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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 186, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883951

RESUMO

Sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) is activated by cytokines or pathogen, such as virus or bacteria, but its association with diminished cholesterol levels in COVID-19 patients is unknown. Here, we evaluated SREBP-2 activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of COVID-19 patients and verified the function of SREBP-2 in COVID-19. Intriguingly, we report the first observation of SREBP-2 C-terminal fragment in COVID-19 patients' blood and propose SREBP-2 C-terminal fragment as an indicator for determining severity. We confirmed that SREBP-2-induced cholesterol biosynthesis was suppressed by Sestrin-1 and PCSK9 expression, while the SREBP-2-induced inflammatory responses was upregulated in COVID-19 ICU patients. Using an infectious disease mouse model, inhibitors of SREBP-2 and NF-κB suppressed cytokine storms caused by viral infection and prevented pulmonary damages. These results collectively suggest that SREBP-2 can serve as an indicator for severity diagnosis and therapeutic target for preventing cytokine storm and lung damage in severe COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Colesterol/biossíntese , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/mortalidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/virologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/imunologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
2.
Sci Adv ; 6(31)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937590

RESUMO

The outbreak of the highly contagious and deadly severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has posed a serious threat to public health across the globe, calling for the development of effective diagnostic markers and therapeutics. Here, we report a highly reliable severity diagnostic biomarker, acetylated 676th lysine transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBIp K676Ac). TGFBIp K676Ac was consistently elevated in the blood of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (n = 113), especially in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) compared to non-ICU patients. Patients' blood samples showed increased cytokines and lymphopenia, which are exemplary indicators of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Treatment with TGFBIp neutralizing antibodies suppressed the cytokine storm. The increased level of TGFBIp K676Ac in ICU patients suggests the promise of this protein as a reliable severity diagnostic biomarker for severe SARS-CoV-2 disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/diagnóstico , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia , Acetilação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Contagem de Leucócitos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Lisina/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/sangue , Insuficiência Respiratória/imunologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
3.
Vet Microbiol ; 247: 108785, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768229

RESUMO

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes watery diarrhea, vomiting and mortality in nursing piglets. Type III interferons (IFN-λs) are the major antiviral cytokines in intestinal epithelial cells, the target cells in vivo for PDCoV. In this study, we found that PDCoV infection remarkably inhibited Sendai virus-induced IFN-λ1 production by suppressing transcription factors IRF and NF-κB in IPI-2I cells, a line of porcine intestinal mucosal epithelial cells. We also confirmed that PDCoV infection impeded the activation of IFN-λ1 promoter stimulated by RIG-I, MDA5 and MAVS, but not by TBK1 and IRF1. Although the expression levels of IRF1 and MAVS were not changed, PDCoV infection resulted in reduction of the number of peroxisomes, the platform for MAVS to activate IRF1, and subsequent type III IFN production. Taken together, our study demonstrates that PDCoV suppresses type III IFN responses to circumvent the host's antiviral immunity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Interferons/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/virologia , Rim/citologia , Rim/virologia , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Vírus Sendai/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
4.
Virology ; 548: 117-123, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838932

RESUMO

The matrix (M) protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) plays a key role in immune evasion. While VSV has been thought to suppress the interferon (IFN) response primarily by inhibiting host cell transcription and translation, our recent findings indicate that the M protein also targets NF-κB activation. Therefore, the M protein may utilize two distinct mechanisms to limit expression of antiviral genes, inhibiting both host gene expression and NF-κB activation. Here we characterize a recently reported mutation in the M protein [M(D52G)] of VSV isolate 22-20, which suppressed IFN mRNA and protein production despite activating NF-κB. 22-20 inhibited reporter gene expression from multiple promoters, suggesting that 22-20 suppressed the IFN response via M-mediated inhibition of host cell transcription. We propose that suppression of the IFN response and regulation of NF-κB are independent, genetically separable functions of the VSV M protein.


Assuntos
Interferon beta/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Estomatite Vesicular/imunologia , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana/imunologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Interferon beta/genética , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , Estomatite Vesicular/genética , Estomatite Vesicular/virologia , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana/genética , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana/fisiologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética
5.
Cell Signal ; 75: 109761, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861744

RESUMO

A fine-tuned activation and deactivation of proteases and their inhibitors are involved in the execution of the inflammatory response. The zymogen/proenzyme plasminogen is converted to the serine protease plasmin, a key fibrinolytic factor by plasminogen activators including tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). Plasmin is part of an intricate protease network controlling proteins of initial hemostasis/coagulation, fibrinolytic and complement system. Activation of these protease cascades is required to mount a proper inflammatory response. Although best known for its ability to dissolve clots and cleave fibrin, recent studies point to the importance of fibrin-independent functions of plasmin during acute inflammation and inflammation resolution. In this review, we provide an up-to-date overview of the current knowledge of the enzymatic and cytokine-like effects of tPA and describe the role of tPA and plasminogen receptors in the regulation of the inflammatory response with emphasis on the cytokine storm syndrome such as observed during coronavirus disease 2019 or macrophage activation syndrome. We discuss tPA as a modulator of Toll like receptor signaling, plasmin as an activator of NFkB signaling, and summarize recent studies on the role of plasminogen receptors as controllers of the macrophage conversion into the M2 type and as mediators of efferocytosis during inflammation resolution.


Assuntos
Inflamação/imunologia , Plasminogênio/imunologia , Animais , Coagulação Sanguínea , Ativação do Complemento , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/complicações , Proteína-1 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/imunologia
7.
Adv Biol Regul ; 77: 100741, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773102

RESUMO

Pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and poses an unprecedented challenge to healthcare systems due to the lack of a vaccine and specific treatment options. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to understand precisely the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this multifaceted disease. There is increasing evidence that the immune system reacts insufficiently to SARS-CoV-2 and thus contributes to organ damage and to lethality. In this review, we suggest that the overwhelming production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in oxidative stress is a major cause of local or systemic tissue damage that leads to severe COVID-19. It increases the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and suppresses the adaptive arm of the immune system, i.e. T cells that are necessary to kill virus-infected cells. This creates a vicious cycle that prevents a specific immune response against SARS-CoV-2. The key role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 implies that therapeutic counterbalancing of ROS by antioxidants such as vitamin C or NAC and/or by antagonizing ROS production by cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) and neutrophil granulocytes and/or by blocking of TNF-α can prevent COVID-19 from becoming severe. Controlled clinical trials and preclinical models of COVID-19 are needed to evaluate this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Linfopenia/imunologia , Linfopenia/virologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/virologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/virologia
8.
Mol Immunol ; 125: 70-82, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652362

RESUMO

Immune responses and central nervous system dysfunction are two main factors to be considered during rabies virus (RABV) infection. However, the mechanisms by which RABV strains of different virulence regulate with chemokine expression and the signaling pathways responsible for the immune responses in the terminal stage of infection both in vivo and in vitro have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we found low expression levels of proinflammatory chemokines in the mouse brain upon infection with street RABV strains (CXZ17 and HN10) at the late stage of infection. We also examined the difference in inflammatory response upon infection with RABV strains of different virulence in a mouse model. We found that the expression of proinflammatory chemokines increased to a varying degree upon infection with street RABV (CXZ17 and HN10) or laboratory-fixed RABV (CVS-11, aG, and CTN); CXCL10, CCL5, and CCL2 were the most significantly upregulated chemokines in brain tissue and microglial BV-2 cells in response to infection with RABV strains of different virulence. Our data also demonstrate significant activation of the MAPK and NF-κB pathways in mouse brain tissue at the late stage of RABV infection. We also found (i) low phosphorylation signals of MAPK and NF-κB p65 in neuronal cells upon infection with CXZ17 and HN10 in the mouse brain and (ii) strong phosphorylation signals in cerebrovascular endothelial cells and neuronal cells upon CTN or aG infection. Moreover, we quantified the nuclear localization status of MAPK signals and NF-κB p65 upon infection with CVS-11, aG, and CTN in BV-2 cells in vitro. We also found (i) that the activation of the p38, ERK1/2, and NF-κB p65 pathway, which stimulates CXCL10, CCL5, and CCL2 expression upon infection with RABV strains of different virulence (aG, CTN, and CVS-11), is triggered after virus entry into BV-2 cells and (ii) that the expression of CXCL10, CCL5, and CCL2 is required for the activation of NF-κB, p38, and ERK1/2, but not JNK. Overall, our study provides insight into the regulation of inflammatory responses mediated by MAPK and NF-κB in the mouse brain and in microglial cells upon RABV infection of different virulence.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/virologia , Inflamação/virologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade , Raiva/imunologia , Animais , Encéfalo/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Camundongos , Microglia/imunologia , Microglia/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Virulência/imunologia
9.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(9): 515-516, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728221

Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/imunologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Armadilhas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/uso terapêutico , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/imunologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/virologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteínas Secretadas Inibidoras de Proteinases/uso terapêutico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/imunologia
10.
Virus Res ; 286: 198074, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589897

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel human coronavirus causing the pandemic of severe pneumonia (Coronavirus Disease 2019, COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is highly pathogenic in human, having posed immeasurable public health challenges to the world. Innate immune response is critical for the host defense against viral infection and the dysregulation of the host innate immune responses probably aggravates SARS-CoV-2 infection, contributing to the high morbidity and lethality of COVID-19. It has been reported that some coronavirus proteins play an important role in modulating innate immunity of the host, but few studies have been conducted on SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we screened the viral proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and found that the viral ORF6, ORF8 and nucleocapsid proteins were potential inhibitors of type I interferon signaling pathway, a key component for antiviral response of host innate immune. All the three proteins showed strong inhibition on type I interferon (IFN-ß) and NF-κB-responsive promoter, further examination revealed that these proteins were able to inhibit the interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) after infection with Sendai virus, while only ORF6 and ORF8 proteins were able to inhibit the ISRE after treatment with interferon beta. These findings would be helpful for the further study of the detailed signaling pathway and unveil the key molecular player that may be targeted.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interferon beta/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Células HEK293 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Interferon beta/imunologia , Luciferases/genética , Luciferases/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Plasmídeos/química , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Elementos de Resposta , Vírus Sendai/genética , Vírus Sendai/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Transfecção/métodos , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
11.
Arch Virol ; 165(7): 1557-1567, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356187

RESUMO

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) is a chronic progressive infectious disease caused by caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) that seriously threatens the goat industry. Chronic infection and life-long multi-tissue inflammation are the typical features of the disease. Innate antiviral immunity is essential for the host defense system that rapidly recognizes and eliminates invading viruses. Interferon ß (IFN-ß) is important for innate immunity and regulates immunity against a broad spectrum of viruses. To investigate the details of the IFN-ß response to CAEV infection, the effects of six viral proteins and the molecular mechanisms by which they affect IFN-ß production were analyzed. Overexpression of DU and Vif promote virus proliferation and inhibit the production of IFN-ß. qRT-PCR and luciferase reporter assays showed that overexpression of Vif inhibits the expression of luciferase under the control of the ISRE, NF-κB or IFN-ß promoter but does not affect the expression of IFN-ß activated by IRF3, indicating that Vif negatively regulates IFN-ß production by affecting upstream signal transduction of IRF3. Amino acids 149-164 of Vif were found to be necessary for the inhibitory effect of IFN-ß production. Our results indicate that CAEV evades surveillance and clearance by intracellular innate immunity by downregulating IFN-ß production.


Assuntos
Vírus da Artrite-Encefalite Caprina/imunologia , Produtos do Gene vif/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Interferon beta/imunologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Animais , Vírus da Artrite-Encefalite Caprina/genética , Produtos do Gene vif/genética , Doenças das Cabras/genética , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Imunidade Inata , Interferon beta/genética , Infecções por Lentivirus/genética , Infecções por Lentivirus/imunologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/virologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia
12.
Prostate ; 80(10): 764-776, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aging is the most important risk factor for prostate cancer (PCa), but how age contributes to PCa is poorly understood. Aging is characterized by low-grade systemic inflammation (i.e., inflammaging) that is often attributed to the progressive activation of immune cells over time, which may play an important role in prostate carcinogenesis. Th17 response is elevated in aging humans and mice, but it remains unknown whether it is increased in prostate tissue or contributes to prostate carcinogenesis during aging. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of age-related Th17 response in PCa cell growth, migration, and invasion. METHODS: C57BL/6J (B6) mouse was used as an aging animal model and the prostate histopathology during aging was analyzed. Splenic CD4+ T cells were isolated from young (16-20 weeks old) and aged (96-104 weeks old) mice, and cultured in the presence of plate-bound anti-CD3/anti-CD28, with or without Th17 differentiation conditions. The cells were collected and used for subsequent flow cytometry or quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The supernatant was collected and used to treat PCa cell lines. The treated PCa cells were analyzed for cell viability, migration, invasion, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. RESULTS: Aged mice had enlarged prostate glands and increased morphological alterations, with not only increased inflammatory cell infiltration but also increased Th17 cytokines in prostate tissue, compared to young mice. Naïve CD4+ T cells from aged mice differentiated increased interleukin (IL)-17-expressing cells. CD4+ T cells from aged mice spleen had increased Th17 cells, Th17 cytokines and Th17/Treg ratio compared to young mice. Factors secreted from aged CD4+ T cells, especially from ex vivo differentiated Th17 cells, not only promoted PCa cell viability, migration, and invasion but also activated the NF-κB signaling in PCa cells compared to young mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that age-related CD4+ T cells, especially Th17 cells-secreted factors have the potential to contribute to prostate carcinogenesis. Our work could prompt further research using autochthonous PCa mouse models at different ages to elucidate the functional role of Th17 response in prostate carcinogenesis during aging.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Animais , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Invasividade Neoplásica , Células PC-3 , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Células Th17/patologia
13.
Mol Cell Biol ; 40(15)2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393609

RESUMO

The diversified NF-κB transcription factor family has been extensively characterized in organisms ranging from flies to humans. However, homologs of NF-κB and many upstream signaling components have recently been characterized in basal phyla, including Cnidaria (sea anemones, corals, hydras, and jellyfish), Porifera (sponges), and single-celled protists, including Capsaspora owczarzaki and some choanoflagellates. Herein, we review what is known about basal NF-κBs and how that knowledge informs on the evolution and conservation of key sequences and domains in NF-κB, as well as the regulation of NF-κB activity. The structures and DNA-binding activities of basal NF-κB proteins resemble those of mammalian NF-κB p100 proteins, and their posttranslational activation appears to have aspects of both canonical and noncanonical pathways in mammals. Several studies suggest that the single NF-κB proteins found in some basal organisms have dual roles in development and immunity. Further research on NF-κB in invertebrates will reveal information about the evolutionary roots of this major signaling pathway, will shed light on the origins of regulated innate immunity, and may have relevance to our understanding of the responses of ecologically important organisms to changing environmental conditions and emerging pathogen-based diseases.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/imunologia
14.
Virology ; 546: 109-121, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452409

RESUMO

The inflammasome machinery has recently been recognized as an emerging pillar of innate immunity. However, little is known regarding the interaction between the classical interferon (IFN) response and inflammasome activation in response to norovirus infection. We found that murine norovirus (MNV-1) infection induces the transcription of IL-1ß, a hallmark of inflammasome activation, which is further increased by inhibition of IFN response, but fails to trigger the release of mature IL-1ß. Interestingly, pharmacological inflammasome inhibitors do not affect viral replication, but slightly reverse the inflammasome activator lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inhibition of MNV replication. LPS efficiently stimulates the transcription of IFN-ß through NF-ĸB, which requires the transcription factors IRF3 and IRF7. This activates downstream antiviral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) via the JAK-STAT pathway. Moreover, inhibition of NF-ĸB and JAK-STAT signaling partially reverse LPS-mediated anti-MNV activity, suggesting additional antiviral mechanisms activated by NF-ĸB. This study reveals additional insight in host defense against MNV infection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/imunologia , Janus Quinases/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Norovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/genética , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Humanos , Inflamassomos/genética , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/genética , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/imunologia , Janus Quinases/genética , Macrófagos/virologia , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(5): e1008543, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401783

RESUMO

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) serves as an anti-inflammatory receptor, negatively regulating the innate immune response. TREM2 is mainly expressed on dendritic cells and macrophages, the target cells of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Thus, we investigated the potential role of TREM2 in PRRSV infection in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). We found that there was an increased expression of TREM2 upon PRRSV infection in vitro. TREM2 silencing restrained the replication of PRRSV, whereas TREM2 overexpression facilitated viral replication. The cytoplasmic tail domain of TREM2 interacted with PRRSV Nsp2 to promote infection. TREM2 downregulation led to early activation of PI3K/NF-κB signaling, thus reinforcing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferons. Due to the enhanced cytokine expression, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 was activated to promote the cleavage of membrane CD163, which resulted in suppression of infection. Furthermore, exogenous soluble TREM2 (sTREM2)-mediated inhibition of PRRSV attachment might be attributed to its competitive binding to viral envelope proteins. In pigs, following PRRSV challenge in vivo, the expression of TREM2 in lungs and lymph nodes as well as the production of sTREM2 were significantly increased. These novel findings indicate that TREM2 plays a role in regulating PRRSV replication via the inflammatory response. Therefore, our work describes a novel antiviral mechanism against PRRSV infection and suggests that targeting TREM2 could be a new approach in the control of the PRRSV infection.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Animais , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/patologia , Suínos
16.
Clin Immunol ; 215: 108410, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-38673

RESUMO

Infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 can result in severe respiratory complications and death. Patients with a compromised immune system are expected to be more susceptible to a severe disease course. In this report we suggest that patients with systemic lupus erythematous might be especially prone to severe COVID-19 independent of their immunosuppressed state from lupus treatment. Specifically, we provide evidence in lupus to suggest hypomethylation and overexpression of ACE2, which is located on the X chromosome and encodes a functional receptor for the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. Oxidative stress induced by viral infections exacerbates the DNA methylation defect in lupus, possibly resulting in further ACE2 hypomethylation and enhanced viremia. In addition, demethylation of interferon-regulated genes, NFκB, and key cytokine genes in lupus patients might exacerbate the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and increase the likelihood of cytokine storm. These arguments suggest that inherent epigenetic dysregulation in lupus might facilitate viral entry, viremia, and an excessive immune response to SARS-CoV-2. Further, maintaining disease remission in lupus patients is critical to prevent a vicious cycle of demethylation and increased oxidative stress, which will exacerbate susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection during the current pandemic. Epigenetic control of the ACE2 gene might be a target for prevention and therapy in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Epigênese Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Viremia/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Antígeno CD11a/genética , Antígeno CD11a/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Metilação de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Ligação Proteica , Receptores KIR/genética , Receptores KIR/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Viremia/complicações , Viremia/epidemiologia , Viremia/imunologia
17.
Clin Immunol ; 215: 108410, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276140

RESUMO

Infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 can result in severe respiratory complications and death. Patients with a compromised immune system are expected to be more susceptible to a severe disease course. In this report we suggest that patients with systemic lupus erythematous might be especially prone to severe COVID-19 independent of their immunosuppressed state from lupus treatment. Specifically, we provide evidence in lupus to suggest hypomethylation and overexpression of ACE2, which is located on the X chromosome and encodes a functional receptor for the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. Oxidative stress induced by viral infections exacerbates the DNA methylation defect in lupus, possibly resulting in further ACE2 hypomethylation and enhanced viremia. In addition, demethylation of interferon-regulated genes, NFκB, and key cytokine genes in lupus patients might exacerbate the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and increase the likelihood of cytokine storm. These arguments suggest that inherent epigenetic dysregulation in lupus might facilitate viral entry, viremia, and an excessive immune response to SARS-CoV-2. Further, maintaining disease remission in lupus patients is critical to prevent a vicious cycle of demethylation and increased oxidative stress, which will exacerbate susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection during the current pandemic. Epigenetic control of the ACE2 gene might be a target for prevention and therapy in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Epigênese Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Viremia/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Antígeno CD11a/genética , Antígeno CD11a/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Metilação de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Ligação Proteica , Receptores KIR/genética , Receptores KIR/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Viremia/complicações , Viremia/epidemiologia , Viremia/imunologia
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(4): e1008474, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315358

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is the etiological agent of Chagas cardiomyopathy. In the present study, we investigated the role of extracellular vesicles (Ev) in shaping the macrophage (Mφ) response in progressive Chagas disease (CD). We purified T. cruzi Ev (TcEv) from axenic parasite cultures, and T. cruzi-induced Ev (TEv) from the supernatants of infected cells and plasma of acutely and chronically infected wild-type and Parp1-/- mice. Cultured (Raw 264.7) and bone-marrow Mφ responded to TcEV and TEv with a profound increase in the expression and release of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß cytokines. TEv produced by both immune (Mφ) and non-immune (muscle) cells were proinflammatory. Chemical inhibition or genetic deletion of PARP1 (a DNA repair enzyme) significantly depressed the TEv-induced transcriptional and translational activation of proinflammatory Mφ response. Oxidized DNA encapsulated by TEv was necessary for PARP1-dependent proinflammatory Mφ response. Inhibition studies suggested that DNA-sensing innate immune receptors (cGAS>>TLR9) synergized with PARP1 in signaling the NFκB activation, and inhibition of PARP1 and cGAS resulted in >80% inhibition of TEv-induced NFκB activity. Histochemical studies showed intense inflammatory infiltrate associated with profound increase in CD11b+CD68+TNF-α+ Mφ in the myocardium of CD wild-type mice. In comparison, chronically infected Parp1-/- mice exhibited low-to-moderate tissue inflammation, >80% decline in myocardial infiltration of TNF-α+ Mφ, and no change in immunoregulatory IL-10+ Mφ. We conclude that oxidized DNA released with TEv signal the PARP1-cGAS-NF-κB pathway of proinflammatory Mφ activation and worsens the chronic inflammatory pathology in CD. Small molecule antagonists of PARP1-cGAS signaling pathway would potentially be useful in reprogramming the Mφ activation and controlling the chronic inflammation in CD.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Animais , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/imunologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/metabolismo , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Nucleotidiltransferases/imunologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/imunologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(4): 518-524, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterised by aberrant B cell hyperactivation, whose mechanism is partially understood. METHODS: We performed whole transcriptome sequencing of B cells from three pSS patients and three matched healthy controls (HC). Differentially expression genes (DEGs) were confirmed with B cells from 40 pSS patients and 40 HC by quantitative PCR and western blot. We measured the proliferation potential and immunoglobulins production of siRNA-transfected or plasmid-transfected B cells stimulated with cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) or anti-IgM. We also explored Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signalling to reveal the potential mechanism of B cell hyperactivation in pSS. RESULTS: We identified 77 upregulated and 32 downregulated DEGs in pSS B cells. We confirmed that epithelial stromal interaction (EPST1) expression in pSS B cells was significantly higher than that from HCs. EPSTI1-silencing B cells stimulated with CpG were less proliferated and produced lower level of IgG and IgM comparing with control B cells. EPSTI1-silencing B cells expressed lower level of p-p65 and higher level of IκBα, and B cells with overexpressed EPSTI1 showed higher level of p-p65 and lower level of IκBα. Finally, IκBα degradation inhibitor Dehydrocostus Lactone treatment attenuated p65 phosphorylation promoted by EPSTI1. CONCLUSION: Elevated EPSTI1 expression in pSS B cells promoted TLR9 signalling activation and contributed to the abnormal B cell activation, which was promoted by facilitating p65 phosphorylation and activation of NF-κB signalling via promoting IκBα degradation. EPSTI1 might be implicated in pSS pathogenesis and was a potential therapeutic target of pSS.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Lactonas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/imunologia , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fosforilação , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Sesquiterpenos , Síndrome de Sjogren/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 9/imunologia , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nat Immunol ; 21(4): 388-399, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205878

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanisms that modulate helper T lymphocyte functions is crucial to decipher normal and pathogenic immune responses in humans. To identify molecular determinants influencing the pathogenicity of T cells, we separated ex vivo-isolated primary human memory T lymphocytes on the basis of their ability to produce high levels of inflammatory cytokines. We found that the inflammatory, cytokine-producing phenotype of memory T lymphocytes was defined by a specific core gene signature and was mechanistically regulated by the constitutive activation of the NF-κB pathway and by the expression of the transcriptional repressor BHLHE40. BHLHE40 attenuated the expression of anti-inflammatory factors, including miR-146a, a negative regulator of NF-κB activation and ZC3H12D, an RNase of the Regnase-1 family able to degrade inflammatory transcripts. Our data reveal a molecular network regulating the proinflammatory phenotype of human memory T lymphocytes, with the potential to contribute to disease.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Fenótipo , Linfócitos T/imunologia
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