Results The occurrence ofMMNwas 73.3% for the control group and 53.3% for the study group. Values of latency, amplitude and area of MMN of children using cochlear implants were similar tothose ofhearingchildren, anddidnot differbetweengroups. The occurrence of MMN was not correlated to the variables of hearing, language and family categories. Conclusion Children with cochlear implants showed similar MMN responses to those of the children in the control group, withmean latency, amplitude andarea of 208.9ms (±12.8), -2.37 μV (±0.38) and 86.5 μVms (±23.4), respectively. There was no correlation between the presence of MMN and children's performance in the auditory and language development tests or family involvement during rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Nível de Discriminação Sonora , Nível de Percepção Sonora , Implantes Cocleares , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos , Percepção da Fala , Estimulação Acústica , Família , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Estimulação Elétrica , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem
17.
Cogn Process ; 20(4): 495-506, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435748

RESUMO

Auditory pitch is represented on a vertical continuum (e.g., high vs. low). In three experiments, we examined whether the kinesthetic experience of moving in a particular direction (e.g., walking up vs. down stairs; reaching up vs. down) would affect judgments of auditory pitch. Participants listened to three tones twice each, once while moving upward and once while moving downward, and estimated the pitch of each tone. In all experiments, participants' judgments of the tones' pitch were biased in the direction of their movement. Moreover, this effect is not due to visibility of the movement or to using a numerical response method. Our results suggest that kinesthetic information from one's own bodily movements biases pitch estimation, and several possible mechanisms for the effect are discussed.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Nível de Percepção Sonora , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(7): 2473-2481, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286436

RESUMO

Vocal imitation guides both music and language development. Despite the developmental significance of this behavior, a sizable minority of individuals are inaccurate at vocal pitch imitation. Although previous research suggested that inaccurate pitch imitation results from deficient sensorimotor associations between pitch perception and vocal motor planning, the cognitive processes involved in sensorimotor translation are not clearly defined. In the present research, we investigated the roles of basic cognitive processes in the vocal imitation of pitch, as well as the degree to which these processes rely on pitch-specific resources. In the present study, participants completed a battery of pitch and verbal tasks to measure pitch perception, pitch and verbal auditory imagery, pitch and verbal auditory short-term memory, and pitch imitation ability. Information on participants' music background was collected, as well. Pitch imagery, pitch short-term memory, pitch discrimination ability, and musical experience were unique predictors of pitch imitation ability. Furthermore, pitch imagery was a partial mediator of the relationship between pitch short-term memory and pitch imitation ability. These results indicate that vocal imitation recruits cognitive processes that rely on at least partially separate neural resources for pitch and verbal representations.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Comportamento Imitativo/fisiologia , Música , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Música/psicologia
20.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 143: 9-24, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251954

RESUMO

The present study investigates in how far morphosyntactic processing is affected by an additional non-verbal task and whether this effect differs between German and Spanish, two languages with differences in processing grammatical gender (lexical vs. cue-based processing). By manipulating task load and language we aimed at getting an insight into subprocesses of morphosyntax and their dependence on resources of general and verbal working memory, respectively. In more general terms, this study contributes to the debate on the modularity of morphosyntax. Written German or Spanish sentences with or without gender violations were presented word by word to native speakers. The critical words temporally overlapped in different degrees with a non-linguistic stimulus (a high or low tone). In a single task (Experiment 1) participants judged sentence acceptability and ignored the tones. Experiment 2 required a response to the tones. Left-anterior negativity (LAN) and P600 components were analyzed in the ERPs to critical words. Whereas the LAN was not affected by any of the experimental manipulations, the P600 was modulated as a function of language during the single task conditions (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2 the additional task did not add up with this effect; instead, the differences between language groups vanished. This may indicate that the processes reflected in the P600 draw on resources of general working memory. The LAN data seem to be in line with modularity of first pass morphosyntactic processing, although this interpretation contradicts findings from other studies. The P600 results may highlight the flexibility of sentence-based syntactic processing.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Leitura , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
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