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4.
Ambio ; 49(1): 17-34, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852780

RESUMO

Growing research and public awareness of the environmental impacts of tobacco present an opportunity for environmental science and public health to work together. Various United Nations agencies share interests in mitigating the environmental costs of tobacco. Since 2000, transnational tobacco industry consolidation has accelerated, spotlighting the specific companies responsible for the environmental and human harms along the tobacco production chain. Simultaneously, corporate social responsibility norms have led the industry to disclose statistics on the environmental harms their business causes. Yet, independent and consistent reporting remain hurdles to accurately assessing tobacco's environmental impact. This article is the first to analyze publicly available industry data on tobacco manufacturing pollution. Tobacco's significant environmental impact suggests this industry should be included in environmental analyses as a driver of environmental degradation influencing climate change. Countries aiming to meet UN Sustainable Development Goals must act to reduce environmental harms caused by the tobacco industry.


Assuntos
Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Comércio , Humanos , Tabaco , Nações Unidas
5.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 923-934, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047679

RESUMO

Este artigo apresenta um trabalho que consistiu no levantamento quantitativo das publicações sobre a Agenda 2030 de Desenvolvimento Sustentável na América Latina, ou que foram escritas por autores afiliados às instituições da região, focando no tema saúde. Foram realizadas buscas em bancos de dados, para o período entre janeiro de 2009 e maio de 2017, e encontradas 127 publicações voltadas para o Objetivo de Desenvolvimento Sustentável 3 ­ Boa Saúde e Bem-Estar. A maior parcela dos resultados (92%) é constituída de artigos científicos que foram descritos segundo o ano e veículo de publicação, instituições de filiação dos autores e sua localização. Quase a metade das publicações (47%) foi feita sem a participação de organizações latino-americanas e em apenas 30% dos casos o primeiro autor pertence a uma organização latino-americana. Esse quadro se torna mais nítido quando se observa a concentração da produção latinoamericana em torno de organizações brasileiras: a produção científica sobre as resoluções da Agenda 2030 em relação à saúde ainda está ausente em grande parte do território latino-americano.


This article presents a work that consisted of a quantitative research about publications on Agenda 2030 on Sustainable Development in Latin America, or written by authors affiliated with institutions in the region, focusing on health. A search using databases on the subject for the period between January 2009 and May 2017 was made, and 127 publications focusing on Sustainable Development Goal 3 ­ Good Health and Well-Being. The majority (92%) of the publications were scientific articles and were described in relation to the year and vehicle of publication, authors' affiliation institutions and their location. Almost half of the publications (47%) were made without the participation of Latin American organizations and only 30% of cases have the first author who belongs to a Latin American organization. This picture becomes clearer when we see the concentration of Latin American production at Brazilian organizations: scientific production onAgenda 2030 regarding health is still absent in much of the Latin American territory.


Este artículo presenta un trabajo que ha consistido en el levantamiento cuantitativo de las publicaciones sobre la Agenda 2030 en América Latina o que fueron escritas por autores afiliados a instituciones de la región con el foco en salud. Se realizaron búsquedas en bancos de datos para el período entre 2009 y mayo de 2017. Se encontraron 127 publicaciones sobre el Objetivos de desarrollo sostenible 3 ­ Salud y Bienestar. Constituyen la mayoría (92%) artículos científicos que fueron descritos según el año y el vehículo de publicación, las instituciones de filiación de los autores y su ubicación. En casi la mitad de las publicaciones (47%) no hubo participación de organizaciones latinoamericanas y solamente en 30% de los casos el primer autor pertenece a una organización latinoamericana. Este cuadro es más nítido cuando observada la concentración de la producción latinoamericana en organizaciones brasileñas: La producción científica sobrela Agenda 2030 en el área de la salud todavía está ausente en gran parte de la América Latina.


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde Ambiental , Base de Dados , Governança , América Latina , Nações Unidas , Revisão , Artigo de Revista , Academias e Institutos , Atividades Científicas e Tecnológicas , Comunicação Acadêmica , Política de Saúde
6.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25022, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047938

RESUMO

O presente ensaio objetiva analisar o paradigma da aptidão física e da promoção da saúde como perspectiva da Educação Física (EF), a partir das diretrizes da Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, a Ciência e a Cultura (UNESCO), que regulam a EF em âmbito internacional. Tomamos como ponto de referência o documento "Diretrizes em Educação Física de Qualidade: para gestores de políticas". Dois aspectos são destacados nessas Diretrizes: o caráter da EF na formação dos indivíduos e a relação causa-efeito da atividade física e saúde. Tais elementos nos permitem indicar que a perspectiva da EF e a do esporte como promotores de saúde e disciplinamento são fatores significativos para a formação do capital humano. Portanto, mais importante do que realizar atividades físicas é aprofundar os conhecimentos das práticas corporais, para que se eleve o patamar de compreensão acerca dos fenômenos, com caráter emancipador


This essay analyzes the paradigm of physical fitness and health promotion as a perspective in Physical Education (PE), based on the guidelines of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), which regulate PE at international level. Our reference was the document "Quality Physical Education (QPE): guidelines for policy makers". Two aspects are highlighted in these Guidelines: the nature of PE in the formation of the individuals and the cause-effect relationship between physical activity and health. Such elements allow us to point out that PE and sports as promoters of health and discipline are significant for the formation of human capital. Therefore, more important than performing physical activities is to elaborate on knowledge of bodily practices so that it increases the level of understanding about the phenomena, with an emancipatory character


El presente ensayo tiene por objetivo analizar el paradigma de la aptitud física y de la promoción de la salud como perspectiva de la Educación Física (EF) a partir de las directrices de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (UNESCO), que regulan la EF en el ámbito internacional. Tomamos como punto de referencia el documento "Directrices en Educación Física de Calidad: guía para los responsables políticos". Dos aspectos se destacan en esas Directrices: el carácter de la EF como medio de formación del individuo y la relación causa efecto de la actividad física y salud. Tales elementos nos permiten indicar que la perspectiva de la EF y del deporte como fomentadores de salud y disciplina son factores significativos para la formación del capital humano. Por lo tanto, más importante que realizar actividades físicas es profundizar los conocimientos de las practicas corporales, para que se eleve el nivel de comprensión sobre los fenómenos con carácter emancipador


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Aptidão Física , Nações Unidas , Promoção da Saúde , Atividade Motora
7.
; IBFAN.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46901

RESUMO

Relatório do UNICEF examina a questão das crianças, alimentação e nutrição, fornecendo uma nova perspectiva sobre um desafio em rápida evolução. Apesar do progresso nas últimas duas décadas, um terço das crianças com menos de 5 anos está desnutrido – atrofiado, desnutrido ou com sobrepeso – enquanto dois terços correm risco de desnutrição e fome devido à má qualidade de suas dietas. Este relatório também fornece novos dados e análises de desnutrição no século 21 e esboça recomendações para colocar os direitos das crianças no centro dos sistemas alimentares.


Assuntos
Nutrição do Lactente , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil , Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Nações Unidas , Fome , Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente , Comportamento Alimentar
8.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 8(11): 668-671, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779293

RESUMO

Corruption in the health sector has been a "dirty secret" in the health policy and international development community, but recent global activities point to a day when it will no longer be neglected as a key determinant of health. To further explore next steps forward, this commentary applies the Kingdon's multiple-streams framework (MSF) to assess what opportunities are available to mobilize the global agenda to combat health corruption. Based on this analysis, it appears that Kingdon's problem, policy, and political streams are coalescing to create a policy window opportunity that can be leveraged based on recent developments in the global health and international development community around corruption. This includes the recent formation of the Global Network on Anti-Corruption, Transparency and Accountability (GNACTA) led by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Global Fund, and the United Nations Development Programme in 2019. It also includes bridging shared goals of addressing corruption in order to make progress towards health-specific goals in the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and for achieving universal health coverage.


Assuntos
Programas Governamentais , Nações Unidas , Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social
10.
J Law Med ; 26(4): 732-736, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682352

RESUMO

The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is highly regulated across Australia. Its use on those under compulsory mental health treatment orders remains controversial and the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel and Inhuman Treatment or Punishment has called for a ban on its nonconsensual use. Mental health tribunals must consider whether or not the person concerned has capacity to consent to ECT and there have been different understandings of just what capacity means in this regard. This column discusses the influence of human rights law and a recent decision by Justice Bell of the Supreme Court of Victoria setting a low threshold for a person's capacity to consent to or refuse ECT.


Assuntos
Eletroconvulsoterapia , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Justiça Social , Humanos , Legislação Médica , Nações Unidas , Vitória
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17737, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689820

RESUMO

The World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund's Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative is aimed at the global promotion, protection and support of breastfeeding. In this study, we compared breastfeeding-related information received, knowledge and behaviours among postpartum women in Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative accredited and non-accredited hospitals. We selected 10 hospitals: 9 non-accredited hospitals in the Campania region in southern Italy and one accredited hospital in the Piedmont region in northern Italy. In total, 786 women (580 (73.8%) in Campania and 206 (26.2%) in Piedmont) in the hospitals' maternity wards completed a questionnaire comprising 5 sections within 24 to 72hours after giving birth. The questionnaire investigated breastfeeding activities in the days immediately following childbirth, as well as the information provided by health personnel, knowledge about breastfeeding before and during hospitalisation, and participation in antenatal classes. To evaluate the comparison between the 2 regions, we performed at first a bivariate analysis and then a multinomial and a multivariate logistic regression. Compared with Piedmont, in Campania hospitals there was a rate of breastfeeding of 44.3% vs 89.3%, a skin-to-skin contact between mother and child of 74.5% vs 90.7% and first milk feed within 2hours of 15.0% vs 87.2%. The Campania group had fewer problems with child latching. The Campania group reported receiving less information about breastfeeding in general compared with the Piedmont group. In general, both groups showed good basic knowledge about different aspects of breastfeeding. In both regions, about 90% reported that the information received during the antenatal classes simplified the breastfeeding experience. Our study confirms the importance of systematic promotion of breastfeeding and subsequent delivery of adequate support to maternity departments, in accordance with international guidelines.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidade Hospitalar de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Modelos Logísticos , Mães/psicologia , Análise Multivariada , Unidade Hospitalar de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia/normas , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Nações Unidas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
J Appl Meas ; 20(4): 426-449, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730548

RESUMO

Proposals for incorporating information on the quality of human, social, and environmental conditions in more authentic and comprehensive versions of the Gross National Product (GNP) or Gross Domestic Product (GDP) date back to the foundations of econometrics. Typically treated as external to markets, these domains have lately been objects of renewed interest. Calls for accountability and transparency have expanded to include the now topical but previously neglected economic implications of human, social, and natural capital. Clear advantages for the measurement and management of these forms of capital can be drawn from econometric criteria for identifiable models of structurally invariant relationships. The United Nation's Millennium Development Goals (MDG) provide an example application of a probabilistic model for measurement used to evaluate data quality, reduce data volume with no loss of information, estimate linear units of comparison with known uncertainties, express measures from different sets of indicators in a common metric, and frame a meaningful interpretive context. Data on 22 MDG indicators from 64 countries are scored and analyzed. Model fit was reasonable, the item hierarchy tells a meaningful story of structural invariance in economic development, and Cronbach's alpha was 0.93. The measures estimated in this study correlated over 0.90 with independently produced measures of per-capita GDP and life satisfaction. These results provide a positive demonstration of relevant methods applicable in the context of today's Sustainable Development Goals 2030 Agenda.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Metas , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Nações Unidas , Humanos , Psicometria
14.
Nurs Outlook ; 67(6): 658-663, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653341

RESUMO

Nurses are positioned to advance the Social Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations, especially Goal Three: Good Health and Well-Being. However, to do this there must be micro- and macro-level support from the profession. When the individual will of nurses is coupled with collaborative efforts of professional nursing organizations, such as the Nursing Community Coalition, policies supporting the SDGs are able to move forward.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Cuidados de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Objetivos Organizacionais , Sociedades de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Humanos , Nações Unidas , Estados Unidos
16.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 261-270, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564724

RESUMO

The convergence of humans, animals and our shared environment results in a dynamic in which the health of each group is inextricably linked. Taking into account the fact that the majority of emerging pathogens (e.g. highly pathogenic avian influenza [HPAI], severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Nipah virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus) are zoonotic diseases, Egypt has established a national One Health coordination mechanism. The primary purpose of this mechanism is to provide a comprehensive, strategic approach to concurrent and future health challenges that are facing public and animal heath, including environmental impacts. In this way, the public health, animal health and environment sectors can improve disease mitigation measures, develop stronger and more stable public and animal health services, promote effective national communication strategies and improve One Health collaboration among all relevant sectors. In Egypt, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) currently assist in hosting the country's Four-Way Linking Task Force with the participation of the convening Ministries (Ministry of Health and Population, Ministry of Environment, and Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation [MOALR] - through the General Organisation for Veterinary Services and the MOALR's laboratories). In the context of the Emerging Pandemic Threats 2 Program, funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), FAO plans to assist Egypt in establishing a robust, multidisciplinary and multisectoral One Health system. This system is based on the solid foundation of the Four-Way Linking Platform, which combines information from four functional streams - epidemiology, laboratories, and animal and human health. Egypt's platform will involve all sectors concerned with HPAI control and combine all stakeholders in an integrated, holistic approach to improve the detection of, response to and control of any threats at the human- animal-environment interface in Egypt.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Colaboração Intersetorial , Saúde Única , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Egito , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Nações Unidas , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
17.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 123-133, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564735

RESUMO

In 2015, the United Nations General Assembly agreed upon 17 global Sustainable Development Goals. The first of these is: 'End poverty in all its forms everywhere'. The second is to: 'End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture'. Food safety is a global priority, since every global citizen has the right to have access to safe and nutritious food. Safe food contributes to people's health and productivity, as well as providing a strong foundation for development and poverty alleviation. Every year, numerous people are affected by foodborne illnesses in developed countries, while widespread illness is even more likely in developing countries. Among society's major concerns are the health risks posed by microbial pathogens and chemicals in food. A One Health approach is crucial to achieving the global goal of food safety and security for all and will improve health outcomes for every citizen.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Saúde Única , Agricultura , Animais , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Saúde Global , Humanos , Fome , Nações Unidas
19.
Int Health ; 11(5): 344-348, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529108

RESUMO

The decline in child mortality over the past two decades has been described as the greatest story in global public health. Indeed, using modern tools and interventions, there has been remarkable progress, reducing deaths in children <5 y of age by nearly half from 2000 to 2017. However, as a consequence of persistent geographic inequalities, we fall short of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal to end all preventable child deaths by 2030, with an estimated 44.6 million preventable deaths expected to occur by the target year. This article discusses how we might further improve the downward trend in child mortality over the next decade to end preventable child deaths.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Saúde Global , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Nações Unidas
20.
Int Health ; 11(5): 349-352, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529111

RESUMO

The Millennium Development Goals era achieved substantial improvements in the health of women and children. Yet progress was uneven and many women and children still suffer from preventable mortality and morbidity. The United Nations Secretary General's Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health (2016-2030) set out an ambitious 'survive, thrive and transform' agenda for countries as they accelerate progress towards the health-related Sustainable Development Goals. This review highlights aspects of 'survive, thrive and transform' that have had strong traction globally, namely quality of care and humanitarian settings for 'survive', early childhood development and adolescent health for 'thrive' and community engagement and a sustainable environment for 'transform'.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Saúde da Criança , Saúde Global , Saúde do Lactente , Saúde Materna , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Nações Unidas/organização & administração
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