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1.
J Addict Med ; 14(6): e369-e371, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 epidemic in the United States has hit in the midst of the opioid overdose crisis. Emergency medical services (EMS) clinicians may limit their use of intranasal naloxone due to concerns of novel coronavirus infection. We sought to determine changes in overdose events and naloxone administration practices by EMS clinicians. METHODS: Between April 29, 2020 and May 15, 2020, we surveyed directors of EMS fellowship programs across the US about how overdose events and naloxone administration practices had changed in their catchment areas since March 2020. RESULTS: Based on 60 respondents across all regions of the country, one fifth of surveyed communities have experienced an increase in opioid overdoses and events during which naloxone was administered, and 40% have experienced a decrease. The findings varied by region of the country. Eighteen percent of respondents have discouraged or prohibited the use of intranasal naloxone with 10% encouraging the use of intramuscular naloxone. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may provide insight into changes in opioid overdose mortality during this time and assist in future disaster planning.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Analgésicos Opioides/toxicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Naloxona/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Sprays Nasais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238618, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915834

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: British Columbia's (BC) Take-Home Naloxone (THN) program provides naloxone to bystanders for use in cases of suspected opioid overdose. This study seeks to provide trends and analysis from the provincial BC THN program since inception in 2012 to the end of 2018. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BC THN shipment and distribution records from 2012-2018 were retrieved. Frequency distributions were used to describe characteristics of individuals accessing the program. To evaluate correlates of distribution after the addition of hundreds of pharmacy distribution sites, an analytic sample was limited to records from 2018, and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate correlates of collecting naloxone at a pharmacy site. RESULTS: Since program inception to the end of 2018, there were 398,167 naloxone kits shipped to distribution sites, 149,999 kits reported distributed, and 40,903 kits reported used to reverse an overdose in BC. There was a significant increasing trend in the number of naloxone kits used to reverse an overdose over time (p<0.01), and more than 90% of kits that were reported used were distributed to persons at risk of an overdose. Individuals not personally at risk of overdose had higher odds of collecting naloxone at a pharmacy site, compared to other community sites (including harm reduction supply distribution sites, peer led organizations, drop-in centers, and supportive housing sites) (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.69; 95% CI: 2.50-2.90). CONCLUSIONS: This study documents thousands of opioid overdose reversals facilitated through the BC THN program. While those at highest risk of overdose may preferentially access naloxone through community sites, naloxone distribution through pharmacies has allowed the BC THN program to expand dramatically, increasing naloxone availability through longer opening hours on evenings and weekends. and in rural and remote regions. A diversity of naloxone distribution sites and strategies is crucial to prevent rising opioid overdose deaths.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naloxona/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Farmácias/tendências
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(33): 1117-1121, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817603

RESUMO

Syringe service programs (SSPs), which provide access to sterile syringes and other injection equipment and their safe disposal after use,* represent a highly successful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention intervention. SSPs are associated with a 58% reduction in the incidence of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs (1). In addition, SSPs have led efforts to prevent opioid overdose deaths by integrating evidence-based opioid overdose education and naloxone distribution (OEND) programs (2-4). OEND programs train laypersons to respond during overdose events and provide access to naloxone and directions for drug delivery (2-4). SSPs are ideal places for OEND because they provide culturally relevant services designed to reach persons at high risk for experiencing or observing an opioid overdose. A 2013 survey found that only 55% of SSPs in the United States had implemented OEND (5). To characterize current implementation of OEND among SSPs, and to describe the current reach (i.e., the ratio of persons who received naloxone per opioid overdose death and the ratio of naloxone doses distributed per opioid overdose death) of SSP-based OEND programs by U.S. Census division,† a survey of known U.S. SSPs was conducted in 2019, which found that 94% of SSPs had implemented OEND. In addition, the reach of SSP-based OEND programs varied by U.S. Census division. Scaling up of SSP-based OEND delivery programs could be a critical component for areas of the country with high opioid overdose death rates and low reach.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Naloxona/provisão & distribução , Programas de Troca de Agulhas/organização & administração , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Humanos , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234683, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544184

RESUMO

Rapid resuscitation of an opioid overdose with naloxone, an opioid antagonist, is critical. We developed an opioid receptor quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) model for evaluation of naloxone dosing. In this model we examined three opioid exposure levels that have been reported in the literature (25 ng/ml, 50 ng/ml, and 75 ng/ml of fentanyl). The model predicted naloxone-fentanyl interaction at the mu opioid receptor over a range of three naloxone doses. For a 2 mg intramuscular (IM) dose of naloxone at lower fentanyl exposure levels (25 ng/ml and 50 ng/ml), the time to decreasing mu receptor occupancy by fentanyl to 50% was 3 and 10 minutes, respectively. However, at a higher fentanyl exposure level (75 ng/ml), a dose of 2 mg IM of the naloxone failed to reduce mu receptor occupancy by fentanyl to 50%. In contrast, naloxone doses of 5 mg and 10 mg IM reduced mu receptor occupancy by fentanyl to 50% in 5.5 and 4 minutes respectively. These results suggest that the current doses of naloxone (2 mg IM or 4 mg intranasal (IN)) may be inadequate for rapid reversal of toxicity due to fentanyl exposure and that increasing the dose of naloxone is likely to improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Ligação Competitiva , Fentanila/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Naloxona/administração & dosagem , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo , Analgésicos Opioides/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Fentanila/toxicidade , Humanos , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
JAMA ; 323(22): 2310-2328, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515820

RESUMO

Importance: Illicit drug use is among the most common causes of preventable morbidity and mortality in the US. Objective: To systematically review the literature on screening and interventions for drug use to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through September 18, 2018; literature surveillance through September 21, 2019. Study Selection: Test accuracy studies to detect drug misuse and randomized clinical trials of screening and interventions to reduce drug use. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Critical appraisal and data abstraction by 2 reviewers and random-effects meta-analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Sensitivity, specificity, drug use and other health, social, and legal outcomes. Results: Ninety-nine studies (N = 84 206) were included. Twenty-eight studies (n = 65 720) addressed drug screening accuracy. Among adults, sensitivity and specificity of screening tools for detecting unhealthy drug use ranged from 0.71 to 0.94 and 0.87 to 0.97, respectively. Interventions to reduce drug use were evaluated in 52 trials (n = 15 659) of psychosocial interventions, 7 trials (n = 1109) of opioid agonist therapy, and 13 trials (n = 1718) of naltrexone. Psychosocial interventions were associated with increased likelihood of drug use abstinence (15 trials, n = 3636; relative risk [RR], 1.60 [95% CI, 1.24 to 2.13]; absolute risk difference [ARD], 9% [95% CI, 5% to 15%]) and reduced number of drug use days (19 trials, n = 5085; mean difference, -0.49 day in the last 7 days [95% CI, -0.85 to -0.13]) vs no psychosocial intervention at 3- to 4-month follow-up. In treatment-seeking populations, opioid agonist therapy and naltrexone were associated with decreased risk of drug use relapse (4 trials, n = 567; RR, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.59 to 0.82]; ARD, -35% [95% CI, -67% to -3%] and 12 trials, n = 1599; RR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.62 to 0.85]; ARD, -18% [95% CI, -26% to -10%], respectively) vs placebo or no medication. While evidence on harms was limited, it indicated no increased risk of serious adverse events. Conclusions and Relevance: Several screening instruments with acceptable sensitivity and specificity are available to screen for drug use, although there is no direct evidence on the benefits or harms of screening. Pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions are effective at improving drug use outcomes, but evidence of effectiveness remains primarily derived from trials conducted in treatment-seeking populations.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Psicoterapia , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/normas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/efeitos adversos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Naloxona/efeitos adversos , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20033, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481373

RESUMO

Though overall death from opioid overdose are increasing in the United States, the death rate in some states and population groups is stabilizing or even decreasing. Several states have enacted a Naloxone Accessibility Laws to increase naloxone availability as an opioid antidote. The extent to which these laws permit layperson distribution and possession varies. The aim of this study is to investigate differences in provisions of Naloxone Accessibility Laws by states mainly in the Northeast and West regions, and the impact of naloxone availability on the rates of drug overdose deaths.This cross-sectional study was based on the National Vital Statistics System multiple cause-of-death mortality files. The average changes in drug overdose death rates between 2013 and 2017 in relevant states of the Northeast and West regions were compared according to availability of naloxone to laypersons.Seven states in the Northeast region and 10 states in the Western region allowed layperson distribution of naloxone. Layperson possession of naloxone was allowed in 3 states each in the Northeast and the Western regions. The average drug overdose death rates increased in many states in the both regions regardless of legalization of layperson naloxone distribution. The average death rates of 3 states that legalized layperson possession in the West region decreased (-0.33 per 100,000 person); however, in states in the West region that did not allow layperson possession and states in the Northeast region regardless of layperson possession increased between 2013 and 2017.The provision to legalize layperson possession of naloxone was associated with decreased average opioid overdose death rates in 3 states of the West region.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Naloxona/provisão & distribução , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/provisão & distribução , Estudos Transversais , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos
11.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(3): 671-676, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421518

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Opioids contributed to over 300,000 deaths in the United States in the past 10 years. Most research on drug use occurs in clinics or hospitals; few studies have evaluated the impact of opioid use on emergency medical services (EMS) or the EMS response to opioid use disorder (OUD). This study describes the perceived burden of disease, data collection, and interventions in California local EMS agencies (LEMSA). METHODS: We surveyed medical directors of all 33 California LEMSAs with 25 multiple-choice and free-answer questions. Results were collected in RedCap and downloaded into Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond WA). This study was exempt from review by the Alameda Health System - Highland Hospital Institutional Review Board. RESULTS: Of the 33 California LEMSAs, 100% responded, all indicating that OUD significantly affects their patients. Most (91%) had specific protocols directing care of those patients and repeat naloxone dosing. After naloxone administration, none permitted release to law enforcement custody, 6% permitted patient refusal of care, and 45% directed base hospital contact for refusal of care. Few protocols directed screening or treatment of OUD or withdrawal symptoms. Regular data collection occurred in 76% of LEMSAs, with only 48% linking EMS data with hospital or coroner outcomes. In only 30% did the medical director oversee regular quality improvement meetings. Of respondents, 64% were aware of public health agency-based outreach programs and 42% were aware of emergency department BRIDGE programs (Medication Assisted Treatment and immediate referral). Only 9% oversaw naloxone kit distribution (all under the medical director), and 6% had EMS-based outreach programs. In almost all (94%), law enforcement officers carried naloxone and administered it anywhere from a few times a year to greater than 200 in one LEMSA. CONCLUSION: This study represents an important description of EMS medical directors' approaches to the impact of OUD as well as trends in protocols and interventions to treat and prevent overdoses. Through this study, we can better understand the variable response to patients with OUD across California.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Masculino , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia
12.
N Engl J Med ; 382(22): 2129-2136, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The opioid crisis highlights the need to increase access to naloxone, possibly through regulatory approval for over-the-counter sales. To address industry-perceived barriers to such access, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed a model drug facts label for such sales to assess whether consumers understood the key statements for safe and effective use. METHODS: In this label-comprehension study, we conducted individual structured interviews with 710 adults and adolescents, including 430 adults who use opioids and their family and friends. Eight primary end points were developed to assess user comprehension of each of the key steps in the label. Each of these end points included a prespecified target threshold ranging from 80 to 90% that was evaluated through a comparison of the lower boundary of the 95% exact confidence interval. RESULTS: The results for performance on six primary end points met or exceeded thresholds, including the steps "Check for a suspected overdose" (threshold, 85%; point estimate [PE], 95.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 94.0 to 97.1) and "Give the first dose" (threshold, 85%; PE, 98.2%; 95% CI, 96.9 to 99.0). The lower boundaries for four other primary end points ranged from 88.8 to 94.0%. One exception was comprehension of "Call 911 immediately," but this instruction closely approximated the target of 90% (PE, 90.3%; 95% CI, 87.9 to 92.4). Another exception was comprehension of the composite step of "Check, give, and call 911 immediately" (threshold, 85%; PE, 81.1%; 95% CI, 78.0 to 83.9). CONCLUSIONS: Consumers met thresholds for sufficient understanding of six of eight components of the instructions in the drug facts label for naloxone use and came close on two others. Overall, the FDA found that the model label was adequate for use in the development of a naloxone product intended for over-the-counter sales.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Compreensão , Rotulagem de Medicamentos , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Rotulagem de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Overdose de Drogas/terapia , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
14.
Am J Public Health ; 110(6): 881-887, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298179

RESUMO

Objectives. To examine early impacts of laws that require naloxone to be prescribed to patients at increased overdose risk.Methods. Using data from 2014 to 2018 from a large pharmacy chain, CVS Pharmacy, we examined the effects of naloxone-prescribing mandates 90 days before and after they took effect in Arizona, Florida, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Virginia. We compared the number of naloxone doses initiated directly by prescribers and by pharmacy standing order, prescriber specialty, pharmacies dispensing, and payor type by applying linear models and the χ2 test.Results. Naloxone-prescribing mandates increased pharmacy naloxone provision 255% from 90 days before to after implementation. This approach appeared to engage more prescribers (1028 before to 4285 after), complement ongoing naloxone provision under pharmacy standing orders, expand geographic reach (from 40% to 80% of pharmacies dispensing), and broaden the naloxone payor mix in 4 (P < .05) of 5 states.Conclusions. Mandating the prescribing of naloxone quickly expands access to this life-saving medication for more people in more places. Other states should consider mandating the coprescription of naloxone to individuals at increased risk of overdose.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Naloxona , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Naloxona/provisão & distribução , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos
16.
BMJ ; 368: m772, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of mortality among people with opioid use disorder on and off opioid agonist treatment (OAT) in a setting with a high prevalence of illicitly manufactured fentanyl and other potent synthetic opioids in the illicit drug supply. DESIGN: Population based retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Individual level linkage of five health administrative datasets capturing drug dispensations, hospital admissions, physician billing records, ambulatory care reports, and deaths in British Columbia, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 55 347 people with opioid use disorder who received OAT between 1 January 1996 and 30 September 2018. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause and cause specific crude mortality rates (per 1000 person years) to determine absolute risk of mortality and all cause age and sex standardised mortality ratios to determine relative risk of mortality compared with the general population. Mortality risk was calculated according to treatment status (on OAT, off OAT), time since starting and stopping treatment (1, 2, 3-4, 5-12, >12 weeks), and medication type (methadone, buprenorphine/naloxone). Adjusted risk ratios compared the relative risk of mortality on and off OAT over time as fentanyl became more prevalent in the illicit drug supply. RESULTS: 7030 (12.7%) of 55 347 OAT recipients died during follow-up. The all cause standardised mortality ratio was substantially lower on OAT (4.6, 95% confidence interval 4.4 to 4.8) than off OAT (9.7, 9.5 to 10.0). In a period of increasing prevalence of fentanyl, the relative risk of mortality off OAT was 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.8 to 2.4) times higher than on OAT before the introduction of fentanyl, increasing to 3.4 (2.8 to 4.3) at the end of the study period (65% increase in relative risk). CONCLUSIONS: Retention on OAT is associated with substantial reductions in the risk of mortality for people with opioid use disorder. The protective effect of OAT on mortality increased as fentanyl and other synthetic opioids became common in the illicit drug supply, whereas the risk of mortality remained high off OAT. As fentanyl becomes more widespread globally, these findings highlight the importance of interventions that improve retention on opioid agonist treatment and prevent recipients from stopping treatment.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Emergências , Feminino , Fentanila , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas , Masculino , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Nurse Spec ; 34(3): 116-123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250993

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This article describes the implementation of a clinical nurse specialist-led emergency department overdose education and naloxone distribution program. The program's purpose is to increase naloxone availability to reduce opiate overdose mortality rates within the local community. DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM: The program distributes naloxone kits to patients in the emergency department after an opioid overdose. The kits are designed to help recipients prevent, recognize, and respond to an opioid overdose. OUTCOME: The program, which includes naloxone take-home kits and clinical guidelines outlining a standard of care for naloxone distribution and coprescribing, was successfully implemented across 11 emergency departments within an integrated health system. More than 250 kits were dispensed within the first year of program implementation along with an online patient education video that received more than 1600 views. In 2017, the county reported an opioid-related overdose death rate of 16.5 (per 100 000 residents). From January 2018 to June 2019, the opioid-related death rate per 100 000 residents was reported at 9.6. CONCLUSION: Although emergency department naloxone distribution programs are feasible in the acute care setting, it was critical for clinical nurse specialists to enlist an interdisciplinary team and engage executive leadership to ensure program success. For others considering such a program, early consideration should be given to determining financial support and evaluating the compliance and regulatory aspects of dispensing medications from emergency settings.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Enfermeiras Clínicas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática em Enfermagem , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/mortalidade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Melhoria de Qualidade
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160244

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Overdose is a leading cause of death in the United States, especially among people who inject drugs (PWID). Improving naloxone access and carrying among PWID may offset recent increases in overdose mortality associated with the influx of synthetic opioids in the drug market. This study characterized prevalence and correlates of several naloxone outcomes among PWID. METHODS: During 2018, a survey to assess experience with naloxone was administered to 915 participants in the AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience (ALIVE) study, an ongoing community-based observational cohort of people who currently inject or formerly injected drugs in Baltimore, Maryland. We examined the associations of naloxone outcomes (training, supply, use, and regular possession) with socio-demographic, substance use and healthcare utilization factors among PWID in order to characterize gaps in naloxone implementation among this high-risk population. RESULTS: Median age was 56 years, 34% were female, 85% were African American, and 31% recently injected. In the past six months, 46% (n = 421) reported receiving training in overdose prevention, 38% (n = 346) had received a supply of naloxone, 9% (n = 85) had administered naloxone, and 9% (n = 82) reported usually carrying a supply of naloxone. Recent non-fatal overdose was not associated with any naloxone outcomes in adjusted analysis. Active opioid use (aOR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.28) and recent treatment of alcohol or substance use disorder (aOR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.13, 3.56) were associated with regularly carrying naloxone. CONCLUSION: Further work is needed to encourage PWID to carry and effectively use naloxone to decrease rates of fatal opioid overdose. While accessing treatment for substance use disorder was positively associated with carrying naloxone, EMS response to 911 calls for overdose, the emergency department, and syringe services programs may be settings in which naloxone access and carrying could be encouraged among PWID.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Naloxona/efeitos adversos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adulto , Baltimore/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naloxona/farmacologia , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
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