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1.
J UOEH ; 42(3): 267-274, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879191

RESUMO

International immigration into Japan is increasing. It would make sense that investigating the health status of immigrants would be associated with improvements in their health and would be beneficial in building a complete social security system in which minorities can live safely and securely. The objective of this study is to describe the health status of immigrants in Japan and to explore the association between self-rated health status and employment status. As a result, half of those surveyed had some health problem, particularly a lot of mental stress. We did not find a significant relationship between self-rated health status and employment status, but it seems that people who stay in Japan 5 years or more tend to have poor self-rated health status. The factors associated with poor self-rated mental health status were being a non-employee, and having visited a hospital 1 time or more during the past 12 months. A system of mental stress care would be the most necessary health care for international students in Japan.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emprego , Nível de Saúde , Saúde do Trabalhador , Autoavaliação , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Fisiológico , Adulto Jovem
3.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(6): 633-640, 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879119

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the psychological status of medical staff in the epidemic period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to analyze its influential factors. METHODS: A total of 373 medical staff from Xiangya Hospital and the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University were enrolled for this study. The General Sociological Data Questionnaire, Symptom Check-List 90 (SCL-90), and self-designed public opinion response questionnaire were used to assess general sociological data, mental health scores, and ability to respond to COVID-19 related public opinion information of medical staff. The mental health scores of medical staff with different general sociological data and public opinion information coping abilities were compared. Influential factors of mental health were analyzed. RESULTS: The average score of 10 factors in SCL-90 of 373 medical staff was less than 2 points. 14.21% medical staff had one or more factor scores more than two points, including 11.26% with terror symptoms, 7.77% with compulsive symptoms, and 5.63% with anxiety. The main sources of COVID-19 information for medical staff included WeChat, microblog, Jinri toutiao, TV and radio. 66.22% medical staff regularly verified information about COVID-19 through official websites or formal channels. A great deal of COVID-19 information in WeChat could make medical staff nervous (34.05%), anxious (30.29%), and insecure (29.22%). 68.63% medical staff sometimes were worried about getting infected because they knew information about COVID-19. Different departments of medical staff, getting cough or having a fever recently, and the degree of fear of infection had an impact on the SCL-90 score of medical staff, the differences were all statistically significant (all P<0.05). Stepwise regression analysis showed that the impact of COVID-19 information on their life in WeChat, getting cough or having a fever recently, insomnia-early caused by COVID-19 information in WeChat, different departments, and the degree of fear of infection COVID-19 were the influential factors for the mental health of medical staff (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During the epidemic of COVID-19, medical staff suffered from psychological problems to various degrees. It is necessary to establish a psychological assistance platform and guide the direction of public opinion correctly to promote the mental health of medical staff.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Corpo Clínico/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Ansiedade , Betacoronavirus , China , Comportamento Compulsivo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Medo , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(6): 657-664, 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) brought psychological stress to the public, especially to patients. This study aims to investigate the mental health of patients with COVID-19 in Changsha. METHODS: We took cross-section investigation for the mental health of 112 patients with COVID-19 via questionnaires. Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test were performed to compare general and clinical data between the slight-ordinary patients and severe patients. Single sample t-tests were used to compare the difference between the factor scores of the Symptom Check-List 90 (SCL-90) in COVID-19 patients with the norm of 2015 and factor scores of SCL-90 in patients with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). RESULTS: The obsessive-compulsive, depression, sleep and eating disorders had the highest frequency among the positive symptoms of SCL-90 in patients with COVID-19 in Changsha. The factor scores of somatization, depression, anxiety, phobia anxiety, sleep and eating disorders in patients with COVID-19 were higher than those of the norm (P≤0.001 or P<0.05). Slight-ordinary patients with COVID-19 in Changsha showed lower factor scores of somatization, depression, anxiety, and hostility compared with the patients with SARS (P<0.001 or P<0.05). There was no difference in factor scores of SCL-90 between the patients with severe COVID-19 and those with SARS(P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The levels of somatization, depression, anxiety, phobia anxiety, sleep and eating disorders in patients with COVID-19 in Changsha are higher than those of the norm. However, the mental health of slight-ordinary patients with COVID-19 is better than that of patients with SARS. It needs to provide targeting psychological interventions depending on the severity of patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Ansiedade , Betacoronavirus , China , Depressão , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Pandemias , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Public Health Rep ; 135(1_suppl): 82S-89S, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Correctional settings (prisons, jails, detention facilities) provide a unique opportunity to screen for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among correctional populations with a high prevalence of infection. Immigrant detainees are a distinct and poorly described correctional population. The main objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of a national STI screening program for immigrant detainees. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We developed an opt-out STI testing program that included electronic health record integration, patient education, and staff member training. We piloted this program from June 22 through August 19, 2018, at 2 detention facilities with different operational requirements and detainee demographic characteristics. We assessed STI test positivity rates, treatment outcomes, estimated cost to conduct testing and counseling, and staff member perceptions of program value and challenges to implementation. RESULTS: Of 1041 immigrant detainees approached for testing, 526 (50.5%) declined. Of 494 detainees who were tested, 42 (8.5%) tested positive for at least 1 STI; the percentage positivity rates were 6.7% (n = 33) for chlamydia, 0.8% (n = 4) for syphilis, 0.8% (n = 4) for gonorrhea, 0.6% (n = 3) for hepatitis B, and 0.2% (n = 1) for HIV. The estimated cost to detect any STI ranged from $500 to $961; the estimated cost to identify 1 person infected with HIV ranged from $22 497 to $43 244. Forty of 42 persons who tested positive began treatment before release from custody. Medical staff members had positive views of the program but had concerns about workload. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: STIs are prevalent among immigrant detainees. A routine screening program is feasible if operational aspects are carefully considered and would provide counseling, education, and treatment for this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Public Health Rep ; 135(1_suppl): 138S-148S, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The impact of a syringe services program (SSP) policy on risk behaviors and its durability are not as well studied as the impact of the SSPs themselves. We examined whether trends in syringe sharing among persons who inject drugs (PWID) were associated with changes to syringe access policies in 3 US cities: Denver, New Orleans, and Philadelphia. METHODS: PWID were surveyed through National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System surveys in each city in 2005, 2009, 2012, and 2015. We assessed changes in syringe sharing from 2005 to 2015 by city. We used multivariable stepwise logistic regression analysis to measure the associations among syringe sharing and injection works sharing, time, and SSP access. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2015, syringe sharing decreased significantly from 49.1% to 33.1% in Denver (P < .001), increased significantly from 32.0% to 50.5% in New Orleans (P < .001), and remained unchanged in Philadelphia (30.4% to 31.5%; P = .87). Compared with persons who obtained syringes from any nonsterile source, the adjusted odds of syringe sharing among PWID were significantly lower in each city if syringes were obtained from sterile sources only: Denver adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-0.30; New Orleans aOR = 0.26 (95% CI, 0.19-0.35), and Philadelphia aOR = 0.43 (95% CI, 0.33-0.57). CONCLUSIONS: The lowest proportion of PWID reporting syringe sharing was in Philadelphia, which has a long-standing legal SSP. Implementation of a legal SSP in Denver in 2012 corresponded to a decrease in sharing, whereas the lack of a legal SSP in New Orleans corresponded to an increase in sharing. Universal long-term access to legal SSPs could further the progress made in HIV prevention among PWID.


Assuntos
Uso Comum de Agulhas e Seringas/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Troca de Agulhas/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Med Life ; 13(2): 235-240, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742520

RESUMO

Oral fluids provide a readily available and non-invasive medium for the diagnosis of a wide range of diseases and clinical situations. Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic metabolic disorder that affects millions of people. Our objective was to compare the salivary and serum glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus and healthy individuals. Two ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected by the spitting method. Also, 2 ml of the patient's intravenous blood was obtained from the forearm's median cephalic vein. Both the samples were centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 2-3 minutes. Ten µl of both saliva and serum were taken out and added to glucose reagent. These were kept in a temperature-controlled water bath at 37°C for 10 minutes. The color change was noted, and the optical density was measured in a semi-auto analyzer. The presence of glucose was detected in both groups; however, the levels were raised in people with diabetes compared to healthy individuals. The present study indicated a substantial increase in salivary and serum glucose levels in diabetic patients compared to healthy controls. The concentration of glucose in saliva increases with the increase in serum glucose concentration.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Malawi Med J ; 32(1): 37-44, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733658

RESUMO

Background: The report from the World Health Organization (WHO) reveals that health spending worldwide remains highly unequal as more than 80% of the world's population live in low and middle-income countries but only account for about 20% of global health expenditure. Another report by the WHO on the state of health financing in Africa published in 2013 intimates that countries that are part of their member states are still on the average level in meeting set goals in financing key health projects. Objective: The study set out to investigate the association between public and private spending and health status for eight selected African countries, namely Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda. Health status indicators include the incidence of tuberculosis, mortality rates, maternal deaths and prevalence of HIV. Methods: Descriptive statistics and pairwise correlation are used to assess the relationship between healthcare spending and health status. Random and fixed effect models are further employed to provide insights into the association between descriptive statistics and pairwise correlation. We used annual data from the year 2000 to 2014 obtained from world development indicators. Results: The relationship between healthcare spending (public and private) and health status is statistically significant. Public healthcare expenditure has a higher association than private expenditure in reducing the mortality rate, tuberculosis and HIV for the average country in our sample. For example, an increase in public healthcare spending is negatively associated and statistically significant at 5% or better in reducing female mortality, male mortality, tuberculosis and HIV. Private healthcare spending is more impactful in the area of maternal deaths, where it is associated negatively and statistically significant at 1%. An increase in private healthcare spending is linked to a reduction in maternal deaths. We also compared the association between an increase in healthcare spending on males versus females and observed that public health expenditure impacts the health status of both sexes equally, however, private health expenditure provides a greater positive benefit to males. It is worth remembering that two goals of the United Nations agenda on sustainable development are gender equality and ensuring healthcare for all. Conclusion: The findings of this research call for the selected African countries to pay more attention to public healthcare expenditure in order to improve health status, especially since private healthcare which provides access to healthcare facilities for some poor people leads to costs that are a burden. So, future research should focus on analyzing components of private healthcare spending such as direct household out-of-pocket spending, private insurance and direct service payments by private corporations as dependent variables to understand what form of private investment should be encouraged.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/economia , Gastos em Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Saúde Pública/economia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , África Oriental , Infecções por HIV/economia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Morte Materna , Mortalidade , Prevalência
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21495, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769885

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between doctor-shopping behavior and clinical conditions, and to clearly outline the effects of both the number of clinic visits and the number of doctor changes on patients' health conditions. Data from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004 was collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. After randomly selecting one million people, we extracted 5-year longitudinal data, about the number of clinic visits, number of doctor changes, and changes in self-health status for each patient with diabetes over the age of 18. We developed a relationship among the variables by using the generalized estimating equation. The results revealed that the number of clinic visits on the change of health status is a U curve, suggesting that health condition could be optimal with an appropriate number of clinic visits. The effect of the number of doctor changes is linearly correlated with health deterioration. The results suggest that disease conditions can only be controlled with an adequate number of clinic visits. Excessively frequent clinic visits are not only unfavorable to patients' health status but are also wasteful of limited medical resources. For diabetic mellitus patients, the more they change doctors, the worse their health status. All of these results are important for patients to stay healthy and to save medical resources.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/psicologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 121, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821332

RESUMO

The risk of infection and death from COVID-19 is higher among older prisoners with pre-existing health conditions especially in sub-Saharan African. Hawks L et al. raise four concerns that need to be considered when developing public health and clinical responses to COVID-19 to protect prisoners. This paper applies these concerns to the sub-Saharan African context. These focus areas include 1) challenges of social distancing; 2) higher risk of severe infection and death; 3) difficulties health care systems may face in the case of COVID-19 surge; and 4) recommended solutions to prevent harm and preventing a public health catastrophe. Prisoners are more vulnerable and the time to take immediate actions to minimize an imminent COVID-19 outbreak and its impacts is now.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prisioneiros , Prisões , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Aglomeração , Países em Desenvolvimento , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Espaço Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Isolamento Social
12.
Lancet ; 396(10250): 565-582, 2020 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828189

RESUMO

Clinicians can encounter sex and gender disparities in diagnostic and therapeutic responses. These disparities are noted in epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, disease progression, and response to treatment. This Review discusses the fundamental influences of sex and gender as modifiers of the major causes of death and morbidity. We articulate how the genetic, epigenetic, and hormonal influences of biological sex influence physiology and disease, and how the social constructs of gender affect the behaviour of the community, clinicians, and patients in the health-care system and interact with pathobiology. We aim to guide clinicians and researchers to consider sex and gender in their approach to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases as a necessary and fundamental step towards precision medicine, which will benefit men's and women's health.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Nível de Saúde , Medicina de Precisão/normas , Distribuição por Sexo , Doença Aguda/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 26(5): 500-507, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773618

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Critical illness survivorship is associated with new and worsening physical, cognitive, and emotional status. Survivors are vulnerable to further health set-backs, most commonly because of infection and exacerbation of chronic medical conditions. Awareness of survivors' challenges are important given the anticipated rise in critical illness survivors because of SARS-CoV-2 viral sepsis. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies continue to document challenges of critical illness survivorship. Beyond the cognitive, physical, and mental health sequelae encompassed by postintensive case syndrome, patients commonly experience persistent immunosuppression, re-hospitalization, inability to resume prior employment, and reduced quality of life. Although recommended practices for enhancing recovery from sepsis are associated with better outcomes, only a minority of patients receive all recommended practices. ICU follow-up programs or peer support groups remain important interventions to learn about and address the multifaceted challenges of critical illness survivorship, but there is little evidence of benefit to date. SUMMARY: Survivors of sepsis and critical illness commonly experience impaired health status, reduced quality of life, and inability to return to prior employment. Although the challenges of critical illness survivorship are increasingly well documented, there are relatively few studies on enhancing recovery. Future studies must focus on identifying best practices for optimizing recovery and strategies to promote their implementation.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Sobrevivência , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Qualidade de Vida , Retorno ao Trabalho
14.
Sleep Med ; 75: 12-20, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853913

RESUMO

Background: The 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has become a global health emergency. The extreme actions aimed to reduce virus diffusion have profoundly changed the lifestyles of the Italian population. Moreover, fear of contracting the infection has generated high levels of anxiety. This study aimed to understand the psychological impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on sleep quality, general anxiety symptomatology, and psychological distress. Methods: An online survey collected information on socio-demographic data and additional information concerning the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, sleep quality, sleep disorders, generalized anxiety symptoms, psychological distress, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology related to COVID-19 were assessed. Results: This study included 2291 respondents. The results revealed that 57.1% of participants reported poor sleep quality, 32.1% high anxiety, 41.8% high distress, and 7.6% reported PTSD symptomatology linked to COVID-19. Youth and women, those uncertain regarding possible COVID-19 infection, and greater fear of direct contact with those infected by COVID-19 had an increased risk of developing sleep disturbances, as well as higher levels of anxiety and distress. Finally, a significant relationship between sleep quality, generalized anxiety, and psychological distress with PTSD symptoms related to COVID-19 was evidenced. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic appears to be a risk factor for sleep disorders and psychological diseases in the Italian population, as previously reported in China. These results should be used as a starting point for further studies aimed to develop psychological interventions to minimize the brief and long-term consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Quarentena/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806699

RESUMO

It seems that the medical personnel in contact with patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 are at an especially high risk of adverse psychological effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the mental health factors among healthcare workers by quantifying the severity of anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders during the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, while taking into account coexisting diseases. The study involved 441 healthcare professionals including 206 healthcare workers at emergency wards, infectious wards, and intensive care units. The control group consisted of 235 healthcare workers working in wards other than those where individuals from the study group worked. Regression adjusted by age, gender, the occurrence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, asthma, autoimmune diseases, and cigarette smoking showed the elevated risk of anxiety on the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale (OR = 1.934; p < 0.001), depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scale (OR = 2.623; p < 0.001), and sleep disorders on the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) scale (OR = 3.078; p < 0.001). Our study showed that healthcare workers who are exposed to SARS-CoV-2-infected patients at emergency wards, infectious wards, and intensive care units are at a much higher risk of showing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders than healthcare workers working in other wards.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Polônia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
17.
Health Rep ; 31(8): 3-12, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies of the healthy immigrant effect (HIE) have examined the mental health outcomes of Canadian-born individuals on a national scale compared with immigrants by admission category. This study fills this gap by examining the self-reported mental health (SRMH) of immigrants by admission category and other immigration dimensions (e.g., source world region and duration since landing) and making comparisons with Canadian-born respondents to a population-based survey. DATA AND METHODS: Based on four cycles (2011 to 2014) of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) linked to the Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB), odds ratios of high (i.e., excellent or very good) SRMH among Canadian-born respondents and IMDB-linked immigrants are compared using logistic regression. Among the IMDB immigrant population, high SRMH was also examined according to the above-mentioned immigration dimensions. Adjusted results were hierarchically controlled for age, sex, social and economic factors, and sense of belonging. RESULTS: Age-sex adjusted results show that immigrants, especially refugees, are less likely than the Canadian-born population to report high mental health levels, but these differences disappeared after full adjustment. The odds of immigrants having high SRMH differed more by source world region and duration since landing. For example, fully adjusted results show support for the HIE, with recent immigrants (interviewed within 10 years of landing) more likely to report high SRMH than either the Canadian-born population or established immigrants. Greater odds of high SRMH among recent immigrants also holds across admission classes and for selected world regions. DISCUSSION: This study provides new evidence on differences in mental health between Canadian-born individuals and immigrants by various characteristics. Results support a deterioration of the HIE in SRMH and identify factors significantly associated with SRMH. This study can also serve as a baseline for further studies on the impact of COVID-19 on immigrants' mental health by immigrant category.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Refugiados/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Emigração e Imigração , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238091, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is now well recognised that the risk of severe COVID-19 increases with some long-term conditions (LTCs). However, prior research primarily focuses on individual LTCs and there is a lack of data on the influence of multimorbidity (≥2 LTCs) on the risk of COVID-19. Given the high prevalence of multimorbidity, more detailed understanding of the associations with multimorbidity and COVID-19 would improve risk stratification and help protect those most vulnerable to severe COVID-19. Here we examine the relationships between multimorbidity, polypharmacy (a proxy of multimorbidity), and COVID-19; and how these differ by sociodemographic, lifestyle, and physiological prognostic factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied data from UK Biobank (428,199 participants; aged 37-73; recruited 2006-2010) on self-reported LTCs, medications, sociodemographic, lifestyle, and physiological measures which were linked to COVID-19 test data. Poisson regression models examined risk of COVID-19 by multimorbidity/polypharmacy and effect modification by COVID-19 prognostic factors (age/sex/ethnicity/socioeconomic status/smoking/physical activity/BMI/systolic blood pressure/renal function). 4,498 (1.05%) participants were tested; 1,324 (0.31%) tested positive for COVID-19. Compared with no LTCs, relative risk (RR) of COVID-19 in those with 1 LTC was no higher (RR 1.12 (CI 0.96-1.30)), whereas those with ≥2 LTCs had 48% higher risk; RR 1.48 (1.28-1.71). Compared with no cardiometabolic LTCs, having 1 and ≥2 cardiometabolic LTCs had a higher risk of COVID-19; RR 1.28 (1.12-1.46) and 1.77 (1.46-2.15), respectively. Polypharmacy was associated with a dose response higher risk of COVID-19. All prognostic factors were associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 infection in multimorbidity; being non-white, most socioeconomically deprived, BMI ≥40 kg/m2, and reduced renal function were associated with the highest risk of COVID-19 infection: RR 2.81 (2.09-3.78); 2.79 (2.00-3.90); 2.66 (1.88-3.76); 2.13 (1.46-3.12), respectively. No multiplicative interaction between multimorbidity and prognostic factors was identified. Important limitations include the low proportion of UK Biobank participants with COVID-19 test data (1.05%) and UK Biobank participants being more affluent, healthier and less ethnically diverse than the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing multimorbidity, especially cardiometabolic multimorbidity, and polypharmacy are associated with a higher risk of developing COVID-19. Those with multimorbidity and additional factors, such as non-white ethnicity, are at heightened risk of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Multimorbidade , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Polimedicação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(6): 572-575, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744843

RESUMO

The aim of this report is to provide a picture about Hungarians' attitudes and behaviors 1 month after the first COVID-19 case was confirmed in Hungary. Based on survey data from 1,552 adults that were collected in mid-April 2020, it appears that Hungarians agree with and follow the preventive measures of the government. There are, however, differences between 3 age groups (i.e., 18-30, 31-59, and 60+ years), people with different perceived health status (i.e., good, average, and below average), and the genders. In Hungary young people, those with perceived average or below-average health, and women report the most stress during the early phase of the COVID-19 period. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adulto Jovem
20.
Wiad Lek ; 73(4): 796-800, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To study health status among the children in connection with a prolonged exposure of drinking water from decentralized systems. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The prevalence rates of diseases among children of rural areas were studied according to the statistical reports in Dnipropetrovsk region healthinformation center from 2008 to 2013 using statistical form № 12 (totally 220 reports). The distribution of rural areas in the region was based on the cluster analysis. The horizontal dendrogram showing similarity between the research areas in a multidimensional space. Cluster analysis includes 2 groups of rural districts in Dnipropetrovsk region. RESULTS: Results: It is established that with increase of pH#62; 7.5-7.6 in water of decentralized systems decreased the prevalence in the majority of nosologies: diseases of the blood and hematopoietic organs (rS=0,331; p#60;0,001), musculoskeletal system (rS=-0,174; p#60;0,001), anemia (rS=-0,331; p#60;0,001), congenital anomalies (rS=-0,272; p=0,002) among children population. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Among those children, who consumed drinking water from wells with content of some essential trace elements on the limits of MPC: 71% did not suffer from chronic diseases of the circulatory system (Fe >0.144 mg/dm3); 59% did not suffer from the diseases of digestive system (Cu #62;0.089 mg/dm3), and 60% had no congenital abnormalities of circulatory system (Mn #62; 0.099 mg/dm3).


Assuntos
Água Potável , Nível de Saúde , Criança , Humanos , Prevalência , População Rural , Oligoelementos
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