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1.
Postgrad Med ; 131(7): 509-522, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422718

RESUMO

Objectives: Visual hallucinations (VH) are common in Lewy body disease (LBD), and have been associated with cognitive and structural brain alterations. Evidence so far concerns mainly Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about symptom-specific pathophysiological mechanisms across the LBD spectrum, especially related to the presence of dementia. The aim of the present pilot study was to investigate the neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological characteristics related to VH in two forms of LBD, namely dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and PD without dementia. Methods: Whole brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses on 3D MRI acquired structural brain scans, and neuropsychological testing were performed on 28 clinically diagnosed DLB (11 with VH, 17 NVH), and 24 PD (9 with VH, and 15 NVH) patients. In order to assess differences in gray matter (GM) regional volumes, and cognitive performance, hallucinating patients for each group were compared with corresponding non-hallucinating ones. Results: DLB patients with VH presented significantly worse visual attention deficits compared to those without, which persisted even when controlling for visual perception. Whole brain VBM analysis revealed decreased GM volume in DLB with VH in the right superior and medial frontal gyri, putamen, caudate nucleus and insula. Subcortical regional volumes were also significantly associated with visual attention performance. Hallucinating PD patients, instead, presented more severe executive dysfunction, but VBM showed no volumetric differences between the two PD subgroups. Post hoc region of interest analyses revealed striatal GM loss in PD with VH. Conclusion: Frontal and striatal GM atrophy may contribute to the emergence of VH in DLB, which may be fostered by the more severe attention deficits. Striatal GM loss and executive dysfunction, instead, appeared to underlie VH in PD without dementia.


Assuntos
Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Alucinações/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Putamen/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atenção , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Núcleo Caudado/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Alucinações/psicologia , Humanos , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/psicologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tamanho do Órgão , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Putamen/patologia , Percepção Visual
2.
BMC Med Imaging ; 19(1): 26, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initial reports of 23Na magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) date back to the 1970s. However, methodological challenges of the technique hampered its widespread adoption for many years. Recent technical developments have overcome some of these limitations and have led to more optimal conditions for 23Na-MR imaging. In order to serve as a reliable tool for the assessment of clinical stroke or brain tumor patients, we investigated the repeatability and reproducibility of cerebral sodium (23Na) imaging in healthy subjects. METHODS: In this prospective, IRB approved study 12 consecutive healthy volunteers (8 female, age 31 ± 8.3) underwent three cerebral 23Na-MRI examinations at 3.0 T (TimTrio, Siemens Healthineers) distributed between two separate visits with an 8 day interval. For each scan a T1w MP-RAGE sequence for anatomical referencing and a 3D-density-adapted, radial GRE-sequence for 23Na-imaging were acquired using a dual-tuned (23Na/1H) head-coil. On 1 day, these scans were repeated consecutively; on the other day, the scans were performed once. 23Na-sequences were reconstructed according to the MP-RAGE sequence, allowing direct cross-referencing of ROIs. Circular ROIs were placed in predetermined anatomic regions: gray and white matter (GM, WM), head of the caudate nucleus (HCN), pons, and cerebellum. External 23Na-reference phantoms were used to calculate the tissue sodium content. RESULTS: Excellent correlation was found between repeated measurements on the same day (r2 = 0.94), as well as on a different day (r2 = 0.86). No significant differences were found based on laterality other than in the HCN (63.1 vs. 58.7 mmol/kg WW on the right (p = 0.01)). Pronounced inter-individual differences were identified in all anatomic regions. Moderate to good correlation (0.310 to 0.701) was found between the readers. CONCLUSION: Our study has shown that intra-individual 23Na-concentrations in healthy subjects do not significantly differ after repeated scans on the same day and a pre-set time interval. This confirms the repeatability and reproducibility of cerebral 23Na-imaging. However, with manual ROI placement in predetermined anatomic landmarks, fluctuations in 23Na-concentrations can be observed.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Sódio/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Imagens de Fantasmas , Ponte/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
3.
Depress Anxiety ; 36(5): 433-441, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying brain activity patterns that are associated with suicidal ideation (SI) may help to elucidate its pathogenesis and etiology. Suicide poses a significant public health problem, and SI is a risk factor for suicidal behavior. METHODS: Forty-one unmedicated adult participants in a major depressive episode (MDE), 26 with SI on the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation and 15 without SI, underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Twenty-one healthy volunteers (HVs) were scanned for secondary analyses. Whole brain analysis of both amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) and fractional ALFF was performed in MDE subjects to identify regions where activity was associated with SI. RESULTS: Subjects with SI had greater ALFF than those without SI in two clusters: one in the right hippocampus and one in the thalamus and caudate, bilaterally. Multi-voxel pattern analysis distinguished between those with and without SI. Post hoc analysis of the mean ALFF in the hippocampus cluster found it to be associated with a delayed recall on the Buschke memory task. Mean ALFF from the significant clusters was not associated with depression severity and did not differ between MDE and HV groups. DISCUSSION: These results indicate that SI is associated with altered resting-state brain activity. The pattern of elevated activity in the hippocampus may be related to how memories are processed.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Núcleo Caudado/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Ideação Suicida , Tálamo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
J Neurol ; 266(5): 1203-1210, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether baseline [123I]FP-CIT SPECT and CSF markers can predict cognitive impairment (CI) in PD patients, and provide a profile of those most at risk. METHODS: 262 de novo PD patients from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative database were stratified into two CI groups at the 36-month follow-up: MoCA-defined diagnosis: PD patients who had a MoCA score < 26; neuropsychological test-defined diagnosis: PD patients with MoCA-defined diagnosis and at least two test scores (of six; irrespective of test domain) greater than 1.5 standard deviation below the mean score in healthy controls. Predictive variables of CI were divided into deciles, providing us with ideal cutoff values for each variable. RESULTS: At the 36-month follow-up, 108/262 (41.2%) PD patients had CI as defined by the MoCA, of which 40/108 (37.0%) had neuropsychological test-defined CI. Baseline CSF Aß42 (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.996, confidence interval [CI]: 0.992-0.999, p = 0.025), CSF total tau ([HR]: 1.023, [CI]: 1.002-1.044, p = 0.031) and caudate [123I]FP-CIT SPECT uptake ([HR]: 0.332, [CI]: 0.115-0.960, p = 0.042) were predictors of CI. Patients with reduced CSF Aß42 (< 384.6 pg/mL), increased CSF total tau (> 45.0 pg/mL) and reduced caudate [123I]FP-CIT SPECT uptake (< 1.82) had a 65% risk of developing CI at 36-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: We report a characteristic profile (reduced CSF Aß42, increased CSF total tau and reduced caudate [123I]FP-CIT SPECT uptake) that enables identification of early PD patients at risk of developing CI. These findings confirm previous reports of low CSF Aß42, elevated CSF total tau and reduced dopaminergic integrity being associated with cognitive decline in PD.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Idoso , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/sangue , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico por imagem , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Tropanos/farmacocinética
5.
J Craniofac Surg ; 30(3): 926-929, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807475

RESUMO

The thalamus located in the deep site of cerebrum with the risk of internal capsule injury during operation. The purpose of this study was to compare the anatomy for exposure and injury using simulative surgical corridor of 3-dimensional model. The 3-dimensional anatomy model of thalamus in cerebrum was created based on magnetic resonance imaging performed for 15 patients with trigeminal neuralgia. The midpoint of line between anterior edge and top of thalamus was the target exposed. Axis connecting the target with the anterior edge and top of caudate head was used to outline the cylinder, respectively, simulating surgical corridors 1 and 2 of transfrontal approach. Cerebral tissues involved in the corridors were observed, measured, and compared. Incision of cortex was made on the anterior portion of inferior frontal gyrus through corridor 1 and middle frontal gyrus through corridor 2. Both of the 2 corridors passed the caudate nucleus, the anterior limb and genu of internal capsule, ultimately reached the upper anterior portion of thalamus. The volumes of white matter, caudate head, and thalamus in the corridor 1 were more than those in corridor 2. Conversely, the volumes of cortex, internal capsule in corridor 2 were more than those in corridor 1. In conclusion, surgical anatomy-specific volume is helpful to postulate the intraoperative injury of transfrontal approach exposing anterior portion of the thalamus. The detailed information in the quantification of microsurgical anatomy will be used to develop minimally invasive operation.


Assuntos
Núcleo Caudado/anatomia & histologia , Cápsula Interna/anatomia & histologia , Microcirurgia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Tálamo/anatomia & histologia , Tálamo/cirurgia , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Caudado/cirurgia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Cápsula Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Cápsula Interna/cirurgia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Anatômicos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/cirurgia , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 68(3): 107-110, 1 feb., 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177241

RESUMO

Introducción. La fisiopatología del síndrome de piernas inquietas (SPI) es compleja. El mecanismo a través del cual la ferropenia favorece el desarrollo del SPI no está esclarecido, aunque se sugiere la presencia de una alteración en la homeostasis cerebral del hierro. Casos clínicos. Se presentan los hallazgos inusuales en una familia de donantes de sangre con SPI. Tres miembros de la misma familia fueron diagnosticados de SPI, cumpliendo los criterios definidos por el grupo internacional para el estudio del SPI (International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group). Todos eran donantes de sangre habituales (rango de donación: 10-40 años) y los síntomas de SPI tenían un curso de 3-5 años. La exploración general y neurológica fue normal en todos los casos, así como los electromiogramas. El estudio fenotípico y genotípico descartó la presencia de hemocromatosis y otras causas genéticas de sobrecarga cerebral de hierro. Los estudios polisomnográficos mostraron sueño nocturno perturbado, con reducción de su eficiencia, y un aumento del índice de movimientos periódicos de las piernas. La resonancia magnética craneal evidenció un aumento de los depósitos cerebrales de hierro en los ganglios basales, la sustancia negra, el núcleo rojo y los dentados. Conclusión. Este aumento patológico de los depósitos cerebrales de hierro sugiere la presencia de un complejo trastorno del metabolismo cerebral del hierro en nuestros pacientes. Futuros estudios deben confirmar estos hallazgos y profundizar en el estudio de su relación con la fisiopatología del SPI


Introduction. The pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is complex. Secondary RLS with iron deficiency –which suggests disturbed iron homeostasis– remains to be elucidated. Case reports. We report the findings from a unique blood donor family with RLS. Three blood donors family members were diagnosed with RLS defined by the International RLS Study Group and without history of neurologic diseases and RLS symptoms in the last 3-5 years (range of blood donation: 10-40 years). The neurological examination and electromyographies were normal. A polisomnography showed disturbed nocturnal sleep with a reduction in sleep efficiency and an increased periodic limbs movement index. The cranial MRI showed brain iron deposits in basal ganglia, substantia nigra, red nuclei and dentate nuclei. Phenotypic and genotypic studies rule out genetic haemochromatosis or iron overload. Conclusion. The abnormal iron accumulation in the basal ganglia indicated a complex iron metabolism disorder of the central nervous system. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and its role in the pathophysiology of RLS


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Doadores de Sangue , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Caudado/lesões , Parte Compacta da Substância Negra/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem/métodos , Neurofisiologia/métodos , Eletromiografia/métodos
7.
Stroke ; 50(3): 602-609, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777001

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Poststroke fatigue affects a large proportion of stroke survivors and is associated with a poor quality of life. In a recent trial, modafinil was shown to be an effective agent in reducing poststroke fatigue; however, not all patients reported a significant decrease in fatigue with therapy. We sought to investigate clinical and radiological predictors of fatigue reduction with modafinil therapy in a stroke survivor cohort. Methods- Twenty-six participants with severe fatigue (multidimensional fatigue inventory-20 ≥60) underwent magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and during the last week of a 6-week treatment period of 200 mg modafinil taken daily. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution structural imaging data were obtained, and functional connectivity and regional brain volumes within the fronto-striato-thalamic network were obtained. Linear regression analysis was used to identify predictors of modafinil-induced fatigue reduction. Results- Multiple regression analysis showed that baseline multidimensional fatigue inventory-20 score (ß=0.576, P=0.006) and functional connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the caudate nucleus (ß=-0.424, P=0.008) were significant predictors of modafinil-associated decreases in poststroke fatigue (adjusted r2=0.52, area under the receiver operator characteristic curve=0.939). Conclusions- Fronto-striato-thalamic functional connectivity predicted modafinil response for poststroke fatigue. Fatigue in other neurological disease has been attributed to altered function of the fronto-striato-thalamic network and may indicate that poststroke fatigue has a similar mechanism to other neurological injury related fatigue. Self-reported fatigue in patients with normal fronto-striato-thalamic functional connectivity may have a different mechanism and require alternate therapeutic approaches. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: ACTRN12615000350527.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fadiga/tratamento farmacológico , Fadiga/etiologia , Modafinila/uso terapêutico , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Promotores da Vigília/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Fadiga/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Qualidade de Vida , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
J Affect Disord ; 246: 716-726, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A precision medicine approach to bipolar disorder (BD) requires greater knowledge of neural mechanisms, especially within the BD phenotype. The present study evaluated differences in resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) between young adults followed longitudinally since childhood with full-threshold type I BD (BD-I)-characterized by distinct manic episodes-or a more sub-syndromal presentation of BD (BD Not Otherwise Specified [BD-NOS]), compared to one another and to healthy controls (HC). Independent Components Analysis (ICA), a multivariate data-driven method, and dual regression were used to explore whether connectivity within resting state networks (RSNs) differentiated the groups, especially for characteristic fronto-limbic alterations in BD. METHODS: Young adults (ages 18-30) with BD-I (n = 28), BD-NOS (n = 14), and HCs (n = 52) underwent structural and RSFC neuroimaging. ICA derived 30 components from RSFC data; a subset of these components, representing well-characterized RSNs, was used for between-group analyses. RESULTS: Participants with BD-I had significantly greater connectivity strength between the executive control network and right caudate vs. HCs. Participants with BD-NOS had significantly greater connectivity strength between the sensorimotor network and left precentral gyrus vs. HCs, which was significantly related to psychiatric symptoms. LIMITATIONS: Limitations included small BD-NOS sample size and variation in BD mood state and medication status. CONCLUSIONS: Results for BD-I participants support prior findings of fronto-limbic alterations characterizing BD. Alterations in the sensorimotor network for adults with BD-NOS aligns with the small but growing body of evidence that sensorimotor network alterations may represent a marker for vulnerability to BD. Further study is required to evaluate specificity.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Caudado/fisiopatologia , Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Descanso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Adulto Jovem
9.
Neurology ; 92(6): e594-e600, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with brain volume. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the UK Biobank study (n = 9,652, age 55.4 ± 7.5 years, 47.9% men). Measures included BMI, WHR, and total fat mass as ascertained from bioimpedance. Brain images were produced with structural MRI. RESULTS: After adjustment for a range of covariates, higher levels of all obesity measures were related to lower gray matter volume: BMI per 1 SD (ß coefficient -4,113, 95% confidence interval [CI] -4,862 to -3,364), WHR (ß coefficient -4,272, 95% CI -5,280 to -3,264), and fat mass (ß coefficient -4,590, 95% CI -5,386 to -3,793). The combination of overall obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) and central obesity (WHR >0.85 for women, >0.90 for men) was associated with the lowest gray matter compared with that in lean adults. In hypothesis-free testing with a Bonferroni correction, obesity was also related to various regional brain volumes, including caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens. No associations between obesity and white matter were apparent. CONCLUSION: The combination of heightened BMI and WHR may be an important risk factor for gray matter atrophy.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Atrofia/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Encéfalo/patologia , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Caudado/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Globo Pálido/diagnóstico por imagem , Globo Pálido/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Núcleo Accumbens/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Accumbens/patologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Putamen/diagnóstico por imagem , Putamen/patologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril
10.
J Biosci ; 43(5): 877-886, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541948

RESUMO

Worries preoccupy the working memory capacity in anxious individuals, thereby affecting their performance during tasks that require efficient attention regulation. According to the attentional control theory (ACT), trait anxiety affects the processing efficiency, i.e. the effort required for task performance, more than the accuracy of task performance. We investigated the relation between trait anxiety and neural response for a reasoning task in healthy subjects. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was carried out on 22 healthy participants and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast estimates were extracted from a priori regions of interest (ROIs) that were earlier implicated in reasoning (i.e., bilaterally caudate head, globus pallidus, thalamus, prefrontal cortex [[ostral, dorsal and ventral regions]] inferior parietal lobule and middle occipital gyrus). Controlling for the effects of age, gender, state anxiety and depressive symptoms, for equivalent levels of task performance, trait anxiety of the participants was found to be associated with an increase in task related BOLD activation in right globus pallidus, left thalamus and left middle occipital gyrus. Our results suggest a reduced processing efficiency for reasoning in high trait anxiety subjects and provides important brain-behaviour relationships with respect to sub-clinical anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Ansiedade/psicologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Caudado/fisiopatologia , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Globo Pálido/diagnóstico por imagem , Globo Pálido/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Lobo Occipital/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Occipital/fisiopatologia , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Behav Addict ; 7(4): 953-964, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Online gaming has become a popular leisure activity, in which males more frequently develop Internet gaming disorder (IGD) compared to females. However, gender-related neurocognitive differences have largely not been systematically investigated in IGD. METHODS: Cue-elicited-craving tasks were performed before game playing and immediately after deprivation operationalized as a forced break from gaming when the Internet was disconnected. Ninety-nine subjects with IGD (27 males and 22 females) or recreational game use (RGU; 27 males and 23 females) provided functional MRI and subjective data. Analyses investigating effects of group (IGD and RGU) × gender (male and female) at different times (pre-gaming, post-gaming, and post-pre) on cue-elicited craving and brain responses were performed. Correlations between brain responses and subjective measures were calculated. RESULTS: In pre-, post-, and post-pre tests, significant gender-by-group interactions (p < .001, cluster size > 15 voxels) were observed in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Further analyses of the DLPFC cluster showed that in post-pre comparisons, results were related to less engagement of the DLPFC in IGD, especially in females. In addition, at post-test, significant interactions were observed in the caudate, as females with IGD showed greater activation as compared to those with RGU. DISCUSSION: The results raise the possibility that women with RGU may show better executive control than men when facing gaming cues, which may provide resiliency against developing IGD; however, once they develop IGD, their gaming may impair their executive control and enhance their cravings for gaming, which may make it more difficult to quit gaming.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Caudado/fisiopatologia , Fissura/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Internet , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
12.
Psychiatr Danub ; 30(2): 150-156, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930224

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In schizophrenia patients the lateral ventricle enlargement has mostly been reported in relationship with smaller cortical and/or subcortical brain volumes; and it has been observed that ventricular system growth may be a consequence of the smaller caudate nucleus volume. Bicaudate parameters have been used in the Alzheimer dementia and Huntington's chorea diagnosing in order to evaluate brain changes and the enlargement of the lateral ventricles. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study has been carried out on 140 patients out of which 70 patients (30 men and 40 women) who met the ICD 10 criteria for schizophrenia and 70 healthy controls (30 men and 40 women) matched on sex and age with the studied group. All of them underwent direct caudatometry and volume computation based on MRI scans. RESULTS: Except for the bicorporal line, for all the parameters were obtained the statistically highly significant differences between the examined and control groups. Significant correlation was established for the majority of bicaudate parameters and volumes of the caudate nuclei and lateral ventricles. DISCUSSION: Enlargement of the lateral ventricles is one of the most frequent MRI finding in schizophrenia patients. Ventricles are enlarging gradually and frontal horns are more affected than other parts. The increased volumes of the caudate nuclei signalized that ventricular enlargement is not the consequence of the caudate atrophy. CONCLUSION: Bicaudate parameters are reliable parameters for the quick orientation in order to assess the enlarged ventricles in schizophrenia patients.


Assuntos
Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Caudado/patologia , Dominância Cerebral/fisiologia , Ventrículos Laterais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos Laterais/patologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Atrofia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Doença de Huntington , Hipertrofia , Imagem Tridimensional , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 27(9): e219-e220, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29805081

RESUMO

A 75-year-old woman presented with consciousness disturbance accompanied by hematemesis. Brain imaging revealed ischemia in the bilateral caudate nuclei and right cerebral watershed area due to stenosis of the right anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and bilateral internal carotid arteries (ICA), and hypoperfusion in the right caudate nucleus. The patient's only symptom was abulia, which gradually resolved. Further brain scans showed that the ICA stenosis had improved, although the right ACA stenosis persisted. This was a rare case of bilateral caudate nucleus infarctions with a hemodynamic etiology.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Núcleo Caudado/irrigação sanguínea , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/complicações , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Anterior/etiologia , Idoso , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Hematemese/etiologia , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Anterior/fisiopatologia , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
14.
J Prosthodont Res ; 62(3): 337-341, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29475808

RESUMO

PURPOSE: One of the most prominent issues in a super-aging society is the rapid increase in dementia patients. Cross-sectional studies in dentistry have indicated that patients with dementia have worse oral health compared to healthy people. The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of tooth loss on brain structure by comparing the volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) between edentulous and dentulous subjects. METHODS: Subjects were recruited from the Denture Clinic at Iwate Medical University Hospital Dental Center. Experiments were performed on edentulous (5 males, 8 females, 81.8±1.24years) and dentulous subjects (4 males, 7 females, 77.1±4.25years). Patients with dementia were excluded from this study. Brain volumes of GM and WM in edentulous and dentulous subjects were compared using intracranial volume, age, gender and history of hypertension as covariates. Analyzed brain areas were identified by transforming the Montreal Neurological Institute coordinate into the anatomical coordinate in edentulous subjects. RESULTS: The analysis of WM structural images found no morphological differences between dentulous and edentulous subjects. However, significant atrophy of GM was observed in the hippocampus, caudate nucleus and temporal pole of the right hemisphere in edentulous subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that tooth loss was a causal factor for volume reduction in brain areas related to memory, learning and cognition.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Tridimensional , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Boca Edêntula/diagnóstico por imagem , Perda de Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atrofia , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Caudado/patologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Substância Branca/patologia
15.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 13(3): 281-289, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27531387

RESUMO

Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early temperamental profile characterized by negative reactivity to novelty, withdrawal from social situations, and increased risk for social anxiety. Previous research associated BI assessed in early childhood to striatal hypersensitivity in mid-to-late adolescence. The present study examined this association among 10 year-olds, characterized with BI at ages 24 and 36 months on measures of temperamental reactivity. Participants (n = 40) were studied at age 10 using a reward processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Child- and maternal-report of social anxiety symptoms was collected at ages 10 and 13. Findings indicate greater caudate activation and stronger striatal connectivity in high, compared to low, behaviorally inhibited children. Caudate activation related to social anxiety symptoms at both ages. These findings suggest that enhanced striatal responsivity reliably manifests among high behaviorally inhibited children as early as age 10. This may reflect hyper-sensitivity to reward or excessive motivation to avoid errors.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Inibição (Psicologia) , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Recompensa , Meio Social , Adolescente , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Caudado/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neostriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Neostriado/fisiopatologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
16.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; 19(2): 101-111, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27648848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hypo/reduced activity in motor response inhibition (RI) cerebral networks was recently proposed as a promising specific neurobiological marker of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Before adopting such a pattern as a key diagnosis tool, we aim to replicate in an independent study the mechanisms underlying reduced RI-related activity in ADHD, after controlling for potentially confounding effects. METHODS: In this fMRI study, we investigated the neural networks mediating successful and failed motor RI in children with ADHD and typically developing children (TDC) using the stop-signal task (SST) paradigm. RESULTS: In contrast to hypofrontality predictions, children with ADHD exhibit increased neural activity during successful response inhibition in an RI-related brain network encompassing the indirect and/or hyperdirect pathways between the basal ganglia and cortex. Voxel-based morphometry analyses have further evidenced reduced grey matter volume in the left caudate in children with ADHD, which paralleled higher functional responses. Finally, connectivity analyses disclosed tighter coupling between a set of cortical regions and the right caudate as well as the right IFG, networks involved in successful RI. CONCLUSIONS: Hypo/reduced activity in RI cerebral networks in children with ADHD cannot at this time be considered as a systematic biomarker for ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Gânglios da Base/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Conectoma/métodos , Inibição (Psicologia) , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Gânglios da Base/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Eur Radiol ; 28(4): 1756-1760, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29164380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is usually prodromal to other symptoms. In this study, we aimed to explore the association of olfactory function with the availabilities of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) in healthy subjects. METHODS: Data used in the preparation of this article were obtained from Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative database ( www.ppmi-info.org/data ). The study population consisted of healthy controls with screening 123I-FP-CIT single photon emission tomography (SPECT). University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was assessed to evaluate the olfactory function. RESULTS: Totally, 181 healthy subjects (117 male, 64 female) with 123I-FP-CIT SPECT data were included in this study. Specific binding ratios (SBRs) of the caudate nucleus (rho = -0.4217, p < 0.0001), putamen (rho = -0.2292, p = 0.0019), and striatum (rho=-0.3425, p < 0.0001) showed a reduction with ageing. SBRs of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and striatum were positively correlated with UPSIT (rho = 0.3716, p < 0.0001; rho = 0.3655, p < 0.0001; rho = 0.3880, p < 0.0001). After controlling for age by partial correlation, SBRs of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and striatum showed an influence on UPSIT (rho = 0.3288, p < 0.0001; rho = 0.3374, p < 0.0001; rho = 0.3511, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Olfactory function is associated with the availability of striatal DAT independent of age in healthy subjects. KEY POINTS: • Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is prodromal to other symptoms. • The availability of dopamine transporter showed a reduction with ageing. • Olfactory function is associated with the availability of dopamine transporter.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/metabolismo , Olfato/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Caudado/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Putamen/diagnóstico por imagem , Putamen/metabolismo , Valores de Referência , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos , Tropanos
18.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 137(2): 224-232, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A recently published study using an automated MRI volumetry method (NeuroQuant®) unexpectedly demonstrated larger caudate nucleus volume in patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) compared to patients with subjective and mild cognitive impairment (SCI and MCI). The aim of this study was to explore this finding. MATERIALS & METHODS: The caudate nucleus and the hippocampus volumes were measured (both expressed as ratios of intracranial volume) in a total of 257 patients with SCI and MCI according to the Winblad criteria and AD according to ICD-10 criteria. Demographic data, cognitive measures, and APOE-ɛ4 status were collected. RESULTS: Compared with non-dementia patients (SCI and MCI), AD patients were older, more of them were female, and they had a larger caudate nucleus volume and smaller hippocampus volume (P<.001). In multiple linear regression analysis, age and female sex were associated with larger caudate nucleus volume, but neither diagnosis nor memory function was. Age, gender, and memory function were associated with hippocampus volume, and age and memory function were associated with caudate nucleus/hippocampus ratio. CONCLUSIONS: A larger caudate nucleus volume in AD patients was partly explained by older age and being female. These results are further discussed in the context of (1) the caudate nucleus possibly serving as a mechanism for temporary compensation; (2) methodological properties of automated volumetry of this brain region; and (3) neuropathological alterations. Further studies are needed to fully understand the role of the caudate nucleus in AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Núcleo Caudado/patologia , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão
19.
Neuroimage ; 167: 151-161, 2018 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29175202

RESUMO

During sentence processing, areas of the left superior temporal sulcus, inferior frontal gyrus and left basal ganglia exhibit a systematic increase in brain activity as a function of constituent size, suggesting their involvement in the computation of syntactic and semantic structures. Here, we asked whether these areas play a universal role in language and therefore contribute to the processing of non-spoken sign language. Congenitally deaf adults who acquired French sign language as a first language and written French as a second language were scanned while watching sequences of signs in which the size of syntactic constituents was manipulated. An effect of constituent size was found in the basal ganglia, including the head of the caudate and the putamen. A smaller effect was also detected in temporal and frontal regions previously shown to be sensitive to constituent size in written language in hearing French subjects (Pallier et al., 2011). When the deaf participants read sentences versus word lists, the same network of language areas was observed. While reading and sign language processing yielded identical effects of linguistic structure in the basal ganglia, the effect of structure was stronger in all cortical language areas for written language relative to sign language. Furthermore, cortical activity was partially modulated by age of acquisition and reading proficiency. Our results stress the important role of the basal ganglia, within the language network, in the representation of the constituent structure of language, regardless of the input modality.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Núcleo Caudado/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Surdez/fisiopatologia , Linguagem , Putamen/fisiologia , Leitura , Línguas de Sinais , Adulto , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Compreensão/fisiologia , Surdez/congênito , Surdez/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Putamen/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 46: 130-139, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29056394

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide whole brain grey matter (GM) to white matter (WM) contrast enhanced T1W (T1WE) images, multi-echo quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), proton density (PD) weighted images, T1 maps, PD maps, susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), and R2* maps with minimal misregistration in scanning times <5min. METHODS: Strategically acquired gradient echo (STAGE) imaging includes two fully flow compensated double echo gradient echo acquisitions with a resolution of 0.67×1.33×2.0mm3 acquired in 5min for 64 slices. Ten subjects were recruited and scanned at 3 Tesla. The optimum pair of flip angles (6° and 24° with TR=25ms at 3T) were used for both T1 mapping with radio frequency (RF) transmit field correction and creating enhanced GM/WM contrast (the T1WE). The proposed T1WE image was created from a combination of the proton density weighted (6°, PDW) and T1W (24°) images and corrected for RF transmit field variations. Prior to the QSM calculation, a multi-echo phase unwrapping strategy was implemented using the unwrapped short echo to unwrap the longer echo to speed up computation. R2* maps were used to mask deep grey matter and veins during the iterative QSM calculation. A weighted-average sum of susceptibility maps was generated to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). RESULTS: The proposed T1WE image has a significantly improved CNR both for WM to deep GM and WM to cortical GM compared to the acquired T1W image (the first echo of 24° scan) and the T1MPRAGE image. The weighted-average susceptibility maps have 80±26%, 55±22%, 108±33% SNR increases across the ten subjects compared to the single echo result of 17.5ms for the putamen, caudate nucleus, and globus pallidus, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: STAGE imaging offers the potential to create a standardized brain imaging protocol providing four pieces of quantitative tissue property information and multiple types of qualitative information in just 5min.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Simulação por Computador , Meios de Contraste/química , Feminino , Globo Pálido/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico por imagem , Prótons , Putamen/diagnóstico por imagem , Razão Sinal-Ruído
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