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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e36283, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1103400

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar a influência das composições familiares na ocorrência da gravidez na adolescência. Método:estudo caso-controle, realizado com 74 gestantes adolescentes, grupo de casos, e 74 adultas jovens sem história pregressa de gravidez na adolescência, grupo controle, pareadas pela variável renda familiar. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas estruturadas realizadas no período deagosto a outubro de 2016 em Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, e em seguida analisados pelos métodos estatísticos descritivo e inferencial. Resultados: identificou-se associação entre a ocorrência do desfecho com pertencer a famílias não nucleares, não permanecer a mesma família durante a infância e adolescência, e a constituição de uma família própria no período da adolescência. Conclusão:verificou-se que adolescentes inseridas em famílias não nucleares estão mais expostas a fatores de risco para ocorrência da gravidez na adolescência, quando comparadas às jovensprovenientes de famílias com ambos os pais.


Objective: to analyze the influence of family compositions in the occurrence of pregnancy in adolescence. Method:this is a case-control study performed with 74 pregnant adolescents, group of cases, and 74 young adults without background history of pregnancy during adolescence, group control, paired by family income. Data were collected through structured interviews conducted in the period from August to October 2016 in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, and then analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results:we identified an association between the occurrence of the outcome and the belonging to non-nuclear families, as well as the non-belonging to the same family during childhood and adolescence, besides the constitution of an own family in the period of adolescence. Conclusion: checked that adolescents inserted in nonnuclear families are more exposed to risk factors for the occurrence of pregnancy in adolescence when compared to young people coming from families with both parents.


Objetivo: analizar la influencia de las composiciones familiares en la ocurrencia del embarazo adolescente. Método: estudio caso-control efectuado con 74 adolescentes embarazadas, grupo de casos, y 74 jóvenes adultas sin historia anterior de embarazo en la adolescencia, grupo de control, agrupadas por sus ingresos familiares. Los datos se recopilaron mediante entrevistas estructuradas conducidas en el periodo de agosto a octubre de 2016 en Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, y posteriormente analizados por los métodos estadísticos descriptivo e inferencial. Resultados:se identificó una asociación entre la ocurrencia del desenlace y la pertenencia a las familias no nucleares, no permanencia en la misma familia durante niñez y adolescencia, y la constitución de una familia propia en el periodo de la adolescencia. Conclusion: comprobado eso que las adolescentes insertadas en familias no nucleares están más expuestas a los factores de riesgo para la ocurrencia del embarazo adolescente en comparación con las jóvenes provenientes de familias con ambos padres biológicos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Gravidez na Adolescência/psicologia , Características da Família , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Núcleo Familiar/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Relações Pai-Filho , Relações Mãe-Filho
2.
JAMA ; 324(3): 243-244, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692390
3.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233344, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437387

RESUMO

Female genital mutilation is a harmful traditional practice that violates girls' right to health and overall well-being. Most research cites social acceptance, marriageability, community belonging, proof of virginity, curbing promiscuity, hygiene, and religion as motivations for the practice. It is generally assumed that individual attitudes of parents and other family members have an impact on decisions related to the cutting of girls, and that such attitudes are influenced by social norms. The aim of this study is to understand how parental attitudes towards the practice of female genital mutilation influence decision making related to the cutting of girls. Data from 15 Demographic and Health Surveys were analyzed to assess whether couples with at least one living daughter aged 0 to 14 years share the same opinions about the continuation of the practice, and to what extent couples' opinions are associated with the risk of daughters being cut. The analysis reveals that a significant percentage of couples hold discordant opinions on the continuation of the practice including in countries where the practice is very common. While a daughter's likelihood of being cut is much higher when both parents think the practice should continue, the analysis also shows that many cut girls have parents who oppose the practice. It further suggests that female genital mutilation is more prevalent among daughters whose mothers want the practice to continue and whose fathers are opposed or undecided, compared to daughters with fathers who are the sole parent supporting its continuation. Understanding the extent to which parental opinions influence decisions and which girls are most likely to be cut is essential for developing appropriate interventions aimed at promoting the abandonment of the practice.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Feminina/psicologia , Relações Pai-Filho , Relações Mãe-Filho , Núcleo Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Circuncisão Feminina/efeitos adversos , Circuncisão Feminina/estatística & dados numéricos , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/psicologia , Distância Social , Normas Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384759

RESUMO

Son preference has been shown to influence the childbearing behavior of women, especially in China. Existing research has largely focused on this issue using cross-sectional data of urban or rural populations in China, while evidence from the rural-urban migrant women is relatively limited. Based on the data of China Migrants Dynamic Survey in 2015, we used logistic regression models to explore the relationship of son preference and reproductive behavior of rural-urban migrant women in China. The results show that the son preference of migrant women is still strong, which leads women with only daughters to have significantly higher possibility of having another child and results in a higher imbalance in the sex ratio with higher parity. Migrant women giving birth to a son is a protective factor against having a second child compared to women whose first child was a girl. Similarly, the effects of the gender of the previous child on women's progression from having two to three children showed the same result that is consistent with a preference for sons. These findings have implications for future public strategies to mitigate the son preference among migrant women and the imbalance in the sex ratio at birth.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Comportamento Reprodutivo , População Rural , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Núcleo Familiar , Gravidez , População Urbana
6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229917, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142530

RESUMO

We tested a feminist social-ecological model to understand community influences on daughters' experience of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGMC) in Egypt, where over 90% of women ages 15-49 are cut. FGMC has potential adverse effects on demographic and health outcomes and has been defined as a human-rights violation. However, an integrated multilevel-level framework is lacking. We theorized that a more favorable community-level gender system, including stronger gender norms opposing FGMC and expanded extra-familial opportunities for women in the village or neighborhood, would be associated with a daughter's lower risk of FGMC and would strengthen the negative association of a mother's opposition to FGMC with her daughter's risk of cutting. Using a national sample of 14,171 mother-daughter dyads from the 2014 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey, we estimated multilevel discrete-time hazard models to test these relationships. Community gender norms opposing FGMC had significant direct, negative associations with the hazard that a daughter was cut, but women's opportunities outside the family did not. Maternal opposition to FGMC was negatively associated with cutting a daughter, and these associations were stronger where community opposition to FGMC and opportunities for women were greater. Results provided good support for a gender-systems framework of the multilevel influences on FGMC. Integrated, multilevel interventions that address gender norms about FGMC and structural opportunities for women in the community, as well as beliefs about the practice among the mothers of at-risk daughters, may be needed for sustainable declines in the practice.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Feminina/efeitos adversos , Demografia , Genitália Feminina/cirurgia , Núcleo Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Circuncisão Feminina/ética , Circuncisão Feminina/psicologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Feminismo , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/psicologia , Religião , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(8): 2736-2745, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Varroa destructor is considered a major cause of honeybee (Apis mellifera) colony losses worldwide. Although V. destructor mites exhibit preference behavior for certain honeybee lifecycle stages, the mechanism underlying host finding and preference remains largely unknown. RESULTS: By using a de novo transcriptome assembly strategy, we sequenced the mature daughter V. destructor mite transcriptome during infestation of different stages of honeybees (brood cells, newly emerged bees and adult bees). A total of 132 779 unigenes were obtained with an average length of 2745 bp and N50 of 5706 bp. About 63.1% of the transcriptome could be annotated based on sequence homology to the predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis proteins. Expression analysis revealed that mature daughter mites had distinct transcriptome profiles after infestation of different honeybee stages, and that the majority of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of mite infesting adult honeybees were down-regulated compared to that infesting the sealed brood cells. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses showed that a large number of DEGs were involved in cellular process and metabolic process, suggesting that Varroa mites undergo metabolic adjustment to accommodate the cellular, molecular and/or immune response of the honeybees. Interestingly, in adult honeybees, some mite DEGs involved in neurotransmitter biosynthesis and transport were identified and their levels of expression were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). CONCLUSION: These results provide evidence for transcriptional reprogramming in mature daughter Varroa mites during infestation of honeybees, which may be relevant to understanding the mechanism underpinning adaptation and preference behavior of these mites for honeybees. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Varroidae , Animais , Abelhas , Ontologia Genética , Núcleo Familiar , Transcriptoma
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(9): 4850-4857, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071199

RESUMO

Aging, or senescence, is a progressive deterioration of physiological function with age. It leads to age-related declines in reproduction (reproductive senescence) and survival (actuarial senescence) in most organisms. However, senescence patterns can be highly variable across species, populations, and individuals, and the reasons for such variations remain poorly understood. Evolutionary theories predict that increases in reproductive effort in early life should be associated with accelerated senescence, but empirical tests have yielded mixed results. Although in sexually size-dimorphic species offspring of the larger sex (typically males) commonly require more parental resources, these sex differences are not currently incorporated into evolutionary theories of aging. Here, we show that female reproductive senescence varies with both the number and sex ratio of offspring weaned during early life, using data from a long-term study of bighorn sheep. For a given number of offspring, females that weaned more sons than daughters when aged between 2 and 7 y experienced faster senescence in offspring survival in old age. By contrast, analyses of actuarial senescence showed no cost of early-life reproduction. Our results unite two important topics in evolutionary biology: life history and sex allocation. Offspring sex ratio may help explain among-individual variation in senescence rates in other species, including humans.


Assuntos
Idade Materna , Núcleo Familiar , Reprodução/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Razão de Masculinidade , Carneiro da Montanha/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Mamíferos , Comportamento Sexual
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(9): 4809-4814, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071200

RESUMO

Annual reproductive success and senescence patterns vary substantially among individuals in the wild. However, it is still seldom considered that senescence may not only affect an individual but also affect age-specific reproductive success in its offspring, generating transgenerational reproductive senescence. We used long-term data from wild yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventer) living in two different elevational environments to quantify age-specific reproductive success of daughters born to mothers differing in age. Contrary to prediction, daughters born to older mothers had greater annual reproductive success on average than daughters born to younger mothers, and this translated into greater lifetime reproductive success. However, in the favorable lower elevation environment, daughters born to older mothers also had greater age-specific decreases in annual reproductive success. In the harsher higher elevation environment on the other hand, daughters born to older mothers tended to die before reaching ages at which such senescent decreases could be observed. Our study highlights the importance of incorporating environment-specific transgenerational parent age effects on adult offspring age-specific life-history traits to fully understand the substantial variation observed in senescence patterns in wild populations.


Assuntos
Marmota/fisiologia , Mães , Núcleo Familiar , Reprodução/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Razão de Masculinidade , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Traços de História de Vida , Masculino , Marmota/genética , Parto , Alocação de Recursos
12.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 65: 101682, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036245

RESUMO

It has been reported that the number of children a mother has may impact on her concept of health and behavior, and there is a need to understand the role of children in the acceptability of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and vaccination among Chinese mothers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between January and June 2015 in Shenzhen, China, in which representative females were recruited from healthcare institutions through the Cervical Cancer Prevention Network. A total of 9058 females were included. Women with one child had a greater awareness of HPV (49.9 % versus 34.0 %, p < 0.001) and its vaccine (26.0 % versus 15.0 %, p <0.001), and were more likely to receive HPV testing (38.1 % versus 25.8 %, p <0.001) and vaccination (65.7 % versus 60.6 %, p <0.001) than those with two or more children. Mothers having one child who was a daughter were more likely to receive HPV testing (OR 1.53, 95 %CI 1.25-1.89) and HPV vaccination (OR 1.63, 95 %CI 1.38-1.93) than those having two or more children but without a daughter (p for interaction 0.014 and <0.001, respectively). Our findings provide a novel insight into cervical cancer prevention: a smaller number of children helps to improve a mother's awareness of HPV and its vaccine, to promote their practice for HPV testing, and to promote the acceptability of HPV vaccination. Having one or more daughters synergistically interacts with having fewer children in facilitating a mother's positive involvement in action against HPV infection.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade , Mães , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Núcleo Familiar , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
13.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(1): 28-37, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familicide is defined as the killing of a whole family and, numerically, a form of "mass murder" (more-or-less three simultaneous killings). Switzerland has a lower rate of homicide than most other countries but a comparatively high share of homicides within the family. AIM: The aim of this study is to describe a complete national sample of familicides and compare them with other types of mass murders in the country over the same period. METHODS: All cases of three or more unlawful homicides in one event in Switzerland between 1972 and 2015 were identified from court records and socio-demographic, criminological, and psychological variables were extracted. Given small numbers, we rely on narrative comparisons. RESULTS: There were 20 familicides in the 43-year study, with 82 victims between them as well as six felony-associated mass murders accounting for 19 victims and nine public mass murders with 44 victims. Only one familicide was a woman; mean age was 39.5 years (range 19-57 years). Most were in employment. Only four had a prior psychiatric history. Nine had a history of violent or intrusive behaviour, but a prior criminal conviction was rare. In all but one case there was evidence of psychosocial stressors; eight men were facing separation from a spouse. Just over half used guns, but only three used army weapons. The main difference between the familicides and the other mass killers was the much higher rate of suicide among the familicides. CONCLUSIONS: Familicides in Switzerland appear to be rare suicidal acts, generally carried out by previously successful and apparently stable middle-aged men with often an inconspicuous psychiatric history or criminal record, differing considerably from other groups of mass killers. Expert responses, like the recently established multidisciplinary "threat management boards" in Switzerland, should bear in mind that the likely competent men involved may be good at covering their intent even from themselves.


Assuntos
Agressão , Vítimas de Crime , Homicídio/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Núcleo Familiar , Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pais , Cônjuges , Suíça/epidemiologia , Armas , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 222(2): 168.e1-168.e8, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Miscarriage can be a devastating outcome for couples, and most miscarriages are unexplained. Many adverse obstetric outcomes (such as preeclampsia, preterm birth, and growth restriction) are thought to be inherited. It is possible that these conditions could share similar pathophysiologic mechanisms (such as endothelial dysfunction) with miscarriage. Therefore, it was hypothesized that there could be a susceptibility to miscarriage transmitted from mother to daughter. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between a maternal history of miscarriage and the risk of miscarriage in daughters. STUDY DESIGN: A case-control study nested within an intergenerational cohort was conducted. Mother-daughter pairs were identified from the intergenerational cohort within the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank, United Kingdom. A mother's history of miscarriage was the exposure. The primary outcome was miscarriage in daughters. There were 31,565 mother-daughter pairs who were eligible for inclusion. A population average model that used generalized estimating equations with robust standard errors was used to estimate the odds of a mother's history of miscarriage in daughters with a miscarriage compared with daughters with only livebirths. This method accounted for clustering of daughters within mothers, and multiadjusted analyses were performed to include confounders at the daughter's pregnancy level. RESULTS: Daughters who miscarried had 11% greater odds of being born to mothers with a history of miscarriage (adjusted odds ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.22). Daughters with recurrent miscarriage (≥2) were also more likely to be born to a mother with a history of miscarriage (adjusted odds ratio, 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.49). CONCLUSION: There may be an inherited predisposition to miscarriage transmitted from mother to daughter. Future research should investigate genetic or familial environmental factors that may predispose women to miscarriage.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/genética , Mães , Núcleo Familiar , Aborto Habitual/epidemiologia , Aborto Habitual/genética , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Nascimento Vivo/genética , Gravidez , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 212: 98-104, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765628

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the experiences of parents of sons with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS). DESIGN: Mixed methods-qualitative interviews with quantitative survey. METHODS: Parents of sons with XLRS who were evaluated at the National Eye Institute between December 2017 and January 2019 were eligible for this study. Participation involved engaging in a semistructured interview and completing a survey assessing optimism, anxiety, personality traits, and sociodemographics using valid and reliable scales. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed thematically, and scales were scored and used descriptively. RESULTS: Eleven mothers and 8 fathers from 13 families participated. Optimism, anxiety, and personality traits fell into the normative ranges for the scales. Parents described a process of continuous adaptation to their son's condition. The initial diagnosis was characterized by shock, grief, and "devastation" for most parents. Maternal guilt was common, but usually lessened over time. As parents adjusted to life postdiagnosis, they attempted to achieve a state of normalcy while balancing a desire to protect their sons. Significant sources of stress included decisions around sports participation and driving. Among all parents, the fear of retinal detachment was an ongoing concern. Most parents did identify perceived benefits from their experiences, such as feelings of gratitude or family cohesion. CONCLUSIONS: Most parents viewed XLRS as a significant challenge in their sons' lives, but one that could be overcome. Clinical encounters may be enhanced for families with XLRS by providing accurate information, preparing families for potential challenges, anticipating stressful decisions, and meeting other families with XLRS.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Pai/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Retinosquise/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Criança , Feminino , Culpa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Núcleo Familiar , Relações Pais-Filho , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Percepção , Qualidade de Vida , Esportes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Urologe A ; 59(2): 176-184, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30105554

RESUMO

The present dissertation was submitted in 1713 at the University of Halle as part of the requirements to obtain the "licentiat". The author was Johann Michael Eisenbarth, the oldest son of the well-known physician Johann Andreas Eisenbarth. The dissertation delivers an overview over the history of the cystotomy, leading back to antiquity. In sixty paragraphs, the author dealt with different issues, such as diagnosis, preparation, and aftercare of patients with urinary bladder stones. However, the center of the thesis is the critical evaluation of all surgical methods known three hundred years ago.


Assuntos
Cistotomia/história , Médicos/história , Cálculos da Bexiga Urinária/história , Cirurgia Geral/história , Alemanha , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Núcleo Familiar
19.
J Christ Nurs ; 37(1): 32-37, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464803

RESUMO

The death of one's mother during childhood is the severing of one of the most important human bonds. The child may suffer periods of grief that continue into adulthood and throughout life. The nurse has a vital role in assisting women traumatized by loss of a mother at a young age. This article discusses the experience of maternal loss and notes care needs of the motherless child-adult woman. Identification of women in this situation should be made as early as possible.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Pesar , Núcleo Familiar/psicologia , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Mãe-Filho , Qualidade de Vida
20.
Nat Med ; 25(12): 1894-1904, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792459

RESUMO

How obesity and elevated androgen levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affect their offspring is unclear. In a Swedish nationwide register-based cohort and a clinical case-control study from Chile, we found that daughters of mothers with PCOS were more likely to be diagnosed with PCOS. Furthermore, female mice (F0) with PCOS-like traits induced by late-gestation injection of dihydrotestosterone, with and without obesity, produced female F1-F3 offspring with PCOS-like reproductive and metabolic phenotypes. Sequencing of single metaphase II oocytes from F1-F3 offspring revealed common and unique altered gene expression across all generations. Notably, four genes were also differentially expressed in serum samples from daughters in the case-control study and unrelated women with PCOS. Our findings provide evidence of transgenerational effects in female offspring of mothers with PCOS and identify possible candidate genes for the prediction of a PCOS phenotype in future generations.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Obesidade Materna/genética , Oócitos/metabolismo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Camundongos , Núcleo Familiar , Obesidade Materna/sangue , Obesidade Materna/metabolismo , Obesidade Materna/fisiopatologia , Oócitos/imunologia , Fenótipo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Análise de Célula Única
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